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Oxford Handbook of Clinical Specialties (9 ed.)

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Web-based references relating to the number under the disk sign

Preface

The Green Knight, Iris Murdoch, 1993, Penguin, page 274 [No link]; page v

Web-based references relating to the disc signs in footnotes, organised by page number

Fermat [Link]; page v

Is a picture worth a thousand words? [Link]; page v

Chapter 01: Obstetrics

  1. 1 Intimate partner violence: causes and prevention. Author: Jewkes R. Journal: Lancet; 2002 Apr 20 ; 359(9315):1423-9. PubMed ID: 11978358. [Link]; page 1

  2. 2 EBM 1997 2 150; No Link; page 1

  3. 3 Effect of the interval between pregnancies on perinatal outcomes. Zhu BP, N Engl J Med; 1999 Feb 25 ; 340(8):589-94. PubMed ID: 10029642 [Link]; page 3

  4. 4 The use of a birthroom: a randomized controlled trial comparing delivery with that in the labour ward. Author: Chapman MG, Jones M, Spring JE, De Swiet M, Chamberlain GV. Journal: Br J Obstet Gynaecol; 1986 Feb ; 93(2):182-7. PubMed ID: 3511958. [Link]; page 4

  5. 5 BMJ. 1998 Feb 21;316(7131):566-7. Macfarlane A. At last--maternity statistics for England. [Link]; page 5

  6. 6 Naegele’s rule: a reappraisal. Author: Baskett TF, Nagele F. Journal: BJOG; 2000 Nov ; 107(11):1433-5. PubMed ID: 11117775. [Link]; page 8

  7. 7 The value of sonography in early pregnancy for the detection of fetal abnormalities in an unselected population. Br J Obstet Gynaecol; 1999 Sep ; 106(9):929-36. PubMed ID: 10492104 [Link]; page 11

  8. 8 BMJ 1999;318:70-71 Down’s syndrome, cardiac anomalies, and nuchal translucency Fetal heart failure might link nuchal translucency and Down’s syndrome [Link]; page 11

  9. 9 Using fetal nuchal translucency to screen for major congenital cardiac defects at 10-14 weeks of gestation: population based cohort study. BMJ; 1999 Jan 9 ; 318(7176):81-5. PubMed ID: 9880278[Link]; page 11

  10. 10 Berg B 1984 Acta Ob Gyn Scan 63 583 &: OTM &: M de Swiet 1996 Pulse 56 92 &: A Gowenlock Varley’s Practical Clinical Biochemistry 535. [Link]; page 15

  11. 11 Nasogastric enteral feeding in the management of hyperemesis gravidarum. Hsu JJ, Obstet Gynecol; 1996 Sep ; 88(3):343-6. PubMed ID: 8752236 [Link]; page 18

  12. 12 BJOG. 2000 Feb;107(2):245-53. Sadler L. Pregnancy outcomes and cardiac complications in women with mechanical, bioprosthetic and homograft valves. [Link]; page 20

  13. 13 BJOG. 2000 Apr;107(4):437-8. Guidotti RJ. Anaemia in pregnancy in developing countries. [Link]; page 22

  14. 14 Duration of ruptured membranes and vertical transmission of HIV-1: a meta-analysis from 15 prospective cohort studies.Author: International Perinatal HIV Group .Journal: AIDS; 2001 Feb 16 ; 15(3):357-68. PubMed ID: 11273216. [Link]; page 23

  15. 15 Effect of breastfeeding and formula feeding on transmission of HIV-1: a randomized clinical trial. Nduati R, JAMA; 2000 Mar 1 ; 283(9):1167-74. PubMed ID: 10703779 [Link]; page 23

  16. 16 N Engl J Med. 2000 Oct 19;343(16):1178-9. Greene MF. Oral hypoglycemic drugs for gestational diabetes. [Link]; page 24

  17. 17 Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 1999 Oct;13(4):452-65. Williams MA. A population-based cohort study of the relation between maternal birthweight and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in four racial/ethnic groups. [Link]; page 24

  18. 18 Diabetes. 1985 Jun;34 Suppl 2:106-10. Stowers JM. Long-range implications for the mother. The Aberdeen experience. [Link]; page 24

  19. 19 Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Apr;168(4):1139-44; discussion 1144-5. Coustan DR. Gestational diabetes: predictors of subsequent disordered glucose metabolism. [Link]; page 24

  20. 20 Ther Umsch. 1990 Jan;47(1):71-9 (German). Berger W. [Clinical significance, diagnosis and treatment of diabetes in pregnancy (gestational diabetes)] [Link]; page 24

  21. 21 Diabetes Metab. 2001 Dec;27(6):675-80. Dalfra MG. Antepartum and early postpartum predictors of type 2 diabetes development in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. [Link]; page 24

  22. 22 Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Apr;186(4):751-6. Schaefer-Graf UM. Clinical predictors for a high risk for the development of diabetes mellitus in the early puerperium in women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus. Medline abstract, n=1636 [Link]; page 24

  23. 23 Dr Fran�ois Nosten; Shoklo Malaria Research Unit (SMRU) is a field station attached to the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand and is part of the Wellcome-Oxford-Mahidol-University-Research Programme. www.shoklo-unit.com; No link; page 27

  24. 24 Safety, efficacy and determinants of effectiveness of antimalarial drugs during pregnancy: implications for prevention programmes in Plasmodium falciparum-endemic sub-Saharan Africa. Author: Newman RD, Parise ME, Slutsker L, Nahlen B, Steketee RW. Journal: Trop Med Int Health; 2003 Jun ; 8(6):488-506. PubMed ID: 12791054 [Link]; page 27

  25. 25 Intermittent Presumptive Treatment for Malaria A better understanding of the pharmacodynamics will guide more rational policymaking--Nicholas J White [Link]; page 27

  26. 26 Anticoagulation of pregnant women with mechanical heart valves: a systematic review of the literature.Author: Chan WS, Anand S, Ginsberg JS.Journal: Arch Intern Med; 2000 Jan 24 ; 160(2):191-6. PubMed ID: 10647757 [Link]; page 32

  27. 27 BJOG. 2000 Jan;107(1):84-8. Antsaklis AJ. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal primary cytomegalovirus infection. [Link]; page 34

  28. 28 Lancet. 2002 Apr 6;359(9313):1178-86. Petra Study Team. Efficacy of three short-course regimens of zidovudine and lamivudine in preventing early and late transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child in Tanzania, South Africa, and Uganda (Petra study): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.[Link]; page 35

  29. 29 Lancet. 1999 Mar 6;353(9155):766-7. Mofenson LM. Short-course zidovudine for prevention of perinatal infection. [Link]; page 35

  30. 30 Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1999 Jan;106(1):66-71. Newell ML. Antenatal screening for hepatitis B infection and syphilis in the UK. [Link]; page 36

  31. 31 N Engl J Med. 1999 Mar 11;340(10):798-9. Ince N. The increasing incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. [Link]; page 36

  32. 32 Semin Perinatol. 1993 Dec;17(6):384-93. Simms J. Viral hepatitis in pregnancy. [Link]; page 36

  33. 33 Ethiop Med J. 1993 Jul;31(3):173-81. Tsega E. Hepatitis E virus infection in pregnancy in Ethiopia.[Link]; page 36

  34. 34 Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000 Dec;41(13):4074-9. Bowman RJ. Operational comparison of single-dose azithromycin and topical tetracycline for trachoma. [Link]; page 36

  35. 35 Appendicitis in pregnancy: new information that contradicts long-held clinical beliefs. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2000 May ; 182(5):1027-9. PubMed ID: 10819817 [Link]; page 38

  36. 36 J Clin Ultrasound. 2001 Jun;29(5):306-11. Humphrey R. Rectus sheath hematoma in pregnancy.[Link]; page 38

  37. 37 Am J Perinatol. 1997 Jul;14(6):321-3. Ramirez MM. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma during pregnancy mimicking abruptio placenta. [Link]; page 38

  38. 38 The acute abdomen and the obstetrician. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol; 2000 Feb ; 14(1):89-102. PubMed ID: 10789262 [Link]; page 38

  39. 39 Lancet. 2000 Jan 8;355(9198):87-92. von Dadelszen P. Fall in mean arterial pressure and fetal growth restriction in pregnancy hypertension: a meta-analysis. [Link]; page 48

  40. 40 Lancet. 2002 Feb 23;359(9307):673-4. Wang JX. Surgically obtained sperm, and risk of gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. [Link]; page 48

  41. 41 Link no longer available; page 48

  42. 42 BJOG. 2000 Jul;107(7):877-84. Baud O. The relationships between antenatal management, the cause of delivery and neonatal outcome in a large cohort of very preterm singleton infants. [Link]; page 48

  43. 43 N Engl J Med. 1999 Jan 14;340(2):154. Oei SG. Myocardial infarction during nifedipine therapy for preterm labor [Link]; page 50

  44. 44 Lancet. 2000 Jan 8;355(9198):87-92. von Dadelszen P. Fall in mean arterial pressure and fetal growth restriction in pregnancy hypertension: a meta-analysis. [Link]; page 52

  45. 45 Lancet. 1999 Apr 10;353(9160):1202-4. Schatz M. Asthma and pregnancy. [Link]; page 52

  46. 46 Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1999 May;106(5):481-5. Boulvain M. Sweeping of the membranes to prevent post-term pregnancy and to induce labour: a systematic review. Medline abstract, Meta-analysis [Link]; page 54

  47. 47 Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1999 Mar;78(3):186-90. Chan CC. Antepartum hemorrhage of unknown origin--what is its clinical significance? [Link]; page 56

  48. 48 Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 1982 Nov;42(11):798-802.The maternal perception of fetal movements during the last trimester of pregnancy Schmidt W [Link]; page 58

  49. 49 BJOG. 2000 Jul;107(7):939-40. Acute postpartum myocardial infarction after ergometrine administration in a woman with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Mousa HA [Link]; page 58

  50. 50 BJOG. 2000 Feb;107(2):222-7. Ngai SW. Labour characteristics and uterine activity: misoprostol compared with oxytocin in women at term with prelabour rupture of the membranes. [Link]; page 60

  51. 51 J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 1999 Dec;8(10):1257-64. Scott KD. The obstetrical and postpartum benefits of continuous support during childbirth. [Link]; page 65

  52. 52 N Engl J Med. 1995 Sep 21;333(12):745-50. Frigoletto FD Jr. A clinical trial of active management of labor. [Link]; page 65

  53. 53 BJOG. 2000 Oct;107(10):1248-51. Related Articles, Books, LinkOut Subcutaneous versus intracutaneous injections of sterile water for labour analgesia: a comparison of perceived pain during administration.Martensson L, Nyberg K, Wallin G. &: Contemp Rev Obs 12 29 [Link]; page 66

  54. 54 2001 Why Mothers Die 1997�9 Annexe C, chapter 2 page 74 RCOG [no medline link]; page 66

  55. 55 Psychological consequences of having triplets: a 4-year follow-up study. Garel M. Fertil Steril; 1997 Jun ; 67(6):1162-5. PubMed ID: 9176462 [Link]; page 69

  56. 56 Psychological reactions after multifetal pregnancy reduction: a 2-year follow-up study. Garel M. Hum Reprod; 1997 Mar ; 12(3):617-22. PubMed ID: 9130770 [Link]; page 69

  57. 57 Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1998 Aug;105(8):811-5. Johnstone FD. Shoulder dystocia. [Link]; page 72

  58. 58 Lancet. 2001 Aug 11;358(9280):470-1. Buhimschi CS. Use of McRoberts’ position during delivery and increase in pushing efficiency. [Link]; page 72

  59. 59 J Reprod Med. 1999 Oct;44(10):902-4. Heath T. Symphyseal separation, sacroiliac joint dislocation and transient lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy associated with McRoberts’ maneuver. A case report. [Link]; page 73

  60. 60 BJOG. 2000 Jul;107(7):932-4. Related Articles, Books, LinkOut Outcome of the next labour in women who had a vaginal delivery in their first pregnancy. Mawdsley SD [Link]; page 76

  61. 61 Brachial plexus paresis associated with fetal neck compression from forceps. Author: Gei AF, Smith RA, Hankins GD. Journal: Am J Perinatol; 2003 Aug ; 20(6):289-91. PubMed ID: 14528397 [Link]; page 77

  62. 62 Associated factors in 1611 cases of brachial plexus injury. Author: Gilbert WM, Nesbitt TS, Danielsen B. Journal: Obstet Gynecol; 1999 Apr ; 93(4):536-40. PubMed ID: 10214829 [Link]; page 77

  63. 63 Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy--etiopathogenesis, risk factors, prevention, prognosis Author: Gosk J, Rutowski R. Journal: Ginekol Pol; 2004 Oct ; 75(10):814-20. PubMed ID: 15587915 [Link]; page 77

  64. 64 Effect of operative vaginal delivery on the outcome of permanent brachial plexus injury. Author: Poggi SH, Ghidini A, Allen RH, Pezzullo JC, Rosenbaum TC, Spong CY. Journal: J Reprod Med; 2003 Sep ; 48(9):692-6. PubMed ID: 14562633. [Link]; page 77

  65. 65 National statistics for 2003 [Link]; page 82

  66. 66 Lancet. 1999 Sep 18;354(9183):983-6. Fynes M. Effect of second vaginal delivery on anorectal physiology and faecal continence: a prospective study. [Link]; page 91

  67. 67 National statistics [Link]; page 97

Web-based references relating to the disc signs in footnotes, organised by page number

  • Why Mothers Die 2000-2 CEMACH publications [Link]; page 8

  • Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling for prenatal diagnosis. Alfirevic Z, Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2003 ; 1(3):CD003252. PubMed ID: 12917956 [Link]; page 10

  • Screening performance of first-trimester nuchal translucency for major cardiac defects: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2003 Nov ; 189(5):1330-5. PubMed ID: 14634564 [Link]; page 11

  • Fetal cardiac defects and increased nuchal translucency thickness: a prospective study. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2004 Oct ; 191(4):1486-90. PubMed ID: 15507988 [Link]; page 11

  • First-trimester nasal bone evaluation for aneuploidy in the general population. Obstet Gynecol; 2004 Dec ; 104(6):1222-8. PubMed ID: 15572480 [Link]; page 11

  • The clinical evaluation and pregnancy outcome of euploid fetuses with increased nuchal translucency. Maymon R, Herman A. Clin Genet; 2004 Nov ; 66(5):426-36. PubMed ID: 15479188 [Link]; page 11

  • BMJ. 2001 Jul 21;323(7305):165-6. Ghaem-Maghami S. Using clinical evidence. Obstetricians seem to be overstating the evidence in major placenta praevia. [Link]; page 14

  • Why Mothers Die 2000-2 CEMACH publications [Link]; page 14

  • Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with a jejunal port for severe hyperemesis gravidarum. Irving PM, Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2004 Sep ; 16(9):937-9. PubMed ID: 15316422 [Link]; page 18

  • Hyperemesis gravidarum: outcomes and complications with and without total parenteral nutrition. Folk JJ, J Reprod Med; 2004 Jul ; 49(7):497-502. PubMed ID: 15305820 [Link]; page 18

  • Is there a case for hepatitis C infection screening in the antenatal period? J Med Screen; 2003 ; 10(4):161-8. PubMed ID: 14738651 [Link]; page 26

  • Intermittent Presumptive Treatment for Malaria. White N. nickw@tropmedres.ac [Link]; page 27

  • Comparison of intermittent preventive treatment with chemoprophylaxis for the prevention of malaria during pregnancy in Mali. Author: Kayentao K, Kodio M, Newman RD, Maiga H, Doumtabe D, Ongoiba A, Coulibaly D, Keita AS, Maiga B, Mungai M, Parise ME, Doumbo O. Journal: J Infect Dis; 2005 Jan 1 ; 191(1):109-16. PubMed ID: 15593011 [Link]; page 27

  • The use of anti-malarial drugs to prevent malaria in the population of malaria-endemic areas. Author: Greenwood B. Journal: Am J Trop Med Hyg; 2004 Jan ; 70(1):1-7. PubMed ID: 14971690 [Link]; page 27

  • J Neurosurg. 2001 Nov;95(5):778-82. Lajeunie E. Craniosynostosis and fetal exposure to sodium valproate. [Link]; page 29

  • Am J Med Genet. 2001 Jan 15;98(2):168-75. Kozma C. Valproic acid embryopathy: report of two siblings with further expansion of the phenotypic abnormalities and a review of the literature. [Link]; page 29

  • The longer term outcome of children born to mothers with epilepsy. Adab N, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2004 Nov ; 75(11):1575-83. PubMed ID: 15491979 [Link]; page 29

  • N Engl J Med. 2000 Feb 10;342(6):424-5. Greer IA. The challenge of thrombophilia in maternal-fetal medicine. [Link]; page 33

  • Selective neonatal BCG vaccination. Bakshi D. Acta Paediatr; 2004 Sep ; 93(9):1207-9. PubMed ID: 15384885 [Link]; page 37

  • Laparoscopy for appendicitis and cholelithiasis during pregnancy: a new standard of care. Surg Endosc; 2004 Feb ; 18(2):237-41. PubMed ID: 14691706 [Link]; page 38

  • Fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) for fetal monitoring during labour. Neilson JP. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2003 ; 31(2):CD000116. PubMed ID: 12804387 [Link]; page 44

  • BJOG. 2000 Dec;107(12):1492-7. Simpsom JM. Accuracy and limitations of transabdominal fetal echocardiography at 12-15 weeks of gestation in a population at high risk for congenital heart disease.[Link]; page 47

  • Milne F BMJ 2005;330:576-580. The pre-eclampsia community guideline (PRECOG): how to screen for and detect onset of pre-eclampsia in the community [Link]; page 48

  • Do women with pre-eclampsia, and their babies, benefit from magnesium sulphate? The Magpie Trial: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Magpie Trial Collaboration Group . Lancet; 2002 Jun 1 ; 359(9321):1877-90. PubMed ID: 12057549 [Link]; page 48

  • BMJ. 2002 Feb 23;324(7335):447. Olsen SF. Low consumption of seafood in early pregnancy as a risk factor for preterm delivery: prospective cohort study. [Link]; page 50

  • Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1995 Apr;59(2):149-51. Stratton JF. Hyponatraemia and non-electrolyte solutions in labouring primigravida. [Link]; page 58

  • Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1996 Sep;68(1-2):47-8. Higgins J. Maternal and neonatal hyponatraemia: a comparison of Hartmanns solution with 5% dextrose for the delivery of oxytocin in labour. [Link]; page 58

  • East Afr Med J. 1991 Feb;68(2):88-92. Omigbodun AO. Effects of using either saline or glucose as a vehicle for infusion in labour. [Link]; page 58

  • Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1984 Oct;91(10):1014-8. Singhi S. Intrapartum infusion of aqueous glucose solution, transplacental hyponatraemia and risk of neonatal jaundice. [Link]; page 58

  • BJOG. 2001 Jan;108(1):23-6. Kwon JS. A comparison of oral and vaginal misoprostol for induction of labour at term: a randomised trial. [Link]; page 62

  • [Link]; page 66

  • BJOG. 2002 Feb;109(2):182-6. Carroll SG. Prediction of chorionicity in twin pregnancies at 10-14 weeks of gestation. [Link]; page 68

  • Dramatic reduction in triplet and higher order births in England and Wales. BJOG; 2004 Aug ; 111(8):856-8. PubMed ID: 15270936 [Link]; page 69

  • External cephalic version: a safe procedure? A systematic review of version-related risks. Collaris RJ. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 2004 Jun ; 83(6):511-8. PubMed ID: 15144330 [Link]; page 70

  • Lancet. 2000 Oct 21;356(9239):1375-83. Hannah ME. Planned caesarean section versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: a randomised multicentre trial. Term Breech Trial Collaborative Group. [Link]; page 70

  • NICE 2004 Caesarean Section [Link]; page 79

  • The B-Lynch technique for postpartum haemorrhage: an option for every gynaecologist. Holtsema H, Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2004 Jul 15 ; 115(1):39-42. PubMed ID: 15223163 [Link]; page 84

  • Why Mothers Die 2000-2 CEMACH publications [Link]; page 85

  • Why Mothers Die 2000-2 CEMACH publications [Link]; page 89

  • [Link]; page 92

  • BMJ. 2000 Jan 8;320(7227):86-90. Signorello LB. Midline episiotomy and anal incontinence: retrospective cohort study. [Link]; page 92

Chapter 02: Paediatrics

  1. 1 Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected pediatric patients improves with home-based intensive nursing intervention. Author: Berrien VM, Salazar JC, Reynolds E, McKay K, HIV Medication Adherence Intervention Group . Journal: AIDS Patient Care STDS; 2004 Jun ; 18(6):355-63. PubMed ID: 15294086 [Link]; page 99

  2. 2 MABL & JBL [aged 14 & 15]: personal communication ; No link; page 99

  3. 3 Should adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia be treated as old children or young adults? Comparison of the French FRALLE-93 and LALA-94 trials. Author: Boissel N, Journal: J Clin Oncol; 2003 Mar 1 ; 21(5):774-80. PubMed ID: 12610173 [Link]; page 99

