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Sports and exercise injuries 

Sports and exercise injuries
Sports and exercise injuries
Oxford Textbook of Rheumatology (4 ed.)

Nicola Maffulli

and Angelo Del Buono


Muscle, tendon, and ligament injuries are common practice in sports medicine. Muscle injuries do not require surgery but heal with traditional conservative measures, whereas surgery may be indicated in chronic high-demand patients who need to early return to preinjury activity. Ligament injuries are responsive to conservative management but, when resulting clinical instability impairs daily and sport activities, surgical repair or reconstruction are recommended. Tendinopathy is an overuse syndrome, the diagnosis of which is clinical, and confirmed by the presence of degenerative changes at histology, without any signs of inflammatory disease. The current trend is to adopt a conservative approach which also includes platelet-rich plasma and sclerosing injections, and to advocate surgery in unresponsive patients. Even though regenerative therapies are emerging, available knowledge is still scanty and literature lacks level I studies to support their use.

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