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Depression, anxiety and apathy in Parkinson’s disease 

Depression, anxiety and apathy in Parkinson’s disease
Depression, anxiety and apathy in Parkinson’s disease
Non-motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease (2 ed.)

David A. Gallagher

and Anette Schrag


Depression, anxiety and apathy occur commonly in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Depression in particular has been consistently shown to be a major determinant of health-related quality of life. Despite this, the application of diagnostic criteria for psychiatric or motivational problems in PD is conceptually difficult, given the overlap between PD symptoms and somatic features of mood disorders. Modifications to the diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders in PD have been proposed and are currently undergoing validation. This will be needed to determine the true prevalence of these disorders and improve their diagnostic sensitivity in the clinical setting. Several pharmacotherapies are of proven efficacy in mood disorders, but depression and anxiety in PD represent a distinct neurobiological substrate and these psychotropic agents will require further well-designed double-blind placebo-controlled trials to prove their efficacy.

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