  4. 4 G Rylance 1999 BMJ i 301. Privacy, dignity, and confidentiality: interview study with structured questionnaire [Link]; page 100

  5. 5 BMJ. 1999 Jan 9;318(7176):86-91. Usen S. Clinical predictors of hypoxaemia in Gambian children with acute lower respiratory tract infection: prospective cohort study. Medline abstract, n>1000 [Link]; page 103

  6. 6 Archives of Disease in Childhood 2004;89:908-912. Infant colic and feeding difficulties--C Miller-Loncar [Link]; page 104

  7. 7 Child Dev. 2000 Jul-Aug;71(4):862-77. White BP. Behavioral and physiological responsivity, sleep, and patterns of daily cortisol production in infants with and without colic. [Link]; page 104

  8. 8 Prof Care Mother Child. 2000;10(1):26-8, 30. Scowen P. Nappy rash: let’s give mothers more help.[Link]; page 104

  9. 9 Int J Dermatol. 1999 Aug;38(8):618-22. de Wet PM. Perianal candidosis--a comparative study with mupirocin and nystatin. Medline abstract, N=20 [Link]; page 104

  10. 10 Acta Derm Venereol Suppl (Stockh). 1981;95:40-2. Thomsen K. Seborrhoeic dermatitis and napkin dermatitis. [Link]; page 104

  11. 11 J Consult Clin Psychol. 1996 Oct;64(5):1029-36. Walker JG. Emotionally focused marital intervention for couples with chronically ill children. [Link]; page 105

  12. 12 J Pediatr Psychol. 1992 Jun;17(3):345-57. Walker JG. Measuring marital distress in couples with chronically ill children: the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. [Link]; page 105

  13. 13 Child Care Health Dev. 1997 Nov;23(6):479-80. Logan S. Emotionally focused therapy improves marital adjustment in parents of children with chronically ill children. [Link]; page 105

  14. 14 Arch Dis Child. 1990 Jul;65(7):750-6. Hewson PH. Markers of serious illness in infants under 6 months old presenting to a children’s hospital. [Link]; page 106

  15. 15 Pediatrics. 1992 Dec;90(6):846-50. Kluger MJ. Fever revisited. [Link]; page 106

  16. 16 J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1990 Sep;72(5):846-51. Knudsen CJ. Neonatal osteomyelitis. [Link]; page 106

  17. 17 Sante. 1999 Jan-Feb;9(1):38-45 (French). Hoarau C. [Congenital syphilis: update and perspectives][Link]; page 106

  18. 18 Ann Trop Paediatr. 1993;13(4):395-7. Kini PG. Unusual presentation of cytomegaloviral infection in a 5-month-old baby: case report. [Link]; page 106

  19. 19 J Appl Physiol. 2001 Jan;90(1):90-8. Hasday JD. Exposure to febrile temperature modifies endothelial cell response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha. [Link]; page 106

  20. 20 J Appl Physiol. 2001 Jan;90(1):90-8. Hasday JD. Exposure to febrile temperature modifies endothelial cell response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha. [Link]; page 106

  21. 21 Adenoviral infections in children: the impact of rapid diagnosis. Rocholl C, Gerber K, Daly J, Pavia AT, Byington CL. Pediatrics [NLM - MEDLINE]. Jan 2004.Vol.113, Iss. 1; Part 1. pg. e51 [Link]; page 106

  22. 22 Skin-to-skin contact may reduce negative consequences of \“the stress of being born\”: a study on temperature in newborn infants, subjected to different ward routines in St. Petersburg. Author: Bystrova K, Widstr “m AM, Matthiesen AS, Ransj”-Arvidson AB, Welles-Nystr “m B, Wassberg C, Vorontsov I, Uvn”s-Moberg K. Journal: Acta Paediatr; 2003 ; 92(3):320-6. PubMed ID: 12725547 HYPERLINK “http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=12725547&from=cqsr[Link]; page 107

  23. 23 Biol Neonate. 2004 Sep 20;87(1):27-34 Resuscitation of Depressed Newborn Infants with Ambient Air or Pure Oxygen: A Meta-Analysis--Saugstad OD [Link]; page 107

  24. 24 NEJM 2001 [Link]; page 107

  25. 25 Link no longer available; page 107

  26. 26 Neonatal shaken baby syndrome--lessons to be learned / Author’s reply D B Knight, R sunderland, A N Williams. Archives of Disease in Childhood. London: Mar 2003.Vol.88, Iss. 2; pg. F161, 2 pgs [Link]; page 108

  27. 27 Infant to staff ratios and risk of mortality in very low birthweight infants L A Callaghan, D W Cartwright, P O’Rourke, M W Davies. Archives of Disease in Childhood. London: Mar 2003.Vol.88, Iss. 2; pg. F94, 4 pgs [Link]; page 108

  28. 28 Paediatr Drugs. 2001;3(1):61-79. Comer AM. Caffeine citrate: a review of its use in apnoea of prematurity. [Link]; page 108

  29. 28 Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Jun;20(6):644-52. Erenberg A. Caffeine citrate for the treatment of apnea of prematurity: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Medline abstract, N=85 [Link]; page 108

  30. 29 Drug Saf. 2000 Nov;23(5):363-79. Hascoet JM. Risks and benefits of therapies for apnoea in premature infants. [Link]; page 108

  31. 30 Lancet. 1999 Jan 16;353(9148):166-7. Fleck BW. Therapy for retinopathy of prematurity. [Link]; page 108

  32. 31 Rev Neurol. 2000 Aug 1-15;31(3):238-43 (Spanish). Antoniuk S. [Periventricular and intraventricular hemorrhage in the premature infants] [Link]; page 108

  33. 32 Pulmonary Reviews [2000] accessed 2004 Nitric oxide helps neonates with pulmonary hypertension[Link]; page 109

  34. 33 Inhaled nitric oxide in the treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension/ hypoxic respiratory failure in neonates: an update. Author: Cook LN, Stewart DL. Journal: J Ky Med Assoc; 2005 Apr ; 103(4):138-47. PubMed ID: 15853181 [Link]; page 109

  35. 34 Inhaled nitric oxide in the treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension/ hypoxic respiratory failure in neonates: an update. Author: Cook LN, Stewart DL. Journal: J Ky Med Assoc; 2005 Apr ; 103(4):138-47. PubMed ID: 15853181 [Link]; page 109

  36. 35 Acute and chronic effects of sildenafil in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Journal: Respir Med; 2005 May 9 ; ():. PubMed ID: 15890512 [Link]; page 109

  37. 36 Inhaled prostacyclin for term infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension refractory to inhaled nitric oxide. Author: Kelly LK, Porta NF, Goodman DM, Carroll CL, Steinhorn RH. Journal: J Pediatr; 2002 Dec ; 141(6):830-2. PubMed ID: 12461501 [Link]; page 109

  38. 37 Management of Pulmonary Hypertension [Link]; page 109

  39. 38 Lancet. 1996 Jul 13;348(9020):75-82. UK collaborative randomised trial of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. UK Collaborative ECMO Trail Group. Medline abstract, N=185 [Link]; page 109

  40. 39 BMJ. 1998 Oct 3;317(7163):911-5; discussion 915-6. Roberts TE. Economic evaluation and randomised controlled trial of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: UK collaborative trial. The Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Economics Working Group. [Link]; page 109

  41. 40 Intensive Care Med. 2000 Oct;26(10):1489-95. Kossel H. Do we need new indications for ECMO in neonates pretreated with high-frequency ventilation and/or inhaled nitric oxide? [Link]; page 109

  42. 41 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000948. Spence K. Nasal versus oral intubation for mechanical ventilation of newborn infants. [Link]; page 110

  43. 42 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(1):CD000456. Greenough A. Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants. [Link]; page 110

  44. 43 Lancet. 2000 Jul 8;356(9224):90-1. Soll R. Patient-triggered ventilation of the newborn. [Link]; page 110

  45. 44 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(1):CD000456. Greenough A. Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants. [Link]; page 110

  46. 45 Is elective high frequency oscillatory ventilation better than conventional mechanical ventilation in very low birth weight infants?--Report by Sachin Shah. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2003;88:833-834 [Link]; page 110

  47. 46 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(4):CD002773. Cools F. Neuromuscular paralysis for newborn infants receiving mechanical ventilation. [Link]; page 110

  48. 47 Royal College of Paediatrics Acute pain guidelines [Link]; page 110

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  • PEDIATRICS. Journal: Headache; 2005 Jan ; 45(1):98. PubMed ID: 15663631.El-Metwally. [See also (Kaniecki R. Migraine and tension-type headache: an assessment of challenges in diagnosis. Neurology. 2002;58(suppl 6):S15-S20). -Stewart J. Tepper, MD] [Link]; page 201

  • Attention deficit disorder and hospitalization owing to intra- and interpersonal violence among children and young adolescents. Author: Lam LT. Journal: J Adolesc Health; 2005 Jan ; 36(1):19-24. PubMed ID: 15661592. [Link]; page 211

  • Disabled Living Foundation [Link]; page 216

  • Arch Dis Child. 1995 Jul;73(1):17-24. Cross sectional stature and weight reference curves for the UK, 1990.--Freeman JV, Cole TJ [Link]; page 224

Chapter 03: Gynaecology

  1. 1 Integrated medicine [Link]; page 241

  2. 2 “The Spirit of Inquiry” by Sholem Glaser published by Alan Sutton in 1995. ISBN 07509 09986. HYPERLINK “http://www.jameslindlibrary.org/trial_records/17th_18th_Century/parry/parry_biog.html[Link]; page 241

  3. 3 Med J Aust. 1983 May 28;1(11):524-6. Dennerstein L. Psychosis and the menstrual cycle. [Link]; page 241

  4. 4 Emotional aspects of endometriosis: a physician’s perspective. Author: Jones KP. Journal: Clin Obstet Gynecol; 1988 Dec ; 31(4):874-82. PubMed ID: 3229043. [Link]; page 241

  5. 5 A definition of sexual health. Greenhouse P. BMJ; 1995 Jun 3 ; 310(6992):1468-9. PubMed ID: 7613294 A definition of sexual health. Greenhouse P. BMJ; 1995 Jun 3 ; 310(6992):1468-9. PubMed ID: 7613294” >[Link]; page 243

  6. 6 Sexual dysfunction in the United States: prevalence and predictors. Laumann EO, JAMA; 1999 Feb 10 ; 281(6):537-44. PubMed ID: 10022110 [Link]; page 243

  7. 7 ABC of sexual health: female sexual problems I: loss of desire-what about the fun? Butcher J. BMJ; 1999 Jan 2 ; 318(7175):41-3. PubMed ID: 9872888 [Link]; page 243

  8. 8 The frequency of significant pathology in women attending a general gynaecological service for postcoital bleeding. Rosenthal ABJOG; 2001 Jan ; 108(1):103-6. PubMed ID: 11212982 [Link]; page 250

  9. 9 International Diabetes Federation and Cite this article as: BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.38429.473310.AE 2005 April [Link]; page 252

  10. 10 Laparoscopic ovarian drilling as first line of treatment in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Author: Cleemann L, Lauszus FF, Trolle B. Journal: Gynecol Endocrinol; 2004 Mar ; 18(3):138-43. PubMed ID: 15255282. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling as first line of treatment in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Author: Cleemann L, Lauszus FF, Trolle B. Journal: Gynecol Endocrinol; 2004 Mar ; 18(3):138-43. PubMed ID: 15255282.” >[Link]; page 252

  11. 11 Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. Schellenberg R. BMJ; 2001 Jan 20 ; 322(7279):134-7. PubMed ID: 11159568[Link]; page 254

  12. 12 Link no longer available; page 256

  13. 13 Estrogen replacement therapy and ovarian cancer mortality in a large prospective study of US women. Author: Rodriguez C, Patel AV, Calle EE, Jacob EJ, Thun MJ. Journal: JAMA; 2001 Mar 21 ; 285(11):1460-5. PubMed ID: 11255422 [Link]; page 256

  14. 14 BJOG. 2000 Aug;107(8):1012-6. A comparison of 25 mg and 50 mg oestradiol implants in the control of climacteric symptoms following hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Panay N[Link]; page 257

  15. 15 Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial.Author: Rossouw JE, Women’s Health Initiative Investigators . Journal: JAMA; 2002 Jul 17 ; 288(3):321-33. PubMed ID: 12117397 [Link]; page 257

  16. 16 Estrogen plus progestin and the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA; 2003 May 28 ; 289(20):2651-62. PubMed ID: 12771112 [Link]; page 257

  17. 17 Management of spontaneous miscarriage in the first trimester: an example of putting informed shared decision making into practice. Ankum WM, BMJ; 2001 Jun 2 ; 322(7298):1343-6. PubMed ID: 11387184 [Link]; page 260

  18. 18 Fertility following radical, conservative-surgical or medical treatment for tubal pregnancy: a population-based study.Bouyer J, BJOG; 2000 Jun ; 107(6):714-21. PubMed ID: 10847225 [Link]; page 263

  19. 19 Fertility outcome following combined methotrexate treatment of unruptured extrauterine pregnancy.Debby A BJOG; 2000 May ; 107(5):626-30. PubMed ID: 10826577 [Link]; page 263

  20. 20 Potential health and economic impact of adding a human papillomavirus vaccine to screening programs. Author: Kulasingam SL, Myers ER. Journal: JAMA; 2003 Aug 13 ; 290(6):781-9. PubMed ID: 12915431 [Link]; page 272

  21. 21 Therapeutic vaccination with MVA E2 can eliminate precancerous lesions (CIN 1, CIN 2, and CIN 3) associated with infection by oncogenic human papillomavirus. Author: Corona Gutierrez CM, Tinoco A, Navarro T, Contreras ML, Cortes RR, Calzado P, Reyes L, Posternak R, Morosoli G, Verde ML, Rosales R. Journal: Hum Gene Ther; 2004 May ; 15(5):421-31. PubMed ID: 15144573. [Link]; page 272

  22. 22 Ultrasonographic measurement of endometrial changes following discontinuation of tamoxifen treatment in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Cohen I, Beyth Y, Azaria R, Flex D, Figer A, Tepper R. BJOG; 2000 Sep ; 107(9):1083-7. PubMed ID: 11002949 [Link]; page 274

  23. 23 Reproductive health and polycystic ovary syndrome. Gibson M. Am J Med; 1995 Jan 16 ; 98(1A):67S-75S. PubMed ID: 7825642 [Link]; page 278

  24. 24 Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1999 Jul;106(7):623-32. Spencer CP. Endometrial assessment re-visited.[Link]; page 279

  25. 25 Dietary fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis of 6,689 subjects from 8 observational studies. Author: Huncharek M, Kupelnick B. Journal: Nutr Cancer; 2001 ; 40(2):87-91. PubMed ID: 11962260. Medline abstract, n=6,689 HYPERLINK “http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=11962260&from=cqsr[Link]; page 280

  26. 26 Tubal ligation and risk of ovarian cancer in carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations: a case-control study.Author: Narod S. Journal: Lancet; 2001 May 12 ; 357(9267):1467-70. PubMed ID: 11377596.[Link]; page 283

  27. 27 [No abstract] Bacterial vaginosis: a public health review. Morris M, Nicoll A, Simms I, Wilson J, Catchpole M. BJOG; 2001 May ; 108(5):439-50. PubMed ID: 11368127 [Link]; page 284

  28. 28 Evaluation of a new amplified enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in male urine, female endocervical swab, and patient obtained vaginal swab specimens. Author: Tanaka M, Nakayama H, Sagiyama K, Haraoka M, Yoshida H, Hagiwara T, Akazawa K, Naito S. Journal: J Clin Pathol; 2000 May ; 53(5):350-4. PubMed ID: 10889816. [Link]; page 285

  29. 29 Comparison of first void urine and urogenital swab specimens for detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction in patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Author: Jensen JS, Bjšrnelius E, Dohn B, Lidbrink P. Journal: Sex Transm Dis; 2004 Aug ; 31(8):499-507. PubMed ID: 15273584. [Link]; page 285

  30. 30 J Med Microbiol. 2002 Dec;51(12):1021-31.The accuracy and efficacy of screening tests for Chlamydia trachomatis: a systematic review. Watson EJ [Link]; page 285

  31. 31 Endometriosis. Author: Giudice LC, Kao LC. Journal: Lancet; 2004 Nov 13 ; 364(9447):1789-99. PubMed ID: 15541453 [Link]; page 288

  32. 32 Endometriosis during postmenopausal period--probable causes for its origin and development Author: Nikolov A, Dimitrov A, Iliev D, Genov N. Journal: Akush Ginekol (Sofiia); 2004 ; 43(6):50-3. PubMed ID: 15669654 [Link]; page 288

  33. 33 Stress reactivity and family relationships in the development and treatment of endometriosis. Author: Harrison V, Rowan K, Mathias J. Journal: Fertil Steril; 2005 Apr ; 83(4):857-64. PubMed ID: 15820791.[Link]; page 288

  34. 34 Medical management of endometriosis-associated pain. Author: Mahutte NG, Arici A. Journal: Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am; 2003 Mar ; 30(1):133-50. PubMed ID: 12699262 [Link]; page 288

  35. 35 Medical management of endometriosis: a systematic review. Author: Schroder AK, Diedrich K, Ludwig M. Journal: IDrugs; 2004 May ; 7(5):451-63. PubMed ID: 15154107 [Link]; page 288

  36. 36 Current practice for the laparoscopic diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis: a national questionnaire survey of consultant gynaecologists in UK. Author: Moses SH, Clark TJ. Journal: BJOG; 2004 Nov ; 111(11):1269-72. PubMed ID: 15521873 [Link]; page 288

  37. 37 Origins and molecular pathology of ovarian cancer. Author: Bell DA. Journal: Mod Pathol; 2005 Feb ; 18 Suppl 2():S19-32. PubMed ID: 15761464 [Link]; page 288

  38. 38 International Journal of Gynecological Cancer Volume 13 Issue 4 Page 466 Endometriosis-related malignancies. G. S. Leiserowitz [Link]; page 288

  39. 39 NIDA Res Monogr. 1984;44:46-64. Harclerode J. Endocrine effects of marijuana in the male: preclinical studies. [Link]; page 295

  40. 40 Lancet. 1999 Aug 14;354(9178):566. Stanback J. Checklist for ruling out pregnancy among family-planning clients in primary care. [Link]; page 297

  41. 41 Oral contraceptives and the risk of breast cancer.Author: Marchbanks PA, McDonald JA, Wilson HG, Folger SG, Mandel MG, Daling JR, Bernstein L, Malone KE, Ursin G, Strom BL, Norman SA, Wingo PA, Burkman RT, Berlin JA, Simon MS, Spirtas R, Weiss LK.Journal: N Engl J Med; 2002 Jun 27 ; 346(26):2025-32. PubMed ID: 12087137. [Link]; page 300

  42. 42 Moreno V, Bosch FX, Mu–oz N, Meijer CJ, Shah KV, Walboomers JM, Herrero R, Franceschi S, International Agency for Research on Cancer. Multicentric Cervical Cancer Study Group .Journal: Lancet; 2002 Mar 30 ; 359(9312):1085-92. PubMed ID: 11943255 [Link]; page 300

  43. 43 Combined oral contraceptives, migraine and ischaemic stroke. Clinical and Scientific Committee of the Faculty of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care and the Family Planning Association. Author: MacGregor EA, Guillebaud J. Journal: Br J Fam Plann; 1998 Jul ; 24(2):55-60. PubMed ID: 9719712 [Link]; page 301

  44. 44 J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2001 Jul-Aug;10(6):561-9. Freeman EW. Evaluation of a unique oral contraceptive in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. [Link]; page 302

  45. 45 Mansour D 2005 Lancet 365 May 15 1670 [Link]; page 302

  46. 46 J Guillebaud 2004 Editorial in PoP reporter [Link]; page 302

  47. 47 CNS Drugs. 2002;16(4):263-72. Crawford P. Interactions between antiepileptic drugs and hormonal contraception. [Link]; page 304

  48. 48 N Engl J Med. 2000 Dec 7;343(23):1681-7. Related Articles, Links Comment in: N Engl J Med. 2000 Dec 7;343(23):1724-6. The risk of menstrual abnormalities after tubal sterilization. U.S. Collaborative Review of Sterilization Working Group--Peterson HB [Link]; page 305

  49. 49 Vasectomy and the risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis examining vasectomy status, age at vasectomy, and time since vasectomy. Author: Dennis LK. Journal: Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis; 2002 ; 5(3):193-203. PubMed ID: 12496981 [Link]; page 305

  50. 50 The prevalence of pelvic floor disorders and their relationship to gender, age, parity and mode of delivery. Author: MacLennan AH, Journal: BJOG; 2000 Dec ; 107(12):1460-70. PubMed ID: 11192101[Link]; page 306

  51. 51 Managing incontinence due to detrusor instability. Journal: Drug Ther Bull; 2001 Aug ; 39(8):59-64. PubMed ID: 11526802 [Link]; page 306

