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Skeletal dysplasias 

Skeletal dysplasias
Chapter:
Skeletal dysplasias
Source:
Oxford Textbook of Rheumatology (4 ed.)
Author(s):

B. P. Wordsworth

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199642489.003.0150_update_001
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Bone is metabolically active throughout life and metabolic disturbances may have wide-ranging consequences that are not restricted to altering its mechanics. The study of some genetic bone diseases has already provided remarkable insights into the normal regulation of bone metabolism. Skeletal dysplasias are developmental disorders of the chondro-osseous tissues commonly resulting in short stature, which is often disproportionate. The underlying mutations are often in the structural genes encoding components of the matrix but may also involve growth factors or cell signalling. In contrast, the dysostoses tend to affect single bones or groups of bones, reflecting the transient nature of the many different signalling factors to which they are responsive during development. Abnormalities of bone density (high or low) may be due to primary deficiency of bone matrix synthesis (e.g. osteogenesis imperfecta and hypophosphatasia) but may also reflect an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. This may be caused by abnormalities of bone formation (e.g. hyperostosis/sclerosteosis and osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome) or bone resorption (e.g. classic osteopetrosis and fibrous dysplasia).

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