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Dystonia 

Dystonia
Chapter:
Dystonia
Source:
Video Protocols and Techniques for Movement Disorders
Author(s):

Brandon R. Barton MD, MS

and Deborah A. Hall MD, PhD

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199948512.003.0012

Dystonia is defined as a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements, postures, or both. Dystonia is often initiated or worsened by voluntary action and associated with overflow muscle activation in the primarily activated muscles as well as the surrounding muscles. The filming of the dystonia patient is challenging given the protean nature of the disease: dystonia may occur in any body part, either isolated or more diffusely as part of a more generalized syndrome. A general video protocol is suggested with further suggestions for specific, common dystonic syndromes. For dystonia in the neck (spasmodic torticollis or cervical dystonia), a particular focused protocol is used based on the TWSTRS (Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale).

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