  52. 52 Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1999 Dec;106(12):1255-8. Pure stress leakage symptomatology: is it safe to discount detrusor instability?--James M [Link]; page 306

  53. 53 RCOG Clinical Guidelines 35 2003 Surgical treatment for urodynamic stress incontinence [Link]; page 306

  54. 54 Managing incontinence due to detrusor instability. Journal: Drug Ther Bull; 2001 Aug ; 39(8):59-64. PubMed ID: 11526802 [Link]; page 307

  55. 55 Randomized, double-blind placebo controlled trial of the once daily antimuscarinic agent solifenacin succinate in patients with overactive bladder. Author: Cardozo L, Lisec M, Millard R, van Vierssen Trip O, Kuzmin I, Drogendijk TE, Huang M, Ridder AM. Journal: J Urol; 2004 Nov ; 172(5 Pt 1):1919-24. PubMed ID: 15540755. [Link]; page 307

  56. 56 Managing incontinence due to detrusor instability. Journal: Drug Ther Bull; 2001 Aug ; 39(8):59-64. PubMed ID: 11526802 [Link]; page 307

  57. 57 Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Oct;13(5):507-12. Voiding dysfunction. Dorflinger A [Link]; page 307

  58. 58 Detrusor myopathy: an accurate predictor of bladder hypocompliance and contracture in interstitial cystitis. Author: Christmas TJ, Smith GL, Rode J. Journal: Br J Urol; 1996 Dec ; 78(6):862-5. PubMed ID: 9014709 [Link]; page 307

  59. 59 Can ultrasound replace ambulatory urodynamics when investigating women with irritative urinary symptoms? Author: Robinson D, Anders K, Cardozo L, Bidmead J, Toozs-Hobson P, Khullar V. Journal: BJOG; 2002 Feb ; 109(2):145-8. PubMed ID: 11888096 [Link]; page 307

  60. 60 Sexuality after total vs. subtotal hysterectomy. Author: Zobbe V, Gimbel H, Andersen BM, Filtenborg T, Jakobsen K, S¿rensen HC, Toftager-Larsen K, Sidenius K, M¿ller N, Madsen EM, Vejtorp M, Clausen H, Rosgaard A, Gluud C, Ottesen BS, Tabor A. Journal: Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 2004 Feb ; 83(2):191-6. PubMed ID: 14756739 [Link]; page 308

Web-based references relating to the disc signs in footnotes, organised by page number

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  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for primary dysmenorrhoea. Marjoribanks J. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2003 ; 4(4):CD001751. PubMed ID: 14583938 [Link]; page 250

  • Clinical outcomes and costs with the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or hysterectomy for treatment of menorrhagia: randomized trial 5-year follow-up. Hurskainen R, JAMA; 2004 Mar 24 ; 291(12):1456-63. PubMed ID: 15039412 [Link]; page 253

  • A review of treatment of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Rapkin A. Psychoneuroendocrinology; 2003 Aug ; 28 Suppl 3():39-53. PubMed ID: 12892989 [Link]; page 254

  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for premenstrual syndrome. Wyatt K. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2002 ; (4):CD001396. PubMed ID: 12519554 [Link]; page 254

  • Luteal phase administration of agents for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Freeman E. CNS Drugs; 2004 ; 18(7):453-68. PubMed ID: 15139800 [Link]; page 254

  • Hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy for severe premenstrual syndrome. Cronje W. Hum Reprod; 2004 Sep ; 19(9):2152-5. PubMed ID: 15229203 [Link]; page 254

  • Breast cancer and hormone-replacement therapy in the Million Women Study. Beral V, Million Women Study Collaborators . Lancet; 2003 Aug 9 ; 362(9382):419-27. PubMed ID: 12927427 [Link]; page 257

  • Influence of personal characteristics of individual women on sensitivity and specificity of mammography in the Million Women Study: cohort study. Banks E, BMJ; 2004 Aug 28 ; 329(7464):477. PubMed ID: 15331472 [Link]; page 257

  • Role of raloxifene in breast cancer prevention in postmenopausal women: clinical evidence and potential mechanisms of action. Sporn M. Clin Ther; 2004 Jun ; 26(6):830-40. PubMed ID: 15262454[Link]; page 257

  • Differential association of oral and transdermal oestrogen-replacement therapy with venous thromboembolism risk. Scarabin P, EStrogen and THromboEmbolism Risk Study Group . Lancet; 2003 Aug 9 ; 362(9382):428-32. PubMed ID: 12927428 [Link]; page 257

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  • BMJ 1997;314:253 (25 January) Randomised controlled trial of aspirin and aspirin plus heparin in pregnant women with recurrent miscarriage associated with phospholipid antibodies (or antiphospholipid antibodies). R Rai [Link]; page 261

  • Guidelines for the management of lichen sclerosus. Neill SM, British Association of Dermatologists . Br J Dermatol; 2002 Oct ; 147(4):640-9. PubMed ID: 12366407 [Link]; page 266

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  • Liquid-based cytology: the new screening test for cervical cancer control. McGoogan E. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care; 2004 Apr ; 30(2):123-5. PubMed ID: 15087002 [Link]; page 270

  • Efficacy of a bivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccine in prevention of infection with human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in young women: a randomised controlled trial. Harper DM. Lancet; 2004 Nov 13 ; 364(9447):1757-65. PubMed ID: 15541 [Link]; page 272

  • Effect of oral contraceptives on risk of cervical cancer in women with human papillomavirus infection: the IARC multicentric case-control study. Moreno V, International Agency for Research on Cancer. Multicentric Cervical Cancer Study Group . Lancet; 2002 Mar 30 ; 359(9312):1085-92. PubMed ID: 11943255 [Link]; page 272

  • Actas Urol Esp. 1989 Sep-Oct;13(5):343-6 (Spanish). Viladoms Fuster JM. [Human papilloma virus in the male] [Link]; page 272

  • Cervical cancer. Waggoner SE. Lancet; 2003 Jun 28 ; 361(9376):2217-25. PubMed ID: 12842378[Link]; page 272

  • The cervical cancer epidemic that screening has prevented in the UK. Author: Peto J. Journal: Lancet; 2004 Jul 17 ; 364(9430):249-56. PubMed ID: 15262102 [Link]; page 273

  • Pelvic tuberculosis: an uncommon gynaecological problem presenting as ovarian mass. Sinha P, BJOG; 2000 Jan ; 107(1):139-40. PubMed ID: 10645876 [Link]; page 274

  • Ultrasonographic evaluation of the endometrium in postmenopausal vaginal bleeding. Davidson K .Radiol Clin North Am; 2003 Jul ; 41(4):769-80. PubMed ID: 12899491 [Link]; page 274

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  • Nat Genet. 2002 Apr;30(4):406-10. Epub 2002 Feb 25. Tomlinson IP. Germline mutations in FH predispose to dominantly inherited uterine fibroids, skin leiomyomata and papillary renal cell cancer.[Link]; page 276

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  • Raloxifene administration in women treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist for uterine leiomyomas: effects on bone metabolism. Palomba S,. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2002 Oct ; 87(10):4476-81. PubMed ID: 12364422 [Link]; page 276

  • Effectiveness of combined GnRH analogue plus raloxifene administration in the treatment of uterine leiomyomas: a prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Palomba S. Hum Reprod; 2002 Dec ; 17(12):3213-9. PubMed ID: 12456626 [Link]; page 276

  • Reproductive performance before and after abdominal myomectomy: a retrospective analysis. Marchionni M,. Fertil Steril; 2004 Jul ; 82(1):154-9, quiz 265. PubMed ID: 15237005 [Link]; page 276

  • Link page 282 no longer available Biology of epithelial ovarian cancer: implications for screening women at high genetic risk. Hogg R, Friedlander M. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Apr 1 ; 22(7):1315-27. PubMed ID: 15051780 [Link]; page 283

  • Screening postmenopausal women for ovarian cancer: a systematic review.Fung M, Cancer Care Ontario Practice Guidelines Initiative Gynecology Cancer Disease Site Group .J Obstet Gynaecol Can; 2004 Aug ; 26(8):717-28. PubMed ID: 15307976 [Link]; page 283

  • Treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer: a retrospective analysis of women treated with single-agent carboplatin originally treated with carboplatin and paclitaxel. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience. Dizon D. Gynecol Oncol; 2003 Dec ; 91(3):584-90. PubMed ID: 14675681 [Link]; page 283

  • A comparative study of clinical management strategies for vaginal discharge in family planning and genitourinary medicine settings. Author: Melville C, Nandwani R, Bigrigg A, McMahon AD. Journal: J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care; 2005 Jan ; 31(1):26-30. PubMed ID: 15720844 [Link]; page 284

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  • Chlamydia trachomatis in the United Kingdom: a systematic review and analysis of prevalence studies. Adams E, Sex Transm Infect; 2004 Oct ; 80(5):354-62. PubMed ID: 15459402 [Link]; page 287

  • An evaluation of economics and acceptability of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection, in women attending antenatal, abortion, colposcopy and family planning clinics in Scotland, UK. Norman JE, BJOG; 2004 Nov ; 111(11):1261-8. PubMed ID: 15521872 [Link]; page 287

  • Emotional aspects of endometriosis: a physician’s perspective. Author: Jones KP. Journal: Clin Obstet Gynecol; 1988 Dec ; 31(4):874-82. PubMed ID: 3229043. [Link]; page 288

  • The use of thermal biofeedback in the treatment of pain associated with endometriosis: preliminary findings. Author: Hawkins RS, Hart AD. Journal: Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback; 2003 Dec ; 28(4):279-89. PubMed ID: 14686081 [Link]; page 288

  • Hum Reprod. 2002 Mar;17(3):555-9. Stefansson H. Genetic factors contribute to the risk of developing endometriosis. [Link]; page 290

  • Adriana Iliescu became pregnant after receiving fertility treatment for nine years. [Link]; page 294

  • Emergency contraception: latest changes. Webb AM.J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care; 2004 Jan ; 30(1):7-9. [Link]; page 299

  • Evra--a patch on oral contraception? Drug Ther Bull; 2003 Dec ; 41(12):89-91. PubMed ID: 14723093[Link]; page 304

  • New Product Review (September 2003). Norelgestromin/ethinyl oestradiol transdermal contraceptive system (Evra). Faculty of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care Clinical Effectiveness Unit . J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care; 2004 Jan ; 30(1):43-5. PubMed ID: 15006313 [Link]; page 304

  • A pilot open label study of Cystoprotek(R) in interstitial cystitis. Journal: Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol; 2005 January-March ; 18(1):183-188 [Link]; page 306

  • Improved quality of life in patients with overactive bladder symptoms treated with solifenacin n=1637. Author: Kelleher CJ, Cardozo L, Chapple CR, Haab F, Ridder AM. Journal: BJU Int; 2005 Jan ; 95(1):81-5. PubMed ID: 15638900 [Link]; page 307

  • Severe complications of hysterectomy: the VALUE study. McPherson K. BJOG; 2004 Jul ; 111(7):688-94. PubMed ID: 15198759 [Link]; page 308

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Chapter 04: Psychiatry

  1. 1 Br J Psychiatry. 2002 Jan;180:8-12. Williams DD. The case against; No link available; page 312

  2. 2 Hesse [Link]; page 319

  3. 3 Salman Rushdie: Midnight’s Children [Link]; page 320

  4. 4 George Orwell, Inside the Whale, 1940 [Link]; page 320

  5. 5 Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 1st ed; Gelder” >[Link]; page 320

  6. 6 BMJ 1999;318:186-188. Narrative based medicine. Stories we hear and stories we tell: analysing talk in clinical practice. Glyn Elwyn [Link]; page 321

  7. 7 Mishler E, 1984 The Discourse of Medicine: Dialectics of- Medical Interviews, Norwood, NJ, Ablex[Link]; page 321

  8. 8 Psychol Bull. 1998 Jul;124(1):22-53. Rind B. A meta-analytic examination of assumed properties of child sexual abuse using college samples. Medline abstract, 59 trials [Link]; page 323

  9. 9 Polonius -- W Shakespeare; Hamlet, Prince of Denmark [Link]; page 324

  10. 10 Issues of sexual orientation and suicide [Link]; page 328

  11. 11 Lucinda Brayford, Martin Boyd. 1952 [Link]; page 328

  12. 12 Parents’ problems with gay offspring [Link]; page 328

  13. 13 Pollack and Schwartz in their book, The Journey Out - A guide for and about lesbian, gay, and bisexual teens. [Link]; page 328

  14. 14 Health Commun. 2000;12(2):195-218. Troth A. Factors predicting safe-sex talk and condom use in early sexual relationships. [Link]; page 328

  15. 15 We thank Beth Miller & Justin Williams for formulating this page” >[Link]; page 328

  16. 16 London addresses: Family Planning: 2 Pentonville Rd, N1 9FP 0207 837 4044; Brook Centre: 165 Grays Inn Rd, WC1X 8UD; 0207 713 9000. Sex Education Forum: 8 Wakley Street, EC1V 7QE; Contraceptive Education Service 0207 837 4044. [phone numbers]; No links available; page 328

  17. 17 Age & Ageing The place of the specialist home for the elderly mentally infirm in the care of mentally disturbed old people. AS de Zoysa and G Blessed; No link available; page 329

  18. 18 Worthing Churches Homeless Projects [Link]; page 329

  19. 19 Psychiatr Q. 2001 Winter;72(4):291-306. Hellerstein DJ. Integrating services for schizophrenia and substance abuse. [Link]; page 329

  20. 20 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(4):CD001088. Ley A. Treatment programmes for people with both severe mental illness and substance misuse. [Link]; page 329

  21. 21 J Urol. 2001 Apr;165(4):1158-61. Bohle A. Burn-out of urologists in the county of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany: a comparison of hospital and private practice urologists. [Link]; page 333

  22. 22 Patient Educ Couns. 2001 Apr;43(1):23-30. Gorter RC. A career counseling program for dentists: effects on burnout. Medline abstract, n=171 [Link]; page 333

  23. 23 Behav Res Ther. 2001 Apr;39(4):423-42. Visser S. The treatment of hypochondriasis: exposure plus response prevention vs cognitive therapy. [Link]; page 334

  24. 24 Dissociation in people who have near-death experiences: out of their bodies or out of their minds? Author: Greyson B. Journal: Lancet; 2000 Feb 5 ; 355(9202):460-3. PubMed ID: 10841127 [Link]; page 335

  25. 25 Depression: management of depression in primary and secondary care [Link]; page 336

  26. 26 Psychiatr Q. 2002 Spring;73(1):71-82. Joseph J. Twin studies in psychiatry and psychology: science or pseudoscience? [Link]; page 336

  27. 27 Neurosci Res. 2000 Oct;38(2):193-8. Kram ML. Effects of learned helplessness on brain GABA receptors. [Link]; page 336

  28. 28 Am J Psychiatry. 2000 Oct;157(10):1552-62. Sullivan PF. Genetic epidemiology of major depression: review and meta-analysis. [Link]; page 336

  29. 29 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000448. Linde K. St John’s wort for depression. Medline abstract, Meta-analysis [Link]; page 336

  30. 30 J Affect Disord. 2001 May;64(2-3):261-5. Bschor T. Predictors of response to lithium augmentation in tricyclic antidepressant-resistant depression. [Link]; page 336

  31. 31 Link no longer available; page 337

  32. 32 CG16 Self-harm - NICE guideline [Link]; page 338

  33. 33 Lancet. 2002 Mar 9;359(9309):813-4. Jenkins R. Addressing suicide as a public-health problem.[Link]; page 338

  34. 34 BMJ. 2000 Jan 8;320(7227):75A. Yamey G. Suicide rate is decreasing in england and wales. [Link]; page 338

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  211. 211 We thank Justin Williams and Bill Ness for the first draft of this page; page 387

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  216. 216 Psychiatry. 2001 Spring;64(1):81-90. Greenberg D. Nocturnal hallucinations in ultra-orthodox Jewish Israeli men. [Link]; page 391

  217. 217 Br J Psychiatry. 1996 Oct;169(4):501-8. Phillips MR. Erotomanic symptoms in 42 Chinese schizophrenic patients. [Link]; page 391

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  219. 219 Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2000 Apr;54(2):203-6. Gomibuchi T. Obsession of hearing music: from the viewpoint of Morita theory. [Link]; page 391

  220. 220 J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2000 Mar;39(3):337-45. Ulloa RE. Psychosis in a pediatric mood and anxiety disorders clinic: phenomenology and correlates. [Link]; page 391

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  233. 233 J James 2005 Science Notebook. May 02, 2005 [Link]; page 394

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  235. 235 J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2000 Jun;39(6):694-702. Baird G. A screening instrument for autism at 18 months of age: a 6-year follow-up study. [Link]; page 394

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  239. 239 Addiction. 2001 Feb;96(2):227-40. Rossow I. Shattered childhood: a key issue in suicidal behavior among drug addicts? [Link]; page 396

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  241. 241 Bullying involvement in primary school and common health problems. Author: Wolke D, Woods S, Bloomfield L, Karstadt L. Journal: Arch Dis Child; 2001 Sep ; 85(3):197-201. PubMed ID: 11517098[Link]; page 396

  242. 242 BMJ. 2000 Mar 4;320(7235):612-3. Voss LD. Bullying in school: are short pupils at risk? Questionnaire study in a cohort. [Link]; page 396

  243. 243 J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2000 May;41(4):405-406. Skuse D. Editorial. [Link]; page 396

  244. 244 BMJ. 1995 Feb 4;310(6975):274-5. Dawkins J. Bullying in schools: doctors’ responsibilities. [Link]; page 396

  245. 245 BMJ. 1995 Jun 10;310(6993):1536. Dawkins J. Bullying in schools. [Link]; page 396

  246. 246 BMJ 2001;323:1314 Personal views. Bullying in medicine [Link]; page 396

  247. 247 Br J Educ Psychol. 2000 Jun;70 ( Pt 2):195-210. Stevens V. Bullying in Flemish schools: an evaluation of anti-bullying intervention in primary and secondary schools. [Link]; page 396

  248. 248 J Adolesc. 2001 Feb;24(1):129-40. Warwick I. Playing it safe: addressing the emotional and physical health of lesbian and gay pupils in the U.K. [Link]; page 396

  249. 249 Br J Soc Psychol. 2000 Dec;39 Pt 4:605-28. Hepburn A. Power lines: Derrida, discursive psychology and the management of accusations of teacher bullying. [Link]; page 396

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  251. 251 J Am Optom Assoc. 1999 Oct;70(10):629-40. Harris D. Application of ChromaGen haploscopic lenses to patients with dyslexia: a double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. Medline abstract, N=47[Link]; page 398

  252. 252 Science. 1994 Oct 14;266(5183):276-9. Cardon LR. Quantitative trait locus for reading disability on chromosome 6. [Link]; page 398

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  280. 280 Br J Psychiatry. 1987 Jun;150:782-6. Cox JL. Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Medline abstract, n=84 [Link]; page 409

Web-based references relating to the disc signs in footnotes, organised by page number

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  • Marianne Rosendal, BMJ 2005 330 4 Medically unexplained symptoms [Link]; page 334

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  • Efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapy in generalized anxiety disorders. Results of a controlled clinical trial (Berlin CBT-GAD Study). Author: Linden M, Zubraegel D, Baer T, Franke U, Schlattmann P. Journal: Psychother Psychosom; 2005 ; 74(1):36-42. PubMed ID: 15627855 [Link]; page 344

  • A right orbitofrontal region and OCD symptoms: a case report. Author: Ogai M, Iyo M, Mori N, Takei N. Journal: Acta Psychiatr Scand; 2005 Jan ; 111(1):74-6. PubMed ID: 15636597 [Link]; page 346

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  • Anti-craving drugs acamprosate and naloxone do not reduce expression of morphine conditioned place preference in isolated and group-housed rats. Author: Herzig V, Schmidt WJ. Journal: Neurosci Lett; 2005 Feb 10 ; 374(2):119-23. PubMed ID: 15644276 [Link]; page 362

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  • Randomized controlled trial comparing brief dynamic and supportive therapy with waiting list condition in minor depressive disorders. Author: Maina G, Forner F, Bogetto F. Journal: Psychother Psychosom; 2005 ; 74(1):43-50. PubMed ID: 15627856 [Link]; page 380

  • Computational models for detection of erectile dysfunction. Author: Wald M, Seftel AD, Ross LS, Mohamed MA, Niederberger CS. Journal: J Urol; 2005 Jan ; 173(1):167-70. PubMed ID: 15592067[Link]; page 385

  • Pediatr Clin North Am. 1995 Feb;42(1):131-41. Klar H. Brief solution-focused strategies for behavioral pediatrics. [Link]; page 387

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  • Psychological factors associated with persistent postnatal depression: past and current relationships, defence styles and the mediating role of insecure attachment style. Author: McMahon C, Barnett B, Kowalenko N, Tennant C. Journal: J Affect Disord; 2005 Jan ; 84(1):15-24. PubMed ID: 15620381[Link]; page 408

