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Cardiopulmonary investigations 

Cardiopulmonary investigations
Cardiopulmonary investigations
Oxford Textbook of Rheumatology (4 ed.)

Benjamin E. Schreiber

, Gregory J. Keir

, and J. Gerry Coghlan

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Cardiopulmonary investigations are growing in number and complexity, but are crucial in management of patients with multisystem disease. Patients with rheumatological conditions are frequently at increased risk of a wide range of cardiac and pulmonary complications. Cardiac complications include accelerated atherosclerosis, valvular dysfunction, and pericardial, myocardial and endocardial involvement. Pulmonary complications include airways disease, interstitial lung disease, pulmonary embolism, and pulmonary hypertension. We aim to present some practical frameworks for selecting the appropriate initial tests in different clinical situations. This chapter is in three sections. In the first section, we review the recommended investigations for common clinical symptoms: shortness of breath, cough, chest pain, and syncope. In the second section, we review the importance of cardiopulmonary investigations in specific rheumatological conditions. In the third section we review the unique characteristics of the cardiopulmonary tests, stressing their particular strengths and weaknesses and associated complications.

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