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Non-motor symptoms and pre-motor diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease 

Non-motor symptoms and pre-motor diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease
Chapter:
Non-motor symptoms and pre-motor diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease
Source:
Non-motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease (2 ed.)
Author(s):

David A. Gallagher

and Anthony H. V. Schapira

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199684243.003.0002

Non-motor symptoms occur frequently in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and are often under-recognized by treating physicians, yet they have a significant impact on disability and health- related quality of life, particularly in advanced disease. Autopsy studies in PD have given important insights into the potential pathological basis of these non-motor features. Clinical symptoms that precede development of the characteristic motor symptoms of PD have also been recognized, and in combination with functional neuroimaging or other non-clinical biomarkers (e.g. genetic testing) may aid early or pre-motor diagnosis of PD and distinguish it from other extra-pyramidal disorders. Early and accurate diagnosis of PD is important so that appropriate treatment can be initiated, and this may have particular implications in the advent of potential disease-modifying therapies, given that the greatest rate of nigrostriatal dopaminergic depletion is likely to occur in the pre-motor and early motor phases.

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