Chapter 05: Ophthalmology

  1. 1 Amblyopy (n.) Weakness of sight, without and opacity of the cornea, or of the interior of the eye; the first degree of amaurosis. [Link]; page 411

  2. 2 Panoptic ophthalmoscopes [Link]; page 413

  3. 3 Hyphaema HYPERLINK “http://www.synoptik.dk/resources/hyphaema.jpg[Link]; page 413

  4. 4 Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2000 Jul;29(4):463-6. Yip CC. The correction of oriental lower lid involutional entropion using the combined procedure. Medline abstract, N=41 [Link]; page 416

  5. 5 Ann Plast Surg. 1999 Dec;43(6):598-605. Yoleri L. Modified temporalis muscle transfer for paralytic eyelids. [Link]; page 416

  6. 6 Cornea. 2000 May;19(3):301-6. Choudhuri KK. Clinical and microbiological profile of Bacillus keratitis.[Link]; page 416

  7. 7 Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1997 Aug;28(8):683-4. Santa Cruz CS. Chalazion-induced hyperopia as a cause of decreased vision. [Link]; page 416

  8. 8 Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1996 Jun;27(6):431-3. Wessels IF. Lidocaine-prilocaine cream for local-anesthesia chalazion incision in children. [Link]; page 416

  9. 9 J AAPOS. 2000 Dec;4(6):379-80. Meisler DM. Oral erythromycin treatment for childhood blepharokeratitis. [Link]; page 416

  10. 10 Aust N Z J Ophthalmol. 1998 May;26 Suppl 1:S2-5. Panchapakesan J. Prevalence of pterygium and pinguecula: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Medline abstract, n=3564 [Link]; page 416

  11. 11 Pinguecula [Link]; page 416

  12. 12 Link no longer available; page 416

  13. 13 Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2000;98:505-32. Wilhelmus KR. The treatment of herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis. Medline abstract, Meta-analysis [Link]; page 416

  14. 14 Cornea. 1995 May;14(3):326-30. Minkovitz JB. Topical interferon alpha-2a treatment of herpes simplex keratitis resistant to multiple antiviral medications in an immunosuppressed patient. [Link]; page 416

  15. 15 Tumori. 1998 Jul-Aug;84(4):506-10. De Stefani A. Squamous cell carcinoma of the lacrimal drainage system: case report and literature review. [Link]; page 418

  16. 16 Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2000 Oct;123(4):488-91. Cokkeser Y. Comparative external versus endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: results in 115 patients (130 eyes). [Link]; page 418

  17. 17 After DP Austin. www.academy.org.uk/tutorials/dilation.htm” >[Link]; page 419

  18. 18 An Esp Pediatr. 2000 Dec;53(6):567-72 (Spanish). Rodriguez Ferran L. [Orbital and periorbital cellulitis. Review of 107 cases] [Link]; page 420

  19. 19 Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2000 Mar;51(2):113-9 (Spanish). Gomez Campdera J. [Orbital cellulitis in childhood. Medical-surgical treatment] [Link]; page 420

  20. 20 Neurochirurgia (Stuttg). 1982 Jan;25(1):7-10 (German). Willenberg E. [The treatment of carotico-cavernous fistulas, past and present (author’s transl)] [Link]; page 420

  21. 21 Ugeskr Laeger. 1995 Nov 27;157(48):6725-8 (Danish). Poulsgard L. [Surgical treatment of carotid-cavernous fistulas. A description of open surgical techniques in the treatment of carotid-cavernous fistula with preserved normal flow in the internal carotid artery] [Link]; page 420

  22. 22 Ugeskr Laeger. 1994 Oct 31;156(44):6541-8 (Danish). Bartholdy NJ. [Interventional neuroradiology. A presentation with preliminary results] [Link]; page 420

  23. 23 J Am Optom Assoc. 1997 Aug;68(8):527-38. McPherson RE. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus and the immunocompromised host: a case report and review. [Link]; page 420

  24. 24 Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1999 Feb 28;119(6):794-5 (Norwegian). Baggesen K. [Leukocoria (white pupil) among children--mother is always right] [Link]; page 421

  25. 25 Nippon Rinsho. 2000 Jul;58(7):1413-8 (Japanese). Kaneko A. [Retinoblastoma] [Link]; page 421

  26. 26 Drugs. 1999 Dec;58(6):983-96. Finger PT. Chemotherapy for retinoblastoma: a current topic. [Link]; page 421

  27. 27 Am J Ophthalmol. 2000 Mar;129(3):396-8. Smith JH. Siblings of retinoblastoma patients: are we underestimating their risk? [Link]; page 421

  28. 28 Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1998 Feb;76(1):27-7. Lennerstrand G. Treatment of strabismus and nystagmus with botulinum toxin type A. An evaluation of effects and complications. [Link]; page 422

  29. 29 Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 2000 Winter;15(4):351-6. Molteno AC. A comparative trial of Gobin’s method versus conventional surgery for refractive/accommodative esotropia uncorrected by non-surgical methods. [Link]; page 422

  30. 30 Isolated sixth nerve palsy: an uncommon presenting sign of multiple sclerosis. Author: Barr D, Kupersmith MJ, Turbin R, Bose S, Roth R. Journal: J Neurol; 2000 Sep ; 247(9):701-4. PubMed ID: 11081810 [Link]; page 422

  31. 31 Singapore Med J. 1999 Jun;40(6):405-9. Quah BL. A review of 5 years’ experience in the use of botulinium toxin A in the treatment of sixth cranial nerve palsy at the Singapore National Eye Centre. Medline abstract, n=19 [Link]; page 422

  32. 32 Eye movement [Link]; page 423

  33. 33 Oblique primary, secondary, and tertiary actions [Link]; page 423

  34. 34 See Blue Mountain Eye Study 2004 BJ Ophthalmology 88 1119 & BMJ 2004 329 692 [Link]; page 423

  35. 35 Strabusmus lecture notes [Link]; page 423

  36. 36 J Fr Ophtalmol. 1992;15(4):243-7 (French). Maselli E. [Surgical treatment of strabismus by sagittal cutting of the oblique muscles. Apropos of 449 cases] Medline abstract, n=449 [Link]; page 423

  37. 37 Am J Hum Genet. 1998 Jul;63(1):109-19. Young TL. Evidence that a locus for familial high myopia maps to chromosome 18p. [Link]; page 426

  38. 38 Prog Retin Eye Res. 2000 Jul;19(4):421-57. Crewther DP. The role of photoreceptors in the control of refractive state. [Link]; page 426

  39. 39 BMJ 2002;324:1195-1199 Myopia--Douglas R Fredrick [Link]; page 426

  40. 40 BMJ 2002;324:1195-1199 ( 18 May Myopia. Douglas R Fredrick [Link]; page 426

  41. 41 Ophthalmology. 2002 Jan;109(1):175-87. Sugar A. Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism: safety and efficacy: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. [Link]; page 426

  42. 42 Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd. 1997 May;210(5):316-8 (French). Safran AB. [Scotomas: assessment by the patient and by the physician. There’s nothing to see] [Link]; page 428

  43. 43 J Heart Lung Transplant 1996 Nov;15(11):1158-64 (English), Drachman BM. [Cortical blindness secondary to cyclosporine after orthotopic heart transplantation: a case report and review of the literature] [Link]; page 428

  44. 44 Ophthalmologica. 1997;211(6):354-7. Yuksel N. Short-term effect of apraclonidine on intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients receiving timolol and pilocarpine. [Link]; page 430

  45. 45 Ophthalmology. 1999 Jun;106(6):1135-9. Ren J. Efficacy of apraclonidine 1% versus pilocarpine 4% for prophylaxis of intraocular pressure spike after argon laser trabeculoplasty. [Link]; page 430

  46. 46 Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1987 Oct 3;295(6602):812-3. Talbot EM. A simple test to diagnose iritis.[Link]; page 430

  47. 47 Ophthalmology. 1999 Dec;106(12):2377-9. Read RW. Episcleritis in childhood. [Link]; page 432

  48. 48 Br J Ophthalmol. 1981 Sep;65(9):641-3. Lloyd-Jones D. Clinical evaluation of clobetasone butyrate eye drops in episcleritis. [Link]; page 432

  49. 49 Am J Ophthalmol. 2000 Oct;130(4):469-76. Jabs DA. Episcleritis and scleritis: clinical features and treatment results. [Link]; page 432

  50. 50 Acta Ophthalmol Scand Suppl. 1999;(228):43-6. Discepola M. Comparison of the topical ocular antiallergic efficacy of emedastine 0.05% ophthalmic solution to ketorolac 0.5% ophthalmic solution in a clinical model of allergic conjunctivitis. [Link]; page 432

  51. 51 Bacterial keratitis in Christchurch, New Zealand, 1997-;2001. Author: Hall RC, McKellar MJ.--Journal: Clin Experiment Ophthalmol; 2004 Oct ; 32(5):478-81. PubMed ID: 15498058 [Link]; page 433

  52. 52 J Neuroophthalmol. 2000 Dec;20(4):273-5. Schauble B. Ophthalmic artery microembolism in giant cell arteritis. [Link]; page 434

  53. 53 Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2000 Dec;75(12):819-24 (Spanish). Salazar JJ. [Apoptosis in ischemic optic neuropathy] [Link]; page 434

  54. 54 Acute Optic Neuritis [Link]; page 434

  55. 55 Transient loss of vision [Link]; page 434

  56. 56 Optometry. 2000 Nov;71(11):703-14. Wong DM. Case presentations of retinal artery occlusions.[Link]; page 435

  57. 57 Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1999 Dec;237(12):1024-7. Battaglia Parodi M. Grid laser treatment in macular branch retinal vein occlusion. [Link]; page 435

  58. 58 Ophthalmologica. 1996;210(3):168-70. Kiryu J. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment for macular edema in retinal vein occlusion: relation to severity of retinal leakage. [Link]; page 435

  59. 59 Cesk Oftalmol. 1992 Mar;48(2):132-8 (Czech). Rehak J. [Retinal vein occlusion. III. Initial experience with therapy of retinal vein occlusion with an argon laser] [Link]; page 435

  60. 60 Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2000 Aug;78(4):456-9. Erdol H. Arterial crimping in branch retinal vein occlusion with macular edema. Medline abstract, n=72 [Link]; page 435

  61. 61 Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2000 Nov-Dec;44(6):685-7. Suzuki A. Investigation of blood flow velocity by color Doppler imaging in nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion with collateral veins. [Link]; page 435

  62. 62 Brain. 1998 Oct;121 ( Pt 10):1819-40, (English) Manford M. [Complex visual hallucinations. Clinical and neurobiological insights.] [Link]; page 438

  63. 63 Australas Radiol. 2000 Aug;44(3):338-40. Sia S. Treatment of choroidal melanoma by stereotactic radiosurgery. [Link]; page 438

  64. 64 Risk of macular degeneration in users of statins: cross sectional study. Nigel F Hall. BMJ 2001;323:375-376 [Link]; page 438

  65. 65 Am J Ophthalmol. 1993 Jul 15;116(1):84-7. Rizzo JF 3rd. Tobacco amblyopia. [Link]; page 438

  66. 66 Acta Neurol Scand. 1985 Aug;72(2):180-7. Krumsiek J. Tobacco-alcohol amblyopia neuro-ophthalmological findings and clinical course. [Link]; page 438

  67. 67 Arukoru Kenkyuto Yakubutsu Ison. 1994 Apr;29(2):114-20 (Japanese). Miyashita H. [A case of Wernicke’s encephalopathy which accompanied a passing blindness] [Link]; page 438

  68. 68 Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 1985 Mar;53(3):88-93 (German). Krumsiek J. [Tobacco-alcohol amblyopia. Clinical course in 33 patients] [Link]; page 438

  69. 69 BMJ. 1998 May 30;316(7145):1643-6. Reidy A. Prevalence of serious eye disease and visual impairment in a north London population: population based, cross sectional study. [Link]; page 439

  70. 70 Ophthalmology. 1981 Oct;88(10):1066-80 Pathology and pathogenesis of drusen of the optic nervehead. Tso MO [Link]; page 439

  71. 71 Drusen [Link]; page 439

  72. 72 MRC Ophthalmology questions; Mr CN Chau HYPERLINK “http://www.mrcophth.com/[Link]; page 439

  73. 73 Surv Ophthalmol. 2000 Nov-Dec;45(3):195-214. Schmidt-Erfurth U. Mechanisms of action of photodynamic therapy with verteporfin for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. [Link]; page 439

  74. 74 BMJ. 2000 Dec 9;321(7274):1425-7. Bressler NM. Age related macular degeneration. New hope for a common problem comes from photodynamic therapy. [Link]; page 439

  75. 75 Arch Ophthalmol. 1993 Sep;111(9):1189-99. Five-year follow-up of fellow eyes of patients with age-related macular degeneration and unilateral extrafoveal choroidal neovascularization. Macular Photocoagulation Study Group. [Link]; page 439

  76. 76 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000254. Evans JR. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for age-related macular degeneration. Medline abstract, meta-analysis [Link]; page 439

  77. 77 Am J Ophthalmol. 2000 Oct;130(4):429-40. The Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS): 7. The relationship between control of intraocular pressure and visual field deterioration.The AGIS Investigators. Medline abstract, N=738 [Link]; page 440

  78. 78 Am J Ophthalmol. 2000 Nov;130(5):670-2. Hashimoto M. Normal-tension glaucoma with reversed ophthalmic artery flow. [Link]; page 440

  79. 79 Extra risk with moderate use: 34%; heavy use: 74%. Journal of Environmental and Community Health Toho University [Link]; page 440

  80. 80 Conn Med. 2000 Feb;64(2):75-8. Palmisano P. Glaucoma and race: a case for screening in Connecticut. [Link]; page 440

  81. 81 Optom Vis Sci. 1999 Aug;76(8):537-43. Harper RA. Glaucoma screening: the importance of combining test data. [Link]; page 440

  82. 82 Lancet. 1995 Jun 24;345(8965):1604-6. Diggory P. Avoiding unsuspected respiratory side-effects of topical timolol with cardioselective or sympathomimetic agents. Medline abstract, N=80 [Link]; page 440

  83. 83 69 Arch Ophthalmol. 1997 Jul;115(7):853-6. Stewart WC. Daily cost of beta-adrenergic blocker therapy. [Link]; page 440

  84. 84 Ophthalmology. 1999 Dec;106(12 Suppl):17-24. Clineschmidt CM. A randomized trial in patients inadequately controlled with timolol alone comparing the dorzolamide-timolol combination to monotherapy with timolol or dorzolamide. Medline abstract, N=253 [Link]; page 440

  85. 85 Br J Ophthalmol. 2001 Aug;85(8):983-90. Zhang WY. Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials comparing latanoprost with timolol in the treatment of patients with open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. [Link]; page 440

  86. 86 Dany Najjar, MD. GLAUCOMA made ridiculously simpleÉ HYPERLINK “http://www.eyeweb.org/glaucoma.htm[Link]; page 441

  87. 87 Long-term outcomes in asians after acute primary angle closure. Author: Aung T, Friedman DS, Chew PT, Ang LP, Gazzard G, Lai YF, Yip L, Lai H, Quigley H, Seah SK. Journal: Ophthalmology; 2004 Aug ; 111(8):1464-9. PubMed ID: 15288972 [Link]; page 441

  88. 88 MRC Ophthalmology questions; Mr CN Chau HYPERLINK “http://www.mrcophth.com/[Link]; page 441

  89. 89 Glaucoma [Link]; page 441

  90. 90 Predictive factors of the optic nerve head for development or progression of glaucomatous visual field loss. Author: Jonas JB, Martus P, Horn FK, JŸnemann A, Korth M, Budde WM. Journal: Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2004 Aug ; 45(8):2613-8. PubMed ID: 15277484. [Link]; page 441

  91. 91 Association of magnetic resonance imaging of anterior optic pathway with glaucomatous visual field damage and optic disc cupping. Author: Kashiwagi K, Okubo T, Tsukahara S. Journal: J Glaucoma; 2004 Jun ; 13(3):189-95. PubMed ID: 15118461 [Link]; page 441

  92. 92 Link no longer available; page 441

  93. 93 Link no longer available; page 442

  94. 94 The American Society for Nutritional Sciences J. Nutr. 134:3225-3232, December 2004. Xanthophylls and -Tocopherol Decrease UVB-Induced Lipid Peroxidation and Stress Signaling in Human Lens Epithelial Cells [Link]; page 443

  95. 95 Link no longer available; page 444

  96. 96 Retinal detatchment [Link]; page 444

  97. 97 Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2000 Aug;75(8):547-53 (Spanish). Blanco MJ. [Retinitis pigmentosa: results of rhodopsin gene analysis in the Galician population] [Link]; page 444

  98. 98 BMJ. 1993 Jan 16;306(6871):187-9. Leese GP. Use of mobile screening unit for diabetic retinopathy in rural and urban areas. [Link]; page 446

  99. 99 N Engl J Med. 2002 Apr 11;346(15):1119-26. Martin DF. A controlled trial of valganciclovir as induction therapy for cytomegalovirus retinitis. [Link]; page 448

  100. 100 Ocular and systemic causes of retinopathy in patients without diabetes mellitus--Jayant Venkatramani. BMJ 2004;328:625-629 (13 March) [Link]; page 448

  101. 101 We thank Mr J F Cullen FRCS for permission to reproduce the images; page 449

  102. 102 We thank Mr J F Cullen FRCS for permission to reproduce the images; page 449

  103. 103 We thank Mr J F Cullen FRCS for permission to reproduce the images; page 449

  104. 104 We thank Mr J F Cullen FRCS for permission to reproduce the images; page 449

  105. 105 We thank Mr J F Cullen FRCS for permission to reproduce the images; page 449

  106. 106 Link no longer available; page 449

  107. 107 We thank Mr J F Cullen FRCS for permission to reproduce the images” >[Link]; page 449

  108. 108 Med J Aust. 2000 Feb 21;172(4):163-6. Laming AC. A targeted, single-dose azithromycin strategy for trachoma. [Link]; page 450

  109. 109 Trop Med Int Health. 2000 Aug;5(8):515-27. Emerson PM. Review of the evidence base for the ‘F’ and ‘E’ components of the SAFE strategy for trachoma control. [Link]; page 450

  110. 110 BMC Public Health. 2001;1(1):12. Alley WS. Macrofilaricides and onchocerciasis control, mathematical modelling of the prospects for elimination. [Link]; page 450

  111. 111 Link no longer available; page 452

  112. 112 J Fam Pract. 1998 Oct;47(4):264-70. Flynn CA. Should we patch corneal abrasions? A meta-analysis. [Link]; page 452

  113. 113 Eye. 1993;7 ( Pt 3):468-71. Kirkpatrick JN. No eye pad for corneal abrasion. [Link]; page 452

  114. 114 Med Health R I. 2000 Dec;83(12):395. Perlman EM. Patching the eye improves comfort and healing in patients with corneal abrasions. [Link]; page 452

  115. 115 Ophthalmology. 1996 Jan;103(1):152-6. Seiff SR. Hypertropia and the posterior blowout fracture: Mechanism and management. [Link]; page 453

  116. 116 RNIB shop [Link]; page 454

  117. 117 Arch Ophthalmol. 1996 Aug;114(8):933-7. Leibowitz HM. Intraocular pressure-raising potential of 1.0% rimexolone in patients responding to corticosteroids. [Link]; page 456

  118. 118 Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 1999 Feb;10(1):29-35. Rowen S. Preoperative and postoperative medications used for cataract surgery. [Link]; page 456

  119. 119 Arch Ophthalmol. 1997 Jul;115(7):847-52. Schuman JS. A 1-year study of brimonidine twice daily in glaucoma and ocular hypertension. A controlled, randomized, multicenter clinical trial. Chronic Brimonidine Study Group. [Link]; page 457

  120. 120 Link no longer available; page 459

  121. 121 Ophthalmology. 2000 Jan;107(1):112-7. Tomlinson A. Salicylate inhibition of Acanthamoeba attachment to contact lenses: a model to reduce risk of infection. [Link]; page 459

  122. 122 J Psychosom Res. 2000 Jun;48(6):589-91. Wenzel T. Psychiatric disorders in patients with blepharospasm - a reactive pattern? [Link]; page 460

  123. 123 Lancet. 2000 Oct 21;356(9239):1413. Hirayama M. Improvement of apraxia of eyelid opening by wearing goggles. [Link]; page 460

  124. 124 J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1996 Dec;98(6 Pt 1):1045-50. Hammann C. Comparison of effects of topical levocabastine and nedocromil sodium on the early response in a conjunctival provocation test with allergen. [Link]; page 460

  125. 125 Allergy. 1998 Sep;53(9):857-62. Giede-Tuch C. Azelastine eye-drops in seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or rhinoconjunctivitis. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. [Link]; page 460

  126. 126 Clin Exp Allergy. 1992 Oct;22(10):929-32. Leino M. Double-blind group comparative study of 2% nedocromil sodium eye drops with 2% sodium cromoglycate and placebo eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Medline abstract, N=185 [Link]; page 460

