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Non-motor signs in genetic forms of Parkinson’s disease 

Non-motor signs in genetic forms of Parkinson’s disease
Non-motor signs in genetic forms of Parkinson’s disease
Non-motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease (2 ed.)

Meike Kasten

and Christine Klein


Parkinson disease (PD) is clinically characterized by ‘classical parkinsonism’, defined phenomenologically as the triad of bradykinesia, rigidity and rest tremor (not all mandatory) with a therapeutic response to levodopa, and the frequent development of motor complications. Identification of several monogenic forms of classical parkinsonism that are frequently clinically indistinguishable from ‘idiopathic’ PD has demonstrated that there are multiple causes of parkinsonism. However, information on genetic status is not usually available in the clinic. Although not part of the definition, non-motor signs (NMS) have increasingly been recognized as an important feature of classical parkinsonism including ‘idiopathic’ PD and monogenic forms. For example, psychiatric features may be part of the phenotypic spectrum conferred by PINK1 mutations and also appear to be more common in patients with LRRK2 mutations than in non-mutation. In this chapter current knowledge on NMS in monogenic forms of parkinsonism is reviewed.

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