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Miscellaneous vasculitides 

Miscellaneous vasculitides
Miscellaneous vasculitides
Oxford Textbook of Rheumatology (4 ed.)

Richard A. Watts

and Eleana Ntatsaki

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The vasculitides are a group of relatively rare conditions with a broad spectrum of clinical presentations that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Classification of the vasculitic syndromes is done according to the size of the vessels affected and also the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). Vasculitides can be either primary or secondary to an underlying systemic disease, malignancy, or infection. This chapter covers the spectrum of the secondary vasculitides; some of the non-ANCA-associated primary vasculitides and miscellaneous types of vasculitic syndromes. Secondary vasculitis can occur in the background of systemic rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropathies, or other connective tissue diseases. Vasculitis can also present in relation to precipitants such as drugs (propylthiouracil, hydralazine, leucotriene antagonists) or vaccines. Infection (bacterial, mycobacterial, viral, and fungal) has been associated with vasculitis either as a trigger or as a consequence of iatrogenic immunosuppression. Infection-related vasculitis can affect all types and sizes of vessels. Certain forms of vasculitis such as cryoglobulinaemia are closely associated with viral infections and more specifically with HCV infection. There are forms of vasculitis, which appear to be isolated or localized to a single organ, or site (skin, gastrointestinal, genital, and primary central nervous system vasculitis) that may be histologically similar to systemic syndromes, but have a different prognosis. Other conditions that may mimic vasculitis and miscellaneous conditions such as Cogan’s syndrome and relapsing polychondritis are also discussed.

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