  127. 127 Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2000 Mar-Apr;44(2):146-50. Rohatgi J. Phlyctenular eye disease: a reappraisal.[Link]; page 460

Web-based references relating to the disc signs in footnotes, organised by page number

  • Brain Regions That Decide Where We Look [Link]; page 410

  • Outcomes of dacryocystorhinostomy in patients with head and neck tumors. Author: Diba R, Saadati H, Esmaeli B. Journal: Head Neck; 2005 Jan ; 27(1):72-5. PubMed ID: 15565560 [Link]; page 418

  • Brivudin compared with famciclovir in the treatment of herpes zoster: effects in acute disease and chronic pain in immunocompetent patients. A randomized, double-blind, multinational study. Author: Wassilew S. Journal: J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2005 Jan ; 19(1):47-55. PubMed ID: 15649191[Link]; page 420

  • The use of gabapentin for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Author: Singh D, Kennedy DH. Journal: Clin Ther; 2003 Mar ; 25(3):852-89. PubMed ID: 12852705 [Link]; page 420

  • Amblyopia [Link]; page 422

  • Ahmed, H. U. BMJ 2002;324:962 ( 20 April ) A case of mistaken muscles. [Link]; page 422

  • Agonists and synergists [Link]; page 423

  • Neurophysiol Clin. 1999 Jun;29(3):255-62.Neurophysiological evaluation of areflexia in Holmes-Adie syndrome. Martinelli P [Link]; page 424

  • Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 2003;74:150-153 The deep tendon and the abdominal reflexes--J P R Dick [Link]; page 424

  • Chronic cough in the Holmes-Adie syndrome: association in five cases with autonomic dysfunction. Author: Kimber J, Mitchell D, Mathias CJ. Journal: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 1998 Oct ; 65(4):583-6. PubMed ID: 9771793 [Link]; page 424

  • A direct brainstem-amygdala-cortical ‘alarm’ system for subliminal signals of fear. Author: Liddell BJ, Brown KJ, Kemp AH, Barton MJ, Das P, Peduto A, Gordon E, Williams LM. Journal: Neuroimage; 2005 Jan 1 ; 24(1):235-43. PubMed ID: 15588615 [Link]; page 428

  • Cornea. 2000 May;19(3):393-4. Watts P. Tarantula keratouveitis. [Link]; page 430

  • Ocular vasculitis: a multidisciplinary approach. Journal: Curr Opin Rheumatol; 2005 Jan ; 17(1):25-33. PubMed ID: 15604901. [Link]; page 432

  • Bacterial keratitis in Christchurch, New Zealand, 1997-;2001. Author: Hall RC, McKellar MJ. Journal: Clin Experiment Ophthalmol; 2004 Oct ; 32(5):478-81. PubMed ID: 15498058 [Link]; page 433

  • Abdominal cramp as an adverse effect of travoprost. Author: Lee YC. Journal: Am J Ophthalmol; 2005 Jan ; 139(1):202-3. PubMed ID: 15652856 [Link]; page 440

  • Revisiting the Importance of Disc Size. Peter E. Libre, MD, Norwalk, Conn. [Link]; page 441

  • A retrospective study of endophtalmitis rates comparing quinolone antibiotics. Author: Jensen MK, Fiscella RG, Crandall AS, Moshirfar M, Mooney B, Wallin T, Olson RJ. Journal: Am J Ophthalmol; 2005 Jan ; 139(1):141-8. PubMed ID: 15652838. [Link]; page 442

  • Retinal detachment with macular holes in infants with retinopathy of prematurity. Author: Ahmad OF, Hirose T. Journal: Arch Ophthalmol; 2005 Jan ; 123(1):54-7. PubMed ID: 15642812 [Link]; page 445

  • Risks of progression of retinopathy and vision loss related to tight blood pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus: UKPDS 69. Author: Matthews DR, Stratton IM, Aldington SJ, Holman RR, Kohner EM, UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group . Journal: Arch Ophthalmol; 2004 Nov ; 122(11):1631-40. PubMed ID: 15534123 [Link]; page 446

  • Medicine (Baltimore). 2000 Sep;79(5):283-92. Gonzalez-Gay MA. Visual manifestations of giant cell arteritis. Trends and clinical spectrum in 161 patients. [Link]; page 448

  • Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2000 Dec;75(12):831-4 (Spanish). Peris Martinez C. [Amaurosis fugax as the early manifestation of orbital schwannoma] [Link]; page 448

  • Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 1999 May;39(5):577-80 (Japanese). Izumi Y. [A case of giant meningioma that induced visual changes similar to those observed in amaurosis fugax in an early stage of disease][Link]; page 448

  • Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1999 Apr;77(2):224-6. McKibbin M. Recurrent amaurosis fugax without haemodynamically significant ipsilateral carotid stenosis. [Link]; page 448

  • Cornea. 2000 May;19(3):393-4. Watts P. Tarantula keratouveitis. [Link]; page 448

  • Link no longer avalable; page 448

  • TA \c 14 \l “PAGE 11 Medicine (Baltimore). 2000 Sep;79(5):283-92. Gonzalez-Gay MA. Visual manifestations of giant cell arteritis. Trends and clinical spectrum in 161 patients.[Link]; page 448

  • J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1998 Jul;65(1):131-2. Cates CA. Transient monocular visual loss due to uveitis-glaucoma-hyphaema (UGH) syndrome. [Link]; page 448

  • Trends in contact lens-related corneal ulcers. Author: Mah-Sadorra JH, Yavuz SG, Najjar DM, Laibson PR, Rapuano CJ, Cohen EJ. Journal: Cornea; 2005 Jan ; 24(1):51-8. PubMed ID: 15604867. [Link]; page 458

  • Health-related quality of life in blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm. Author: Reimer J, Gilg K, Karow A, Esser J, Franke GH. Journal: Acta Neurol Scand; 2005 Jan ; 111(1):64-70. PubMed ID: 15595940. Abstract: Reimer J, Gilg K, Karow A, Esser J, Franke GH. [Link]; page 460

  • The effect of hinge position and depth plate on the rate of recovery of corneal sensation following LASIK. Author: Nassaralla BA, McLeod SD, Boteon JE, Nassaralla JJ. Journal: Am J Ophthalmol; 2005 Jan ; 139(1):118-24. PubMed ID: 15652836 [Link]; page 464

Chapter 06: Primary care

  1. 1 What is Health Promotion? [Link]; page 470

  2. 2 John Stone (b. 1936) A poet, essayist, cardiologist, and lecturer, John Henry Stone--John Stone is a former professor of medicine, associate dean... [Link]; page 470

  3. 3 European definition of General Practice/Family Medicine. Academic review and analysis - The core competencies [Link]; page 471

  4. 4 UK DoH Nov 2004 [Link]; page 472

  5. 5 UK government statistics [Link]; page 472

  6. 6 BMJ. 2002 Jun 8;324(7350):1347-8. Pencheon D. Intermediate care. [Link]; page 472

  7. 7 Health Serv J. 2002 May 9;112(5804):22-4. Robinson J. Bed-blocking. Discharge of the late brigade.[Link]; page 472

  8. 8 Developing intermediate care provided by general practitioners with a special interest: the economic perspective. Author: Kernick DP. Journal: Br J Gen Pract; 2003 Jul ; 53(492):553-6. PubMed ID: 14694670. [Link]; page 472

  9. 9 J Am Soc Nephrol. 1998 Dec;9(12 Suppl):S141-4. Latham CE. Is there data to support the concept that educated, empowered patients have better outcomes? [Link]; page 473

  10. 10 Respir Care. 1994 May;39(5):566-79; discussion 579-83. Make B. Collaborative self-management strategies for patients with respiratory disease. [Link]; page 473

  11. 11 Med Inform (Lond). 1996 Oct-Dec;21(4):297-316. Albisser AM. Diabetes intervention in the information age. [Link]; page 473

  12. 12 Br J Community Nurs. 2002 Feb;7(2):90-3. Picton C. Maintaining and developing competencies in nurse prescribing. [Link]; page 474

  13. 13 BMJ. 2002 Apr 6;324(7341):819-23. Horrocks S. Systematic review of whether nurse practitioners working in primary care can provide equivalent care to doctors. [Link]; page 474

  14. 14 BMJ. 2000 Apr 15;320(7241):1043-8. Kinnersley P. Randomised controlled trial of nurse practitioner versus general practitioner care for patients requesting “same day” consultations in primary care. [Link]; page 474

  15. 15 E Wilkinson 2005 Matrons plan ‘will not cust admissions’ [Link]; page 474

  16. 16 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(1):CD001025. Bower P. Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of counselling in primary care. [Link]; page 474

  17. 17 BMJ 2002;325:687. Patients’ perceptions of entitlement to time in general practice consultations for depression: qualitative study [Link]; page 476

  18. 18 Evolving general practice consultation in Britain: issues of length and context [Link]; page 476

  19. 19 Telephone consultations to manage requests for same-day appointments: a randomised controlled trial in two practices. Author: McKinstry B, Walker J, Campbell C, Heaney D, Wyke S. Journal: Br J Gen Pract; 2002 Apr ; 52(477):306-10. PubMed ID: 11942448 [Link]; page 477

  20. 20 Axone. 1996 Mar;17(3):60-5. Rohs G. Progressive supranuclear palsy: managing the disabilities and providing nursing support. [Link]; page 477

  21. 21 Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 2002 Jun;14(2):215-7. Basile CM. Patient and community education in advance directives. [Link]; page 477

  22. 22 P Tate 2000 Practit 244 904; page 478

  23. 23 BMJ 2004;328:441 (21 February), doi:10.1136/bmj.37999.716157.44 Little, P. || Kendrick, T. Randomised controlled trial of effect of leaflets to empower patients in consultations in primary care Paul Little [Link]; page 478

  24. 24 BMJ 2001;322:444-445 ( 24 February )Towards a global definition of patient centred care. The patient should be the judge of patient centred care [Link]; page 478

  25. 25 Patients decide how low they go, not targets [Link]; page 478

  26. 26 JRCGP 1979 29 201; page 478

  27. 27 Lancet. 1996 Oct 5;348(9032):941-3 Evidence in consultations: interpreted and individualised. Sullivan FM [Link]; page 479

  28. 28 A Johnstone Int J Sci Ed 15 663; page 479

  29. 29 Lancet. 1995 Apr 22;345(8956):1032-4. Lancet. 1995 Jul 29;346(8970):313.Lancet. 1995 Jun 3;345(8962):1440-1. How can we test clinical reasoning? van der Vleuten CP [Link]; page 479

  30. 30 Lancet. 1995 Apr 22;345(8956):1032-4. Lancet. 1995 Jul 29;346(8970):313.Lancet. 1995 Jun 3;345(8962):1440-1. How can we test clinical reasoning? van der Vleuten CP [Link]; page 479

  31. 31 Iris Murdoch 1993 The Green Night, Penguin [Link]; page 479

  32. 32 T Greenhalgh 1996 BMJ ii 957; page 481

  33. 33 CHD NSF [Link]; page 482

  34. 34 P Bars 1998 E-BM 2 80; page 482

  35. 35 Science 2004 [Link]; page 484

  36. 36 Link no longer available; page 484

  37. 37 Link no longer available; page 484

  38. 38 Link no longer available; page 486

  39. 39 Link no longer available; page 487

  40. 40 Ugeskr Laeger. 2002 Jan 28;164(5):607-9 (Danish). Hansen LJ. [Interventions to improve the management of diabetes mellitus in primary health care and outpatient community settings] Medline abstract, Meta-analysis [Link]; page 488

  41. 41 Lancet. 1995 Oct 14;346(8981):990-4. Vierhout WP. Effectiveness of joint consultation sessions of general practitioners and orthopaedic surgeons for locomotor-system disorders. [Link]; page 488

  42. 42 Lancet. 1995 Oct 14;346(8981):990-4. Vierhout WP. Effectiveness of joint consultation sessions of general practitioners and orthopaedic surgeons for locomotor-system disorders. [Link]; page 488

  43. 43 BMJ. 2001 Oct 27;323(7319):957-62. McAlister FA. Randomised trials of secondary prevention programmes in coronary heart disease: systematic review. Medline abstract, N=874, meta-analysis[Link]; page 488

  44. 44 A 5-year randomized controlled study of learning, problem solving ability, and quality of life modifications in people with type 2 diabetes managed by group care. Author: Trento M, Passera P, Borgo E, Tomalino M, Bajardi M, Cavallo F, Porta M. Journal: Diabetes Care; 2004 Mar ; 27(3):670-5. PubMed ID: 14988283. [Link]; page 488

  45. 45 BMJ. 2001 Oct 27;323(7319):970-5. Olivarius NF. Randomised controlled trial of structured personal care of type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Link]; page 488

  46. 46 General practitioners’ use of guidelines in the consultation and their attitudes to them. Author: Watkins C, Harvey I, Langley C, Gray S, Faulkner A. Journal: Br J Gen Pract; 1999 Jan ; 49(438):11-5. PubMed ID: 10622009. [Link]; page 490

  47. 47 et menus and clinical freedom. Author: O’Dowd TC, Wilson AD. Journal: BMJ; 1991 Aug 24 ; 303(6800):450-2. PubMed ID: 1912839. [Link]; page 490

  48. 48 Clinical Guidelines RCGP Occ p 58 1992, J Grimshaw 1993 Lancet 342 1317 & Clinical Resource & Audit Group 1993 Clinical Guidelines, Scottish Office; page 490

  49. 49 he effects of regulation, competition, and ownership on mortality rates among hospital inpatients. Author: Shortell SM, Hughes EF. Journal: N Engl J Med; 1988 Apr 28 ; 318(17):1100-7. PubMed ID: 3127713. [Link]; page 490

  50. 50 JAMA. 1994 May 25;271(20):1609-14. Turner JA. The importance of placebo effects in pain treatment and research. [Link]; page 491

  51. 51 BMJ. 1994 Jul 9;309(6947):69-70. Oh VM. The placebo effect: can we use it better? [Link]; page 491

  52. 52 J Fam Pract. 2000 Jul;49(7):649-54. Brody H. The placebo response. Recent research and implications for family medicine. [Link]; page 491

  53. 53 Mosby? Guide to Physical examination. 3e Henry Siedel et al.Mosby 1995 [Link]; page 492

  54. 54 Tahseen A Chowdhury, Preventing diabetes in south Asians BMJ 2003;327:1059-1060 (8 November), doi:10.1136/bmj.327.7423.1059 [Link]; page 492

  55. 55 BMJ. 1995 Nov 25;311(7017):1439. Brafman AH. Beware of the distorting interpreter. [Link]; page 493

  56. 56 BMJ. 1998 May 16;316(7143):1476. Jones D. Breaking down language barriers. The NHS needs to provide accessible interpreting services for all. [Link]; page 493

  57. 57 Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1998 Jan 20;118(2):253-4 (Norwegian). Karlsen WB. [The telephone interpreter. A good alternative to the traditional interpreter] [Link]; page 493

  58. 58 BMJ 1995;311:555-557 How To Do It: Work with an interpreter--Michael Phelan [Link]; page 493

  59. 59 BMJ. 1996 May 18;312(7041):1274-8. Wonderling D. What can be concluded from the Oxcheck and British family heart studies: commentary on cost effectiveness analyses. [Link]; page 495

  60. 60 BMJ 1995;310:1099-1104 Effectiveness of health checks conducted by nurses in primary care: final results of the OXCHECK study [Link]; page 495

  61. 61 J Telemed Telecare. 2001;7 Suppl 2:65-7. Faulkner K. Successes and failures in videoconferencing: a community health education programme. [Link]; page 495

  62. 62 J Adolesc Health. 2001 Dec;29(6):436-46. Brieger WR. West African Youth Initiative: outcome of a reproductive health education program. [Link]; page 495

  63. 63 A 5-year randomized controlled study of learning, problem solving ability, and quality of life modifications in people with type 2 diabetes managed by group care. Author: Trento M, Passera P, Borgo E, Tomalino M, Bajardi M, Cavallo F, Porta M. Journal: Diabetes Care; 2004 Mar ; 27(3):670-5. PubMed ID: 14988283. [Link]; page 496

  64. 64 Qual Health Care. 2001 Dec;10 Suppl 2:ii70-8. Heard SR. Continuous quality improvement: educating towards a culture of clinical governance. [Link]; page 497

  65. 65 BMJ. 1998 May 16;316(7143):1521-4. Parkes CM. Facing loss. [Link]; page 499

  66. 66 Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1986 Oct 4;293(6551):835-6. McAvoy BR. Death after bereavement. [Link]; page 499

  67. 67 BMJ. 1988 Oct 8;297(6653):907-9. Maguire P. Communicate with cancer patients: 1. Handling bad news and difficult questions. [Link]; page 499

  68. 68 CMAJ. 1997 Apr 15;156(8):1159-64. Garg A. Teaching medical students how to break bad news.[Link]; page 499

  69. 69 F Sullivan E-BM 1 96; page 502

  70. 70 Quality and the New UK GP contract [Link]; page 502

  71. 71 I Purves 1998 JRCGP 48 1552; M Johnston 1994 Arch Int Med 120 135 PRODIGY: implementing clinical guidance using computers. Purves IN. Br J Gen Pract; 1998 Sep ; 48(434):1552-3. PubMed ID: 9830177; page 502

  72. 72 AskMEDLINE: Paul Fontelo 2005 [Link]; page 504

  73. 73 J R Coll Surg Edinb. 2000 Apr;45(2):71-3. McKay AJ. Revalidation: the catalyst for change in continuing professional development? [Link]; page 508

  74. 74 Development of a questionnaire to assess patients’ satisfaction with consultations in general practice. Author: Baker R. Journal: Br J Gen Pract; 1990 Dec ; 40(341):487-90. PubMed ID: 2282225[Link]; page 510

  75. 75 B Billinghurst 1993 BJGP 43 336; page 510

  76. 76 Characteristics of physicians with participatory decision-making styles. Author: Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Gandek B, Rogers WH, Ware JE. Journal: Ann Intern Med; 1996 Mar 1 ; 124(5):497-504. PubMed ID: 8602709. [Link]; page 510

  77. 77 Smoking cessation: evidence based recommendations for the healthcare system. Editorial by Coleman et al [Link]; page 512

  78. 78 BMJ 1999;318:285-289. Nicotine nasal spray with nicotine patch for smoking cessation: randomised trial with six year follow up. Thorsteinn Blondal [Link]; page 512

  79. 79 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(1):CD000031. Related Articles, Books, LinkOut Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(2):CD000031. Update of: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(4):CD000031. Antidepressants for smoking cessation. Hughes JR [Link]; page 512

  80. 80 P Frid 2002 EBM 7 61” >[Link]; page 513

  81. 81 J Gaziano 1995 BMJ 311 3 [Link]; page 513

  82. 82 Alcohol as a key area. Anderson P.BMJ; 1991 Sep 28 ; 303(6805):766-8. PubMed ID: 1932941[Link]; page 513

  83. 83 Effectiveness of general practice interventions for patients with harmful alcohol consumption. Author: Anderson P. Journal: Br J Gen Pract; 1993 Sep ; 43(374):386-9. PubMed ID: 8251237. [Link]; page 513

  84. 84 Effectiveness of general practice interventions for patients with harmful alcohol consumption. Author: Anderson P. Journal: Br J Gen Pract; 1993 Sep ; 43(374):386-9. PubMed ID: 8251237. [Link]; page 513

  85. 85 A follow-up survey of alcohol consumption and knowledge in medical students.Author: Granville-Chapman JE, Yu K, White PD.Journal: Alcohol Alcohol; 2001 Nov-Dec ; 36(6):540-3. PubMed ID: 11704619 [Link]; page 513

  86. 86 dentifying three types of violent offenders and predicting violent recidivism while on probation: a classification tree analysis. Author: Stalans LJ, Yarnold PR, Seng M, Olson DE, Repp M. Journal: Law Hum Behav; 2004 Jun ; 28(3):253-71. PubMed ID: 15264446. [Link]; page 514

  87. 87 Violent Women, Blame Attribution, Crime, and Personality G. Weizmann-Henelius [Link]; page 514

  88. 88 T Graves Responsibility for Violence [Link]; page 514

  89. 89 DoH 1998 Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths, Chapter 13; page 514

  90. 90 A Sandell 1998 Oxford Handbook of Patient? Welfare; page 514

  91. 91 Predicting future injury among women in abusive relationships. Author: Crandall ML, Nathens AB, Kernic MA, Holt VL, Rivara FP. Journal: J Trauma; 2004 Apr ; 56(4):906-12; discussion 912. PubMed ID: 15187761. [Link]; page 514

  92. 92 Parent-child interaction therapy with physically abusive parents: efficacy for reducing future abuse reports.Author: Chaffin M, Silovsky JF, Funderburk B, Valle LA, Brestan EV, Balachova T, Jackson S, Lensgraf J, Bonner BL.Journal: J Consult Clin Psychol; 2004 Jun ; 72(3):500-10. PubMed ID: 15279533. [Link]; page 514

  93. 93 J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2003 Feb;84(2-3):259-68. Comparison of hormonal activity (estrogen, androgen and progestin) of standardized plant extracts for large scale use in hormone replacement therapy. Beck V [Link]; page 515

