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Psychosis in Parkinson’s disease 

Psychosis in Parkinson’s disease
Psychosis in Parkinson’s disease
Non-motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease (2 ed.)

Christopher G. Goetz

, Nico J. Diederich

, and Gilles Fénelon


Hallucinations are spontaneous aberrant perceptions and illusions are misinterpretations of real perceptual stimuli. Secondary delusional interpretation can lead to psychosis. In Parkinson’s disease (PD) these phenomena are generally considered together, although psychiatric semiology draws a distinction between them. Visual hallucinations are the most frequent psychiatric signs in PD, although the frequency of hallucinations in other modalities may be underestimated. In cross-sectional studies, visual hallucinations occur in approximately one-third of chronically treated PD subjects. Visual hallucinations are the primary risk factor for nursing home placement. This chapter summarizes current knowledge about prevalence and incidence, the broad phenomenological spectrum and the present treatment strategies for psychosis in PD. The pathophysiology of psychotic phenomena in PD remains an incomplete framework; only the most relevant research data in this domain are discussed.

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