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Assessment tools for non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease in the clinical setting 

Assessment tools for non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease in the clinical setting
Chapter:
Assessment tools for non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease in the clinical setting
Source:
Non-motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease (2 ed.)
Author(s):

Pablo Martinez-Martin

, Carmen Rodriguez-Blazquez

, and Maria João Forjaz

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199684243.003.0005

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease traditionally characterized as a motor disorder with bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor and gait and postural abnormalities. However, non-motor symptoms (NMS) have now emerged as an important part of the clinical spectrum. NMS of PD may precede the onset of motor features and often become more prevalent with advancing disease. The range of NMS in PD includes neuropsychiatric (dementia, depression, apathy, compulsive behaviour), sleep-related (insomnia, vivid dreaming, daytime hypersomnia), autonomic (gastrointestinal, bladder, sexual, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory dysfunction) and sensory (pain, paraesthesias, restless legs syndrome, anosmia, visual disturbances) symptoms. Over time, NMS make an important contribution to disability and impair the patient’s social role and activities, impacting on health-related quality of life. Recent awareness of the importance of NMS has attracted increasing interest among researchers. An important step for developing research in this area is the availability of sound clinimetric instruments to detect and evaluate NMS in PD.

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