  94. 94 Remifemin site--AND W Stoll 1987 Therapeutikon 1-15 [Link]; page 515

  95. 95 Int J Fertil Womens Med. 2003 Mar-Apr;48(2):64-8. Alternatives to HRT: an evidence-based review.Taylor M. [Link]; page 515

  96. 96 The management of minor illness by general practitioners.Whitehouse CR, Hodgkin P. J R Coll Gen Pract; 1985 Dec ; 35(281):581-3. PubMed ID: 4093903 [Link]; page 517

  97. 97 Curing minor illness in general practice. Marsh GN. Br Med J; 1977 Nov 12 ; 2(6097):1267-9. PubMed ID: 589134[Link]; page 517

  98. 98 Management of minor illness. Morrell DC, Avery AJ, Watkins CJ. Br Med J; 1980 Mar 15 ; 280(6216):769-71. PubMed ID: 7370651 [Link]; page 517

  99. 99 P Howie 1997 RCGP Occ Pap 75 [no link]; page 517

  100. 100 Drug Ther Bull. 2000 Sep;38(9):65-8. Drugs for the doctor’s bag revisited. [Link]; page 518

  101. 101 Pharmacoeconomics. 2001;19(10):973-82. Hensley PL. Formulary restriction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for depression: potential pitfalls. [Link]; page 519

  102. 102 Health Care Anal. 1998 Jun;6(2):123-30. Foster P. From compliance to concordance: a challenge for contraceptive prescribers. [Link]; page 519

  103. 103 Ann Intern Med. 2000 Jun 6;132(11):903-10. Astin JA. The efficacy of “distant healing”: a systematic review of randomized trials. [Link]; page 520

  104. 104 Ann Intern Med. 2000 Jun 6;132(11):903-10. Astin JA. The efficacy of “distant healing”: a systematic review of randomized trials. [Link]; page 520

  105. 105 J Pers Soc Psychol. 2001 Oct;81(4):627-38. Amato PR. The legacy of parents’ marital discord: consequences for children’s marital quality. [Link]; page 522

  106. 106 Disability living allowance [Link]; page 522

  107. 107 Soc Sci Med. 2002 Jan;54(2):255-66. Allen P. A socio-legal and economic analysis of contracting in the NHS internal market using a case study of contracting for district nursing. [Link]; page 524

  108. 108 Understanding variation for clinical governance: an illustration using the diagnosis and treatment of sore throat. Author: Marshall T, Mohammed MA, Lim HT. Journal: Br J Gen Pract; 2002 Apr ; 52(477):277-83. PubMed ID: 11942443. [Link]; page 525

  109. 109 Example of PCO bugeting [Link]; page 525

  110. 110 [Link]; page 527

  111. 111 Cardiol Rev. 2002 Jan-Feb;10(1):15-23. Lim PO. Vascular mechanisms of sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, including blood pressure responses to exercise. [Link]; page 527

  112. 112 J Heart Lung Transplant. 2000 Dec;19(12):1209-18. King ML. The hemodynamic effects of isotonic exercise using hand-held weights in patients with heart failure. [Link]; page 527

  113. 113 Link no longer available; page 528

  114. 114 The 47 patients with CFS had higher numbers of apoptotic neutrophils, lower numbers of viable neutrophils, increased annexin V binding, and increased expression of the death receptor, tumour necrosis factor receptor-I, on their neutrophils than did the 34 healthy controls. Patients with CFS also had raised concentrations of active TGFbeta1 (p < 0.005). [Link]; page 528

  115. 115 Scand J Work Environ Health. 1997;23 Suppl 3:17-34. Wessely S. Chronic fatigue syndrome: a 20th century illness? [Link]; page 528

  116. 116 Randomised controlled trial of patient education to encourage graded exercise in chronic fatigue syndrome. Pauline Powell Medline abstract, N=148 [Link]; page 528

  117. 117 BMJ. 2000 Jan 29;320(7230):292-6. Reid S. Chronic fatigue syndrome. [Link]; page 528

  118. 118 Link no longer available; page 528

  119. 119 Weight gain may be worse than being too heavy [Link]; page 530

  120. 120 Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Jul;25(7):1095-9. Cavaliere H. Gastrointestinal side effects of orlistat may be prevented by concomitant prescription of natural fibers (psyllium mucilloid). [Link]; page 530

  121. 121 Health Technol Assess. 2001;5(18):1-81. O’Meara S. A rapid and systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of orlistat in the management of obesity. Medline abstract, meta-analysis [Link]; page 530

  122. 122 J Fam Pract. 2001 Jun;50(6):505-12. Smith IG. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of long-term treatment with sibutramine in mild to moderate obesity. Medline abstract, N=485 [Link]; page 530

  123. 123 Long-term benefits of rimonabant announced in two-year study Date Published 10/11/2004 [Link]; page 530

  124. 124 Excess Deaths Associated With Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity Katherine M. Flegal, PhD; Barry I. Graubard, PhD; David F. Williamson, PhD; Mitchell H. Gail, MD, PhD. JAMA. 2005;293:1861-1867 [Link]; page 531

  125. 125 Lancet. 2002 Jan 5;359(9300):46-7. Resistin, central obesity, and type 2 diabetes. McTernan CL[Link]; page 531

  126. 126 JAMA. 2000 Aug 23-30;284(8):1021-7. Levinson W. A study of patient clues and physician responses in primary care and surgical settings. Medline abstract, N=116 [Link]; page 532

  127. 127 Med J Aust. 1992 Dec 7-21;157(11-12):764-8. Cox K. What doctors need to know. A note on professional performance. [Link]; page 533

Web-based references relating to the disc signs in footnotes, organised by page number

  • Existentialism [Link]; page 471

  • Walsh B. BMJ 2005;330:699 (26 March) Economic evaluation of nurse led intermediate care versus standard care for post-acute medical patients: cost minimisation analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial [Link]; page 472

  • Consultation rates from the general practice research database. Author: Rowlands S, Moser K. Journal: Br J Gen Pract; 2002 Aug ; 52(481):658-60. PubMed ID: 12171226 [Link]; page 476

  • Lancet April 2003; 361: 1149-1158 [Link]; page 482

  • HPS; Title: Effects of cholesterol-lowering with simvastatin on stroke and other major vascular events in 20536 people with cerebrovascular disease or other high-risk conditions. Author: Collins R, Armitage J, Parish S, Sleight P, Peto R, Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group .Journal: Lancet; 2004 Mar 6 ; 363(9411):757-67. PubMed ID: 15016485 [Link]; page 482

  • Protecting the heart: a practical review of the statin studies. Author: Ong HT. Journal: MedGenMed; 2002 Dec 10 ; 4(4):1. PubMed ID: 12817199. [Link]; page 482

  • Primary prevention of acute coronary events with lovastatin in men and women with average cholesterol levels: results of AFCAPS/TexCAPS. Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study. Author: Downs JR, Clearfield M, Weis S, Whitney E, Shapiro DR, Beere PA, Langendorfer A, Stein EA, Kruyer W, Gotto AM. Journal: JAMA; 1998 May 27 ; 279(20):1615-22. PubMed ID: 9613910. [Link]; page 482

  • Population-based multidimensional assessment of older people in UK general practice: a cluster-randomised factorial trial. Author: Fletcher AE, Price GM, Ng ES, Stirling SL, Bulpitt CJ, Breeze E, Nunes M, Jones DA, Latif A, Fasey NM, Vickers MR, Tulloch AJ. Journal: Lancet; 2004 Nov 6 ; 364(9446):1667-77. PubMed ID: 15530627 [Link]; page 486

  • Neil C Campbell points 2004 BMJ 329 523-524 [Link]; page 490

  • M Proust SCG [Link]; page 498

  • J Am Soc Nephrol. 1998 Dec;9(12 Suppl):S141-4. Latham CE. Is there data to support the concept that educated, empowered patients have better outcomes? [Link]; page 517

  • Qual Lett Healthc Lead. 1998 Aug;10(8):2-10. Zablocki E. A new resource: empowered patients. [Link]; page 517

  • Respir Care. 1994 May;39(5):566-79; discussion 579-83. Make B. Collaborative self-management strategies for patients with respiratory disease. [Link]; page 517

  • Sageman S.Journal: J Am Acad Psychoanal Dyn Psychiatry; 2004 Spring ; 32(1):125-41 [Link]; page 520

  • www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/320/7242/1148/b” >[Link]; page 526

  • Arch Dis Child. 1993 May;68(5):684-5. Kemp AM. Epilepsy in children and the risk of drowning. [Link]; page 527

  • Pacing [Link]; page 528

Chapter 07: ENT

  1. 1 The prevalence of ear, nose and throat problems in the community: results from a national cross-sectional postal survey in Scotland. Author: Hannaford PC, Simpson JA, Bisset AF, Davis A, McKerrow W, Mills R. Journal: Fam Pract; 2005 Jun ; 22(3):227-33. PubMed ID: 15772117 [Link]; page 536

  2. 2 Prevalence of nasal polyposis in France: a cross-sectional, case-control study. Author: Klossek JM, Neukirch F, Pribil C, Jankowski R, Serrano E, Chanal I, El Hasnaoui A. Journal: Allergy; 2005 Feb ; 60(2):233-7. PubMed ID: 15647046 [Link]; page 536

  3. 3 eMedicine Benign ear tumours. Chondrodermatitis. [Link]; page 538

  4. 4 Medtronics [Link]; page 538

  5. 5 Effective treatment of chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis using a conservative approach. Moncrieff M, Sassoon EM. Journal: Br J Dermatol; 2004 May ; 150(5):892-4. PubMed ID: 15149500[Link]; page 538

  6. 6 Chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis. Author: Zuber TJ, Jackson E. Journal: Arch Fam Med; 1999 Sep-Oct ; 8(5):445-7. PubMed ID: 10500520 [Link]; page 538

  7. 7 Interventions for acute auricular haematoma. Author: Jones SE, Mahendran S. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2004 ; (2):CD004166. PubMed ID: 15106240 [Link]; page 538

  8. 8 Ear drops for the removal of ear wax. Author: Burton MJ, Dorée CJ. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2003 ; (3):CD004400. PubMed ID: 12918014 [Link]; page 538

  9. 9 The effectiveness of topical preparations for the treatment of earwax: a systematic review. Author: Hand C, Harvey I. Journal: Br J Gen Pract; 2004 Nov ; 54(508):862-7. PubMed ID: 15527615 [Link]; page 538

  10. 10 Water as a fast acting wax softening agent before ear syringing. Author: Pavlidis C, Pickering JA. Journal: Aust Fam Physician; 2005 Apr ; 34(4):303-4. PubMed ID: 15861762 [Link]; page 538

  11. 11 Trends of ear syringing at Ibadan, Nigeria. Author: Ogunleye AO, Awobem AA. Journal: Afr J Med Med Sci; 2004 Mar ; 33(1):35-7. PubMed ID: 15490792 [Link]; page 538

  12. 12 The potential pitfalls of ear syringing. Minimising the risks. Author: Bird S. Journal: Aust Fam Physician; 2003 Mar ; 32(3):150-1. PubMed ID: 12666354 [Link]; page 538

  13. 13 Trends of ear syringing at Ibadan, Nigeria. Author: Ogunleye AO, Awobem AA. Journal: Afr J Med Med Sci; 2004 Mar ; 33(1):35-7. PubMed ID: 15490792 [Link]; page 538

  14. 14 Aural foreign bodies. Author: Mishra A, Shukla GK, Bhatia N. Journal: Indian J Pediatr; 2000 Apr ; 67(4):267-9. PubMed ID: 10878867. [Link]; page 539

  15. 15 Image kindly supplied by Michael Saunders, FRCS; page 539

  16. 16 Image kindly supplied by Michael Saunders, FRCS; page 539

  17. 17 Image kindly supplied by Michael Saunders, FRCS; page 539

  18. 18 Image kindly supplied by Michael Saunders, FRCS; page 539

  19. 19 Image kindly supplied by Michael Saunders, FRCS; page 539

  20. 20 Image kindly supplied by Michael Saunders, FRCS; page 539

  21. 21 Image kindly supplied by Michael Saunders, FRCS; page 539

  22. 22 Image kindly supplied by Michael Saunders, FRCS; page 539

  23. 23 Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 1989 Dec;14(6):535-7. Clinical masking with tragal rubbing and the Barany noise-box. Swan IR [Link]; page 540

  24. 24 Developmental Verbal Dyspraxia [Link]; page 541

  25. 25 Gebski v 2005 BMJ 331 659. Randamised trial of stuttering. [Link]; page 541

  26. 26 Clinical evidence [Link]; page 542

  27. 27 Aviat Space Environ Med. 1998 Jan;69(1):45-9. Stangerup SE. Point prevalence of barotitis in children and adults after flight, and effect of autoinflation. [Link]; page 542

  28. 28 Int J Prosthodont. 1999 May-Jun;12(3):279-88. Molin C. From bite to mind: TMD--a personal and literature review. [Link]; page 542

  29. 29 Mood spectrum in patients with different painful temporomandibular disorders. Author: Manfredini D, di Poggio AB, Romagnoli M, Dell’Osso L, Bosco M. Journal: Cranio; 2004 Jul ; 22(3):234-40. PubMed ID: 15293779 [Link]; page 542

  30. 30 Temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome: a close association with systemic joint laxity (the hypermobile joint syndrome. Author: Buckingham RB, Braun T, Harinstein DA, Oral K, Bauman D, Bartynski W, Killian PJ, Bidula LP. Journal: Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol; 1991 Nov ; 72(5):514-9. PubMed ID: 1745506 [Link]; page 542

  31. 31 Topical versus systemic diclofenac in the treatment of temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction symptoms. Author: Di Rienzo Businco L, Di Rienzo Businco A, D’Emilia M, Lauriello M, Coen Tirelli G. Journal: Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital; 2004 Oct ; 24(5):279-83. PubMed ID: 15871609 [Link]; page 542

  32. 32 Treatment outcome of appliance therapy in temporomandibular disorder patients with myofascial pain after 6 and 12 months. Author: Ekberg E, Nilner M. Journal: Acta Odontol Scand; 2004 Dec ; 62(6):343-9. PubMed ID: 15848979 [Link]; page 542

  33. 33 J Orofac Pain. 1999 Winter;13(1):29-37. Crider AB. A meta-analysis of EMG biofeedback treatment of temporomandibular disorders. [Link]; page 542

  34. 34 Antibiotics for otitis media with effusion. Author: Mandel EM, Casselbrant ML. Journal: Minerva Pediatr; 2004 Oct ; 56(5):481-95. PubMed ID: 15459573 [Link]; page 544

  35. 35 Mike Sharland (St Georges) reported by C Pedded 2005: BMJ and Pulse May 7 2005 page 4 [Link]; page 544

  36. 36 Behaviour and cognitive outcomes from middle ear disease. Author: Bennett KE, Haggard MP. Journal: Arch Dis Child; 1999 Jan ; 80(1):28-35. PubMed ID: 10325755 [Link]; page 546

  37. 37 Lancet. 1995 Jan 7;345(8941):3-4. Glue ear: prescribe, operate, or wait?. Couriel JM [Link]; page 546

  38. 38 F van Balen 1996 Lancet 348 713 & EBM 1997 41; No link; page 546

  39. 39 Does ENT outpatient review at 1-week post ventilation tube insertion improve outcome at 1 month in paediatric patients? Author: Wallace HC, Newbegin CJ. Journal: Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci; 2004 Dec ; 29(6):595-7. PubMed ID: 15533143. [Link]; page 546

  40. 40 Arch Dis Child. 2001 Aug;85(2):91-5. Bennett KE. Behaviour and developmental effects of otitis media with effusion into the teens. Medline abstract, n>1000 [Link]; page 546

  41. 41 Lakartidningen. 1999 Mar 10;96(10):1166-8 (Swedish). Hergils L. [A new method for detecting congenital hearing disorders. Infants are screened by measuring otoacoustic emissions] [Link]; page 548

  42. 42 J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 1999;10(3):191-200. Olsha M. Otological evaluation of newborns who failed otoacoustic emission screening. [Link]; page 548

  43. 43 Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2001 Apr;124(4):359-67. Kezirian EJ. Cost and cost-effectiveness of universal screening for hearing loss in newborns. [Link]; page 548

  44. 44 J Am Acad Audiol. 2001 Feb;12(2):101-12. Gorga MP. Some issues relevant to establishing a universal newborn hearing screening program. [Link]; page 548

  45. 45 Pediatr Clin North Am. 1999 Feb;46(1):95-105. Stein LK. Factors influencing the efficacy of universal newborn hearing screening. [Link]; page 548

  46. 46 Ear Hear. 2000 Oct;21(5):508-28. Norton SJ. Identification of neonatal hearing impairment: evaluation of transient evoked otoacoustic emission, distortion product otoacoustic emission, and auditory brain stem response test performance. [Link]; page 548

  47. 47 G O’Donoghue 1996 Health Trends 28 106; No link; page 549

  48. 48 Archives of Disease in Childhood 2003;88:24 Archivist--Choosing deafness [Link]; page 549

  49. 49 Retrospective analysis of our cases with sudden hearing loss. Author: Kiriş M, Cankaya H, Içli M, Kutluhan A. Journal: J Otolaryngol; 2003 Dec ; 32(6):384-7. PubMed ID: 14967084 [Link]; page 550

  50. 50 Hyperbaric oxygen for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus. Author: Bennett M, Kertesz T, Yeung P. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005 ; (1):CD004739. PubMed ID: 15674964 [Link]; page 550

  51. 51 Tucci D 2002 Otol Neurotol 23 301 PMID 11981385; No link; page 551

  52. 52 Laryngoscope. 1998 Mar;108(3):305-10. Related Articles, Cited in PMC, Books, LinkOut Effect of melatonin on tinnitus. Rosenberg SI [Link]; page 552

  53. 53 A practical approach to dizziness [Link]; page 554

  54. 54 Delayed vertigo after stapes surgery.Author: Albera R, Canale A, Lacilla M, Cavalot AL, Ferrero V. Journal: Laryngoscope; 2004 May ; 114(5):860-2. PubMed ID: 15126744 [Link]; page 555

  55. 55 Academic Emergency Medicine 2004 11 918-24. There are good sites to understand Epley head manouevres in detail. [Link]; page 555

  56. 56 Benitez HH 2005 Alerg Mex 52, 90 PMID 16158782 and PMID 15984591â€Ã‚�>[Link]; page 556

  57. 57 BMJ. 2002 Jan 19;324(7330):144-6. Schapowal A. Randomised controlled trial of butterbur and cetirizine for treating seasonal allergic rhinitis. Medline abstract, N=125 [Link]; page 556

  58. 58 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(4):CD001563. Sheikh A. House dust mite avoidance measures for perennial allergic rhinitis. [Link]; page 557

  59. 59 Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2001 Mar;10(3):547-60. Agrawal DK. Pharmacology and clinical efficacy of desloratadine as an anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory drug. [Link]; page 557

  60. 60 Allergy. 2002 Apr;57(4):346-50. van Steekelenburg J. Comparison of five new antihistamines (H1-receptor antagonists) in patients with allergic rhinitis using nasal provocation studies and skin tests.[Link]; page 557

  61. 61 Prevalence of nasal polyposis in France: a cross-sectional, case-control study. Author: Klossek JM, Neukirch F, Pribil C, Jankowski R, Serrano E, Chanal I, El Hasnaoui A. Journal: Allergy; 2005 Feb ; 60(2):233-7. PubMed ID: 15647046. [Link]; page 557

  62. 62 Nasal polyps [Link]; page 558

  63. 63 Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000 Aug;106(2):266-73. Rohrich RJ. Nasal fracture management: minimizing secondary nasal deformities. [Link]; page 558

  64. 64 Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1996 Dec;122(12):1373-6. Canty PA. Hematoma and abscess of the nasal septum in children. [Link]; page 558

  65. 65 Pediatr Rev. 1998 Apr;19(4):142-3. Ginsburg CM. Nasal septal hematoma. Medline abstract, n=20[Link]; page 558

  66. 66 Am J Emerg Med. 1997 Jan;15(1):54-6. Kadish HA. Removal of nasal foreign bodies in the pediatric population. Medline abstract, n=60 [Link]; page 558

  67. 67 Ear Nose Throat J. 2000 Jul;79(7):520-3. Kriskovich MD. Nasal septal perforation: a rare extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn’s disease. [Link]; page 558

  68. 68 Relapsing polychondritis: a rare disease with varying symptoms. Author: Peebo BB, Peebo M, Frennesson C. Journal: Acta Ophthalmol Scand; 2004 Aug ; 82(4):472-5. PubMed ID: 15291945.[Link]; page 558

  69. 69 J Laryngol Otol. 1999 Aug;113(8):728-33. Foda HM. The one-stage rhinoplasty septal perforation repair. Medline abstract, n=20 [Link]; page 558

  70. 70 Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 1993 Jul-Aug;13(4):319-31 (Italian). Altissimi G. [Epistaxis and climatic events]. Medline abstract, n=1064 [Link]; page 560

