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Olfaction in Parkinson’s disease 

Olfaction in Parkinson’s disease
Olfaction in Parkinson’s disease
Non-motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease (2 ed.)

Heinz Reichmann

and Birgit Herting


More than 95% of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients present with hyposmia, so it could be argued that hyposmia should be considered as the fifth general feature of PD in addition to tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability. In contrast to these symptoms, however, hyposmia occurs earlier and may indeed turn out to be one of the most sensitive features for the early and differential diagnosis of PD. Idiopathic hyposmia may be a very early sign of PD. However, hyposmia is unspecific in the elderly population, so the identification of further pre-motor signs of imminent PD would be essential for any future application of neuroprotective agents. Apart from hyposmia, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, depression and constipation might also be considered as potential candidate signs, and on-going work in this area is discussed in this chapter.

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