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Sarcoidosis 

Sarcoidosis
Chapter:
Sarcoidosis
Source:
Oxford Textbook of Rheumatology (4 ed.)
Author(s):

Joachim Müller-Quernheim

, Gernot Zissel

, and Antje Prasse

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199642489.003.0167_update_001
Previous versions of this chapter are available. To view earlier versions of this chapter view the full site here.

Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease characterized by non-necrotizing granulomata and manifestations in almost any organ. Diagnosis relies on the exclusion of other granulomatous disorders and a compatible pattern of symptoms and clinical findings. Inflammatory lesions and granulomata may undergo spontaneous resolution or persist in chronic disease with eventual fibrosis and permanent organ damage. Immunological disease mechanisms are linked to severe derangements of the cytokine network. In systemic resolution or under prednisolone therapy of symptomatic disease pro-inflammatory cytokines are downregulated and histological lesions may completely vanish. Corticosteroid-resistant disease, however, requires treatment with an immunosuppressive regimen consisting of prednisolone and an immunosuppressive agent or anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) monoclonal antibodies.

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