  71. 71 Clin Otolaryngol. 1995 Apr;20(2):174-7. McGarry GW. Idiopathic epistaxis, haemostasis and alcohol. Medline abstract, n=50 [Link]; page 560

  72. 72 J Laryngol Otol. 1993 Mar;107(3):195-6. Denholm SW. Warfarin and epistaxis--a case controlled study. [Link]; page 560

  73. 73 J Laryngol Otol. 2000 Jan;114(1):38-40. Thaha MA. Routine coagulation screening in the management of emergency admission for epistaxis--is it necessary? Medline abstract, n=140 [Link]; page 560

  74. 74 J Laryngol Otol. 1987 Feb;101(2):139-42. John DG. Who should treat epistaxis? Medline abstract, n=75 [Link]; page 560

  75. 75 J Laryngol Otol. 1993 Feb;107(2):140-1. Davis JP. Respiratory obstruction associated with the use of the Brighton epistaxis balloon. [Link]; page 561

  76. 76 Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993 Oct;109(4):722-5. Cannon CR. Effective treatment protocol for posterior epistaxis: a 10-year experience. [Link]; page 561

  77. 77 Br J Radiol. 1998 Aug;71(848):846-51. Bernhardt TM. CT scanning of the paranasal sinuses: axial helical CT with reconstruction in the coronal direction versus coronal helical CT. [Link]; page 562

  78. 78 Radiol Med (Torino). 1996 Jul-Aug;92(1-2):28-32 (Italian). Sartoni Galloni S. [Paranasal sinusitis: study with conventional and spiral computerized tomography] [Link]; page 562

  79. 79 Lancet. 1997 Mar 8;349(9053):683-7. van Buchem FL. Primary-care-based randomised placebo-controlled trial of antibiotic treatment in acute maxillary sinusitis. Medline abstract, N=214 [Link]; page 562

  80. 80 Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2000;257(5):247-50. Molony NC. A survey of contemporary management of frontal sinus disease in the United Kingdom. [Link]; page 562

  81. 81 Postoperative care following endoscopic sinus surgery. Author: Jorissen M. Journal: Rhinology; 2004 Sep ; 42(3):114-20. PubMed ID: 15521662 [Link]; page 562

  82. 82 Functional endoscopic sinus surgery: 5 year follow up and results of a prospective, randomised, stratified, double-blind, placebo controlled study of postoperative fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray. Author: Rowe-Jones JM, Medcalf M, Durham SR, Richards DH, Mackay IS. Journal: Rhinology; 2005 Mar ; 43(1):2-10. PubMed ID: 15844495 [Link]; page 562

  83. 83 Medtronics Sinus anatomy (after Medtronics, by kind permission) [Link]; page 563

  84. 84 Evidence based indications for tonsillectomy--Author: Wolfensberger M, Mund MT. Journal: Ther Umsch; 2004 May ; 61(5):325-8. PubMed ID: 15195718. [Link]; page 564

  85. 85 Implementation by Scottish otolaryngologists of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network document Management of Sore Throats and the Indications for Tonsillectomy: four years on. Author: Clement WA, Dempster JH. Journal: J Laryngol Otol; 2004 May ; 118(5):357-61. PubMed ID: 15165310[Link]; page 564

  86. 86 eMedicine Tonsillectomy [Link]; page 564

  87. 87 Pediatric tonsillotomy with the radiofrequency technique: less morbidity and pain. Author: Hultcrantz E, Ericsson E. Journal: Laryngoscope; 2004 May ; 114(5):871-7. PubMed ID: 15126747 [Link]; page 564

  88. 88 Head Neck. 2000 May;22(3):294-6. Galati LT. Primary surgery as treatment for early squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. [Link]; page 564

  89. 89 Mayo Clin Proc. 1994 Jun;69(6):525-31. Foote RL. Radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. [Link]; page 564

  90. 90 How effective are treatments other than antibiotics for acute sore throat? Author: Thomas M, Del Mar C, Glasziou P. Journal: Br J Gen Pract; 2000 Oct ; 50(459):817-20. PubMed ID: 11127175 [Link]; page 565

  91. 91 Crit Care. 2000;4(5):314-8. Rajah J. Do steroids prevent reintubation in children with laryngotracheobronchitis? [Link]; page 566

  92. 92 Acute epiglottitis in adults. Author: Khilanani U, Khatib R. Journal: Am J Med Sci; 1984 Jan-Feb ; 287(1):65-70. PubMed ID: 6702891 [Link]; page 566

  93. 93 Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2000 Sep 15;55(1):17-20. Botma M. The role of fibreoptic laryngoscopy in infants with stridor. [Link]; page 566

  94. 94 Laryngoscope. 1999 Nov;109(11):1770-5. Olney DR. Laryngomalacia and its treatment. [Link]; page 566

  95. 95 Redrawn from eMedicine multimedia [Link]; page 567

  96. 96 Hypotension in a woman with a metastatic dopamine-secreting carotid body tumor. Author: Koch CA, Rodbard JS, Brouwers FM, Eisenhofer G, Pacak K. Journal: Endocr Pract; 2003 Jul-Aug ; 9(4):310-4. PubMed ID: 14561577 [Link]; page 568

  97. 97 Frequency and risk factors of voice disorders among teaching staff of La Rioja, Spain. Clinical study: questionnaire, function vocal examination, acoustic analysis and videolaryngostroboscopy. Author: Preciado J, Pérez C, Calzada M, Preciado P. Journal: Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp; 2005 Apr ; 56(4):161-70. PubMed ID: 15871292 [Link]; page 568

  98. 98 Laryngoscope. 2000 Nov;110(11):1954-6. Ebenfelt A. Absence of bacterial infection in the mucosal secretion in chronic laryngitis. [Link]; page 568

  99. 99 Link no longer available; page 568

  100. 100 J Laryngol Otol. 1998 May;112(5):480-1. Tsunoda K. Sudden onset aphonia caused by a Japanese-style bath. [Link]; page 568

  101. 101 Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000 Mar;19(3):224-7. Cohen E. Unilateral vocal cord paralysis as a result of a Nocardia farcinica laryngeal abscess. [Link]; page 568

  102. 102 Laryngorhinootologie. 2000 May;79(5):297-303 (German). Jung H. [Recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis after thyroidectomy] Medline abstract, n=909 [Link]; page 569

  103. 103 Clin Otolaryngol. 2000 Oct;25(5):418-22. Hajioff D. The effect of Isshiki type 1 thyroplasty on quality of life and vocal performance. [Link]; page 569

  104. 104 Nature. 1990 Aug 2;346(6283):470-1. Lu SJ. Linkage of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma susceptibility locus to the HLA region. [Link]; page 570

  105. 105 Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2000 Apr;34(1):27-53. Hsu JL. Epstein-barr virus-associated malignancies: epidemiologic patterns and etiologic implications. [Link]; page 570

  106. 106 Can Assoc Radiol J. 2000 Oct;51(5):287-95, quiz 286. Poon PY. Tumour extent and T stage of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic findings. [Link]; page 570

  107. 107 Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000 Dec 1;48(5):1323-30. Cheng SH. Long-term survival of nasopharyngeal carcinoma following concomitant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. [Link]; page 570

  108. 108 J Clin Oncol. 2001 May 15;19(10):2607-15. Lin JC. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus DNA the peripheral-blood cells of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: relationship to distant metastasis and survival. [Link]; page 570

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  111. 111 Cancer. 2000 Nov 1;89(9):1925-32. Nishino H. Combined therapy with conservative surgery, radiotherapy, and regional chemotherapy for maxillary sinus carcinoma. [Link]; page 571

  112. 112 Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 2000 Oct;48(5):473-83 (French). Carriot F. [Cannabis and cancer][Link]; page 571

  113. 113 Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1986 Apr;94(4):517-21. Donald PJ. Marijuana smoking--possible cause of head and neck carcinoma in young patients. [Link]; page 571

  114. 114 AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1997 Dec;169(6):1681-7. Loevner LA. Can radiologists accurately predict preepiglottic space invasion with MR imaging? [Link]; page 571

  115. 115 Clin Otolaryngol. 2000 Apr;25(2):146-52. Watters GW. Partial laryngectomy for recurrent laryngeal carcinoma. [Link]; page 571

  116. 116 Laryngoscope. 2000 Mar;110(3 Pt 2 Suppl 93):1-18. Goodwin WJ Jr. Salvage surgery for patients with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: when do the ends justify the means? Medline abstract, meta-analysis [Link]; page 571

  117. 117 Thyroid. 2000 May;10(5):425-9. Smolarz K. Hypothyroidism after therapy for larynx and pharynx carcinoma. [Link]; page 571

  118. 118 Globus pharyngis, personality, and psychological distress in the general population. Author: Deary IJ, Wilson JA, Kelly SW. Journal: Psychosomatics; 1995 Nov-Dec ; 36(6):570-7. PubMed ID: 7501789[Link]; page 572

  119. 119 Laryngeal cysts: a report of three cases with varying presentations. Author: Kalavagunta S. Journal: Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg; 2003 May ; 10(5):199-202. PubMed ID: 12970593 [Link]; page 572

  120. 120 Gastropharyngeal and gastroesophageal reflux in globus and hoarseness. Author: Smit CF, van Leeuwen JA, Mathus-Vliegen LM, Devriese PP, Semin A, Tan J, Schouwenburg PF. Journal: Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2000 Jul ; 126(7):827-30. PubMed ID: 10888993 [Link]; page 572

  121. 121 Globus hystericus: a brief review. Author: Finkenbine R, Miele VJ. Journal: Gen Hosp Psychiatry; 2004 Jan-Feb ; 26(1):78-82. PubMed ID: 14757307 [Link]; page 572

  122. 122 The psychiatric management of the globus syndrome. Author: Bishop LC, Riley WT. Journal: Gen Hosp Psychiatry; 1988 May ; 10(3):214-9. PubMed ID: 2897941 [Link]; page 572

  123. 123 Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001 Jul;55(7):610-4. Sanders DS. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: a prospective analysis of hospital support required and complications following discharge to the community. [Link]; page 572

  124. 124 Rapid access for patients with head and neck lumps. Author: Robinson J, Chew F.Journal: Nurs Stand; 2001 Sep 26-Oct 2 ; 16(2):33-7. PubMed ID: 11977663. [Link]; page 576

  125. 125 Diagn Cytopathol. 1999 Mar;20(3):164-6. Wang J. Atypical chondroma of the cricoid cartilage: fine-needle aspiration cytologic and histopathologic findings. [Link]; page 576

  126. 126 Diagn Cytopathol. 2000 Oct;23(4):253-9. Chhieng DC. Fine-needle aspiration of spindle cell and mesenchymal lesions of the salivary glands. [Link]; page 576

  127. 127 Clin Otolaryngol. 1988 Aug;13(4):267-72. Amin M. The aetiology of laryngocoele. [Link]; page 576

  128. 128 Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2000 Dec;126(12):1502,1505-6. To EW. Imaging quiz case 4. Cervical rib. [Link]; page 576

  129. 129 (Image kindly supplied by BY Ghorayeb, MD); page 577

  130. 130 (Image kindly supplied by BY Ghorayeb, MD); page 577

  131. 131 (Image kindly supplied by BY Ghorayeb, MD); page 577

  132. 132 (Image kindly supplied by BY Ghorayeb, MD); page 577

  133. 133 (Image kindly supplied by BY Ghorayeb, MD); page 577

  134. 134 (Image kindly supplied by BY Ghorayeb, MD); page 577

  135. 135 Salivary Gland Neoplasms [Last Updated: August 19, 2004] [Link]; page 579

  136. 136 Treating oral dryness [Link]; page 579

  137. 137 Tex Dent J. 2001 Apr;118(3):262-6. al-Hashimi I. A new medication for treatment of dry mouth in Sjogren’s syndrome. [Link]; page 579

  138. 138 Northwest Dent. 1999 Jul-Aug;78(4):27-34. Rhodus NL. An update on the management for the dental patient with Sjogren’s syndrome and xerostomia. [Link]; page 579

  139. 139 J Med Assoc Thai. 2001 Feb;84(2):195-203. Sangthawan D. Randomized double blind, placebo-controlled study of pilocarpine administered during head and neck irradiation to reduce xerostomia.[Link]; page 579

  140. 140 Braz J Med Biol Res. 2002 Jan;35(1):105-10. Bernardi R. Effect of pilocarpine mouthwash on salivary flow. [Link]; page 579

  141. 141 Cancer. 2002 Feb 15;94(4):1151-6. Johnstone PA. Acupuncture for xerostomia: clinical update.[Link]; page 579

  142. 142 Pediatr Dent. 2001 Jan-Feb;23(1):44-50. Flaitz C. Prevalence of orodental findings in HIV-infected Romanian children. [Link]; page 580

  143. 143 J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2001 Jun;19(2):61-6. Nadkarni UM. Papillon Lefevre syndrome: management of a case. [Link]; page 581

  144. 144 Periodontol 2000. 2001;26:92-112. Meyle J. Influences of systemic diseases on periodontitis in children and adolescents. [Link]; page 581

  145. 145 Minerva Stomatol. 2000 Jun;49(6):293-311 (Italian). Del Fabbro M. [Congenital neutrophil defects and periodontal diseases] [Link]; page 581

Web-based references relating to the disc signs in footnotes, organised by page number

  • Volume 42, Issue 4 , 27 May 2004, Pages 687-695 . Remembrance of Odors Past. Human Olfactory Cortex in Cross-Modal Recognition Memory. Jay A. Gottfried [Link]; page 537

  • â€Ã‚¦and, above all, things wonderful and fascinating innumerable...\â€Ã‚�The Long Recessional — The Imperial Life of Rudyard Kipling--By David Gilmour; John Murray. Also quoted by B Macintyre int The Times for Sept 18 2004; p 26 [Link]; page 537

  • Verbal dyspraxia: its clinical characteristics and treatment with speech therapy. Author: Ygual-Fernandez A, Cervera-Merida JF. Journal: Rev Neurol; 2005 Jan 15 ; 40 Suppl 1():S121-6. PubMed ID: 15736074[Link]; page 541

  • Lawrence C.K. Chow, Y. Hui, Dennis K.K. Au: A Rare Cause of Sudden Hearing Loss in Chinese: Cochlear Involvement of Sarcoidosis. The Internet Journal of Otorhinolaryngology. 2004. Volume 3 Number 1 [Link]; page 550

  • Immune-mediated disorders associated with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Author: Toubi E, Ben-David J, Kessel A, Halas K, Sabo E, Luntz M. Journal: Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol; 2004 Jun ; 113(6):445-9. PubMed ID: 15224826 [Link]; page 550

  • Lawrence C.K. Chow, Y. Hui, Dennis K.K. Au: A Rare Cause of Sudden Hearing Loss in Chinese: Cochlear Involvement of Sarcoidosis. The Internet Journal of Otorhinolaryngology. 2004. Volume 3 Number 1 [Link]; page 550

  • Motor and sensory function of the esophagus: revelations through ultrasound imaging. Author: Mittal RK. Journal: J Clin Gastroenterol; 2005 Apr ; 39(4):S42-8. PubMed ID: 15758658 [Link]; page 572

  • Efficacy of early treatment of Bell’s palsy with oral acyclovir and prednisolone. Author: Hato N, Matsumoto S, Kisaki H, Takahashi H, Wakisaka H, Honda N, Gyo K, Murakami S, Yanagihara N. Journal: Otol Neurotol; 2003 Nov ; 24(6):948-51. PubMed ID: 14600480 [Link]; page 574

  • The clinical problem of Bell’s palsy: is treatment with steroids effective? Author: Williamson IG, Whelan TR. Journal: Br J Gen Pract; 1996 Dec ; 46(413):743-7. PubMed ID: 8995858 [Link]; page 574

  • Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2003 Mar;112(3):197-201. Outcome of treatment with valacyclovir and prednisone in patients with Bell’s palsy. Axelsson S [Link]; page 574

Chapter 08: Dermatology

  1. 1 Arch Dermatol. 1998 Dec;134(12):1620-6. Williams H. The Cochrane Skin Group. Preparing, maintaining, and disseminating systematic reviews of clinical interventions in dermatology. [Link]; page 582

  2. 2 Dermatol Clin. 2000 Apr;18(2):261-76. Bigby M. Evidence-based medicine in dermatology. [Link]; page 582

  3. 3 J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2001 Nov;15(6):512-8. Gupta MA. The use of antidepressant drugs in dermatology. [Link]; page 583

  4. 4 Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 May 14;99(10):7148-53. Zouboulis CC. Corticotropin-releasing hormone: an autocrine hormone that promotes lipogenesis in human sebocytes. [Link]; page 583

  5. 5 Med Electron Microsc. 2001 Mar;34(1):29-40. Toyoda M. Pathogenesis of acne. [Link]; page 583

  6. 6 Is there a future for telemedicine? Rinde E, Balteskard L. Lancet; 2002 Jun 8 ; 359(9322):1957-8. PubMed ID: 12076546 &Joint teleconsultations (virtual outreach) versus standard outpatient appointments for patients referred by their general practitioner. Medline abstract, N=3170 [Link]; page 583

  7. 7 J Telemed Telecare. 2002;8 Suppl 1:1-30. Hailey D. Systematic review of evidence for the benefits of telemedicine. [Link]; page 583

  8. 8 DERMIS: a computer system for assisting primary-care physicians with dermatological diagnosis. Author: Brooks GJ, Ashton RE, Pethybridge RJ. Journal: Br J Dermatol; 1992 Dec ; 127(6):614-9. PubMed ID: 1476920 [Link]; page 583

  9. 9 Link no longer available; page 584

  10. 10 We thank Professor Leigh for this image. No internet link; page 584

  11. 11 We thank Professor Leigh for this image. No internet link; page 584

  12. 12 Bartleby.com [Link]; page 585

  13. 13 Dictionary of etymology [Link]; page 585

  14. 14 Narrowband UVB phototherapy in skin conditions beyond psoriasis. Author: Gambichler T, Breuckmann F, Boms S, Altmeyer P, Kreuter A. Journal: J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Apr ; 52(4):660-70. PubMed ID: 15793518 [Link]; page 586

  15. 15 Link no longer available; page 586

  16. 16 Link no longer available; page 586

  17. 17 One-year follow-up of a lentigo maligna: first dermoscopic signs of growth. Author: Schiffner R, Perusquia AM, Stolz W. Journal: Br J Dermatol; 2004 Nov ; 151(5):1087-9. PubMed ID: 15541091[Link]; page 587

  18. 18 Treatment of lentigo maligna (melanoma in situ) with the immune response modifier imiquimod. Author: Wolf IH, Cerroni L, Kodama K, Kerl H. Journal: Arch Dermatol; 2005 Apr ; 141(4):510-4. PubMed ID: 15837872 [Link]; page 587

  19. 19 Link no longer available; page 588

  20. 20 From OUP image bank; page 588

  21. 21 Link no longer available; page 588

  22. 22 Link no longer available; page 588

  23. 22 Link no longer available; page 588

  24. 23 Livido Reticularis from OUP image bank” >[Link]; page 590

  25. 24 Link no longer available; page 589

  26. 25 Sarcoid and the skin [Link]; page 589

  27. 25 Solitary spleen metastasis and amyloidosis in a patient with endometrial cancer. Author: Gogas H, Ignatiadis T, Markopoulos Ch, Karageorgopoulou S, Floros D, Vaiopoulos G. Journal: Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2004 ; 25(3):391-3. PubMed ID: 15171329. [Link]; page 589

  28. 26 Dermatology update [Link]; page 589

  29. 27 Link no longer available; page 589

  30. 28 Solitary spleen metastasis and amyloidosis in a patient with endometrial cancer. Author: Gogas H, Ignatiadis T, Markopoulos Ch, Karageorgopoulou S, Floros D, Vaiopoulos G. Journal: Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2004 ; 25(3):391-3. PubMed ID: 15171329. HYPERLINK “http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=15171329&from=cqsr[Link]; page 589

  31. 29 Eoplasms associated with paraneoplastic pemphigus: a review with emphasis on non-hematologic malignancy and oral mucosal manifestations. Author: Kaplan I, Hodak E, Ackerman L, Mimouni D, Anhalt GJ, Calderon S. Journal: Oral Oncol; 2004 Jul ; 40(6):553-62. PubMed ID: 15063382. [Link]; page 589

  32. 30 Purgatory, Dante [Link]; page 589

  33. 31 Link no longer available; page 589

  34. 32 Br J Dermatol. 1990 Apr;122 Suppl 35:93-5. Marks R. Studies on the effects of topical retinoic acid on photoageing. [Link]; page 590

  35. 33 Eur J Cancer Prev. 1999 Apr;8(2):91-103. Young KJ. Intervention studies on cancer. [Link]; page 590

  36. 34 Br J Dermatol. 1999 Sep;141(3):415-23. Telfer NR. Guidelines for the management of basal cell carcinoma. British Association of Dermatologists. [Link]; page 590

  37. 35 Br J Dermatol. 2001 Apr;144(4):832-40. Wang I. Photodynamic therapy vs. cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas: results of a phase III clinical trial. [Link]; page 590

  38. 36 Link no longer available; page 590

  39. 37 Link no longer available; page 590

  40. 38 Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1997 Jul 15;38(5):1027-35. Quiros PA. Total skin electron beam therapy followed by adjuvant psoralen/ultraviolet-A light in the management of patients with T1 and T2 cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides). [Link]; page 590

  41. 39 Cancer Treat Rev. 2001 Feb;27(1):9-18. Sakorafas GH. Paget’s disease of the breast. [Link]; page 590

  42. 40 Cancer. 1997 Sep 15;80(6):1065-72. Pierce LJ. The conservative management of Paget’s disease of the breast with radiotherapy. [Link]; page 590

  43. 41 Link no longer available; page 590

  44. 42 Link no longer available; page 590

  45. 43 Br J Dermatol. 2002 Jan;146(1):94-100. Rivers JK. Topical treatment of actinic keratoses with 3.0% diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronan gel. Medline abstract, N=98 [Link]; page 591

  46. 44 Int J Dermatol. 2001 Nov;40(11):709-13. Wolf JE Jr. Topical 3.0% diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronan gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses. Medline abstract, N=96 [Link]; page 591

  47. 45 Phase IV, open-label assessment of the treatment of actinic keratosis with 3.0% diclofenac sodium topical gel (Solaraze). Author: Nelson C, Rigel D, Smith S, Swanson N, Wolf J. Journal: J Drugs Dermatol; 2004 Jul-Aug ; 3(4):401-7. PubMed ID: 15303784 [Link]; page 591

  48. 45 Int J Dermatol. 2001 Nov;40(11):709-13. Wolf JE Jr. Topical 3.0% diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronan gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses. [Link]; page 593

  49. 46 Br J Dermatol. 2001 May;144(5):1050-3. Stockfleth E. Successful treatment of actinic keratosis with imiquimod cream 5%: a report of six cases. [Link]; page 591

  50. 47 Med Pregl. 1989;42(3-4):149-51 (Croatian). Poljacki M. [The importance of local administration of 5% 5-fluorouracil in the therapy of senile keratoses and basocellular carcinoma] [Link]; page 591

  51. 48 Survival from malignant Melanoma in Scotland [Link]; page 592

  52. 49 BMJ--full text [Link]; page 592

  53. 50 Management of metastatic cutaneous melanoma. Author: Buzaid AC. Journal: Oncology (Huntingt); 2004 Oct ; 18(11):1443-50; discussion 1457-9. PubMed ID: 15609471 [Link]; page 592

  54. 51 Link no longer available; page 592

  55. 52 Link no longer available; page 592

  56. 53 Benign skin lesions [Link]; page 592

  57. 54 See T Fitzpatrick, Arch Dermat 1988;12 [Link]; page 593

  58. 55 Health Technol Assess. 2000;4(37):1-191. Hoare C. Systematic review of treatments for atopic eczema. [Link]; page 593

  59. 56 Effect of sunscreen and clothing on the number of melanocytic nevi in 1,812 German children attending day care. Author: Bauer J, BŸttner P, Wiecker TS, Luther H, Garbe C. Journal: Am J Epidemiol; 2005 Apr 1 ; 161(7):620-7. PubMed ID: 15781951 [Link]; page 593

  60. 57 BMJ. 1990 Nov 3;301(6759):1005-6. MacKie RM. Clinical recognition of early invasive malignant melanoma. [Link]; page 593

  61. 58 CA Cancer J Clin. 1985 May-Jun;35(3):130-51. Friedman RJ. Early detection of malignant melanoma: the role of physician examination and self-examination of the skin. [Link]; page 593

  62. 59 CA Cancer J Clin. 1991 Jul-Aug;41(4):201-26. Friedman RJ. Malignant melanoma in the 1990s: the continued importance of early detection and the role of physician examination and self-examination of the skin. [Link]; page 593

  63. 60 Sun exposure and mortality from melanoma. Author: Berwick M, Armstrong BK, Ben-Porat L, Fine J, Kricker A, Eberle C, Barnhill R. Journal: J Natl Cancer Inst; 2005 Feb 2 ; 97(3):195-9. PubMed ID: 15687362. [Link]; page 593

  64. 61 The epidemiology of vitamin D and cancer incidence and mortality: a review (United States). Author: Giovannucci E. Journal: Cancer Causes Control; 2005 Mar ; 16(2):83-95. PubMed ID: 15868450. [Link]; page 593

  65. 62 Ecologic studies of solar UV-B radiation and cancer mortality rates.Author: Grant WB. Journal: Recent Results Cancer Res; 2003 ; 164():371-7. PubMed ID: 12899536. [Link]; page 593

  66. 63 M Kendrick 2005 Pulse Clinical July 30 page 30 ‘Sunshine is good for you’. 593

  67. 64 Hum Mol Genet. 1997 May;6(5):813-20. Trembath RC. Identification of a major susceptibility locus on chromosome 6p and evidence for further disease loci revealed by a two stage genome-wide search in psoriasis. [Link]; page 594

  68. 65 Link no longer available; page 594

  69. 66 Link no longer available; page 594

  70. 67 Link no longer available; page 594

  71. 68 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(3):CD000212. Jones G. Interventions for psoriatic arthritis.[Link]; page 594

  72. 69 The impact of a two-compound product containing calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate (Daivobet/ Dovobet) on the quality of life in patients with psoriasis vulgaris: a randomized controlled trial. Author: Van De Kerkhof PC. Journal: Br J Dermatol; 2004 Sep ; 151(3):663-8. PubMed ID: 15377355[Link]; page 594

  73. 70 Int J Dermatol. 2001 Aug;40(8):530-4. Kumar B. Rediscovering hydroxyurea: its role in recalcitrant psoriasis. [Link]; page 595

  74. 71 Arch Dermatol. 2003 Dec;139(12):1627-32; discussion 1632. A randomized trial of etanercept as monotherapy for psoriasis--Gottlieb AB [Link]; page 595

  75. 72 tanercept treatment of psoriatic arthritis: safety, efficacy, and effect on disease progression. Author: Mease PJ, Kivitz AJ, Burch FX, Siegel EL, Cohen SB, Ory P, Salonen D, Rubenstein J, Sharp JT, Tsuji W. Journal: Arthritis Rheum; 2004 Jul ; 50(7):2264-72. PubMed ID: 15248226 [Link]; page 595

  76. 73 Infliximab treatment results in significant improvement in the quality of life of patients with severe psoriasis: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Author: Feldman SR, Gordon KB, Bala M, Evans R, Li S, Dooley LT, Guzzo C, Patel K, Menter A, Gottlieb AB. Journal: Br J Dermatol; 2005 May ; 152(5):954-60. PubMed ID: 15888152. [Link]; page 595

  77. 74 Link no longer available; page 596

  78. 75 Extensive visual loss with topical facial steroids. Author: Aggarwal RK, Potamitis T, Chong NH, Guarro M, Shah P, Kheterpal S. Journal: Eye; 1993 ; 7 ( Pt 5)():664-6. PubMed ID: 8287990 [Link]; page 596

  79. 76 Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2002 Mar;3(3):249-55. Lamb SR. Pharmacoeconomics of drug therapy for atopic dermatitis. [Link]; page 597

  80. 77 J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002 Mar;109(3):539-46. Reitamo S. Efficacy and safety of tacrolimus ointment compared with that of hydrocortisone acetate ointment in children with atopic dermatitis. [Link]; page 597

  81. 78 Clin Exp Dermatol. 2002 Jan;27(1):3-7. Jolles S. A review of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for atopic dermatitis. [Link]; page 597

  82. 79 Tacrolimus ointment is more effective than pimecrolimus cream with a similar safety profile in the treatment of atopic dermatitis: results from 3 randomized, comparative studies. Author: Paller AS, Lebwohl M, Fleischer AB, Antaya R, Langley RG, Kirsner RS, Blum RR, Rico MJ, Jaracz E, Crowe A, Linowski GJ, US/Canada Tacrolimus Ointment Study Group .Journal: J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 May ; 52(5):810-22. PubMed ID: 15858471 [Link]; page 597

  83. 80 Link no longer available; page 597

  84. 81 J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001 Oct;45(4):520-7. Gdalevich M. Breast-feeding and the onset of atopic dermatitis in childhood: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. [Link]; page 597

  85. 82 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000133. Kramer MS. Maternal antigen avoidance during pregnancy for preventing atopic disease in infants of women at high risk. [Link]; page 597

  86. 83 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000132. Kramer MS. Maternal antigen avoidance during lactation for preventing atopic disease in infants of women at high risk. [Link]; page 597

  87. 84 Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy modifies neonatal allergen-specific immune responses and clinical outcomes in infants at high risk of atopy: a randomized, controlled trial. Author: Dunstan JA, Mori TA, Barden A, Beilin LJ, Taylor AL, Holt PG, Prescott SL. Journal: J Allergy Clin Immunol; 2003 Dec ; 112(6):1178-84. PubMed ID: 14657879 [Link]; page 597

  88. 85 Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2000 Aug;11(3):149-61. Halken S. Comparison of a partially hydrolyzed infant formula with two extensively hydrolyzed formulas for allergy prevention: a prospective, randomized study. Medline abstract, N=595 [Link]; page 597

  89. 86 Health Technol Assess. 2000;4(37):1-191. Hoare C. Systematic review of treatments for atopic eczema. Medline abstract, meta-analysis [Link]; page 597

  90. 87 Br J Dermatol. 2001 Sep;145(3):428-33. Evaluation of diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis: validity of the criteria of Williams et al. in a hospital-based setting--Gu H [Link]; page 597

  91. 88 Link no longer available; page 599

  92. 89 Br J Dermatol. 1994 Dec;131(6):883-6. Berth-Jones J. Value of a second freeze-thaw cycle in cryotherapy of common warts. [Link]; page 599

  93. 90 Photodynamic therapy: new treatment for therapy-resistant plantar warts. Author: Schroeter CA, Pleunis J, van Nispen tot Pannerden C, Reineke T, Neumann HA. Journal: Dermatol Surg; 2005 Jan ; 31(1):71-5. PubMed ID: 15720099 [Link]; page 599

  94. 91 J Fam Pract. 1995 Feb;40(2):136-8. Johnson LW. Communal showers and the risk of plantar warts.[Link]; page 599

  95. 92 Link no longer available; page 599

  96. 93 Link no longer available; page 599

  97. 94 Link no longer available; page 599

  98. 95 Link no longer available; page 599

  99. 96 Link no longer available; page 599

  100. 97 Link no longer available; page 599

  101. 98 Randomised controlled multiple treatment comparison to provide a cost-effectiveness rationale for the selection of antimicrobial therapy in acne. Author: Ozolins M, Eady EA, Avery A, Cunliffe WJ, O’neill C, Simpson NB, Williams HC. Journal: Health Technol Assess; 2005 Jan ; 9(1):1-212. PubMed ID: 15588555 [Link]; page 600

  102. 99 Randomised controlled multiple treatment comparison to provide a cost-effectiveness rationale for the selection of antimicrobial therapy in acne. Author: Ozolins M, Eady EA, Avery A, Cunliffe WJ, O’neill C, Simpson NB, Williams HC. Journal: Health Technol Assess; 2005 Jan ; 9(1):1-212. PubMed ID: 15588555 [Link]; page 600

  103. 100 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(1):CD001866. Jordan RE. Laser resurfacing for facial acne scars. [Link]; page 600

  104. 101 Evidence-based dermatology. Author: Margolis DJ. Journal: Cutis; 2005 Mar ; 75(3 Suppl):8-12; discussion 33-6. PubMed ID: 15810804 [Link]; page 600

  105. 102 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD002086. Garner SE. Minocycline for acne vulgaris: efficacy and safety. [Link]; page 600

  106. 103 BMJ. 1998 May 16;316(7143):1511-4. Vervloet D. Adverse reactions to drugs. [Link]; page 601

  107. 104 Topical steroid therapy in oral lichen planus: review of a novel delivery method in 24 patients. Author: Aleinikov A, Jordan RC, Main JH. Journal: J Can Dent Assoc; 1996 Apr ; 62(4):324-7. PubMed ID: 9011365 [Link]; page 602

  108. 105 Fluticasone propionate spray and betamethasone sodium phosphate mouthrinse: a randomized crossover study for the treatment of symptomatic oral lichen planus. Author: Hegarty AM, Hodgson TA, Lewsey JD, Porter SR. Journal: J Am Acad Dermatol; 2002 Aug ; 47(2):271-9. PubMed ID: 12140475[Link]; page 602

  109. 106 Br J Dermatol. 2000 Oct;143(4):795-8. Kosuge H. Epidemiological study of human herpesvirus-6 and human herpesvirus-7 in pityriasis rosea. [Link]; page 602

  110. 107 Dermis [Link]; page 602

  111. 108 N Engl J Med. 2002 Jan 31;346(5):321-7. Joly P. A comparison of oral and topical corticosteroids in patients with bullous pemphigoid. Medline abstract, N=341 [Link]; page 602

  112. 109 images for the diagnosis Pemphigus Vulgaris. [Link]; page 602

  113. 110 Phytophotodermatitis www.dermis.net/doia/image.asp?zugr=d&lang=e&cd=33&nr=12&diagnr=692982” >[Link]; page 603

  114. 111 Br J Dermatol. 2000 Oct;143(4):828-31. Patel DC. Efficacy of short-course oral prednisolone in polymorphic light eruption: a randomized controlled trial. Medline abstract, N=10 [Link]; page 603

  115. 112 Ugeskr Laeger. 2000 Apr 3;162(14):2020-4 (Danish). Bygum A. [Porphyria cutanea tarda] [Link]; page 603

  116. 113 A double-blind cross-over study of the effect of ketotifen in urticaria pigmentosa. Author: Czarnetzki BM. Journal: Dermatologica; 1983 ; 166(1):44-7. PubMed ID: 6341102 [Link]; page 603

  117. 114 [Bullous mastocytosis in a child] Author: Haustein UF, Bedri M. Journal: Hautarzt; 1997 Feb ; 48(2):127-9. PubMed ID: 9173060. [Link]; page 603

  118. 115 Cold urticaria in Thai children: comparison between cyproheptadine and ketotifen in the treatment. Author: Visitsunthorn N, Tuchinda M, Vichyanond P. Journal: Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol; 1995 Jun ; 13(1):29-35. PubMed ID: 7488341 [Link]; page 603

  119. 116 Comparison of cinnarizine, cyproheptadine, doxepin, and hydroxyzine in treatment of idiopathic cold urticaria: usefulness of doxepin. Author: NeittaanmŠki H, MyšhŠnen T, FrŠki JE. Journal: J Am Acad Dermatol; 1984 Sep ; 11(3):483-9. PubMed ID: 6480953. [Link]; page 603

  120. 117 Christina K Anderson, MD, Staff Physician, Department of Dermatology, Pennsylvania State Geisinger Medical Center [Link]; page 604

  121. 118 C Morrell 1998 BMJ i 1487 & A Fletcher BMJ 1997 315 576 [Link]; page 604

  122. 120 [Reduction of pressure sores during prone positioning of ventilated intensive care patients by the prone-head support system: a pilot study] Author: Prebio M, Katz-Papatheophilou E, Heindl W, Gelbmann H, Burghuber OC. Journal: Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2005 Feb ; 117(3):98-105. PubMed ID: 15773424. [Link]; page 604

  123. 120 Pressure ulcer prevention in intensive care - a randomised control trial of two pressure-relieving devices. Author: Theaker C, Kuper M, Soni N. Journal: Anaesthesia; 2005 Apr ; 60(4):395-9. PubMed ID: 15766343. [Link]; page 604

  124. 121 Pressure sores and pressure-decreasing mattresses: controlled clinical trial. Author: Hofman A, Geelkerken RH, Wille J, Hamming JJ, Hermans J, Breslau PJ. Journal: Lancet; 1994 Mar 5 ; 343(8897):568-71. PubMed ID: 7906329 [Link]; page 605

  125. 122 Hautarzt. 1990 Dec;41(12):680-2 (German). Naher H. [EBV replication and therapy of oral hairy leukoplakia using acyclovir] [Link]; page 606

  126. 123 Mucosal shedding of human herpesvirus 8 in men. Author: Pauk J, Huang ML, Brodie SJ, Wald A, Koelle DM, Schacker T, Celum C, Selke S, Corey L. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2000 Nov 9 ; 343(19):1369-77. PubMed ID: 11070101 [Link]; page 607

  127. 124 Nuvo application [Link]; page 608

  128. 125 Head lice on pillows, and strategies to make a small risk even less. Author: Speare R, Cahill C, Thomas G. Journal: Int J Dermatol; 2003 Aug ; 42(8):626-9. PubMed ID: 12890107. [Link]; page 609

  129. 126 A simple treatment for head lice: dry-on, suffocation-based pediculicide. Author: Pearlman DL. Journal: Pediatrics; 2004 Sep ; 114(3):e275-9. PubMed ID: 15342886 HYPERLINK “http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=15342886&from=cqsr[Link]; page 609

  130. 127 Br J Dermatol. 2001 Apr;144(4):682-95. Hartmann K. Mastocytosis: recent advances in defining the disease. [Link]; page 610

  131. 128 Leuk Res. 2001 Jul;25(7):603-25. Valent P. Diagnostic criteria and classification of mastocytosis: a consensus proposal. [Link]; page 610

  132. 129 J Cutan Laser Ther. 2000 Mar;2(1):45-7. Bedlow AJ. The treatment of urticaria pigmentosa with the frequency-doubled Q-switch Nd:YAG laser. [Link]; page 610

  133. 130 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(1):CD001866. Jordan RE. Laser resurfacing for facial acne scars. [Link]; page 610

Web-based references relating to the disc signs in footnotes, organised by page number

  • [Link]; page 583

  • Prevalence of atopic diseases and the use of topical corticosteroids. Is there any connection? Author: Pampura AN. Journal: Med Hypotheses; 2005 ; 64(3):575-8. PubMed ID: 15617870 [Link]; page 584

  • Dermatologists recommend adding an E to the ABCD acronym for recognizing early melanomas [Link]; page 587

  • The dermoscope [Link]; page 587

  • Borrelia burgdorferi infection prevalences in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in urban and suburban Bonn, western Germany. Author: Maetzel D, Maier WA, Kampen H. Journal: Parasitol Res; 2005 Jan ; 95(1):5-12. PubMed ID: 15549390. [Link]; page 588

  • Livedo reticularis and pregnancy morbidity in patients negative for antiphospholipid antibodies. Author: Sangle S, D’Cruz DP, Hughes GR. Journal: Ann Rheum Dis; 2005 Jan ; 64(1):147-8. PubMed ID: 15608315 [Link]; page 588

  • Fine mapping of chromosome 10q deletions in mycosis fungoides and sezary syndrome: Identification of two discrete regions of deletion at 10q23.33-24.1 and 10q24.33-25.1. Author: Wain EM, Mitchell TJ, Russell-Jones R, Whittaker SJ. Journal: Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2005 Feb ; 42(2):184-92. PubMed ID: 15540164 [Link]; page 590

  • J Clin Oncol. 2001 Aug 15;19(16):3635-48. Balch CM. Final version of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for cutaneous melanoma. [Link]; page 592

  • Mapping of the Major Psoriasis-Susceptibility Locus (PSORS1) in a 70-Kb Interval around the Corneodesmosin Gene (CDSN). Author: Orru S, Giuressi E, Carcassi C, Casula M, Contu L. Journal: Am J Hum Genet; 2005 Jan ; 76(1):164-71. PubMed ID: 15529278 [Link]; page 594

  • Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000133. Kramer MS. Maternal antigen avoidance during pregnancy for preventing atopic disease in infants of women at high risk. [Link]; page 597

  • Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000131. Kramer MS. Maternal antigen avoidance during lactation for preventing atopic eczema in infants. [Link]; page 597

  • Affective psychosis following Accutane (isotretinoin) treatment. Author: Barak Y, Wohl Y, Greenberg Y, Dayan YB, Friedman T, Shoval G, Knobler HY. Journal: Int Clin Psychopharmacol; 2005 Jan ; 20(1):39-41. PubMed ID: 15602115. [Link]; page 600

  • Surrey Allergy Clinic [Link]; page 601

  • Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) Infection in HIV/AIDS Patients From Santos, Brazil: Seroprevalence and Associated Factors. Journal: Sex Transm Dis; 2005 Jan ; 32(1):57-63. PubMed ID: 15614122 [Link]; page 607

  • DERMIS: a computer system for assisting primary-care physicians with dermatological diagnosis. Author: Brooks GJ, Ashton RE, Pethybridge RJ. Journal: Br J Dermatol; 1992 Dec ; 127(6):614-9. PubMed ID: 1476920 [Link]; page 611

Chapter 09: Anaesthesia

  1. 1 Urology. 2004 May;63(5):841-6; Use of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification to assess perioperative risk in patients undergoing radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma.--Han KR [Link]; page 614

  2. 2 Can J Anaesth. 2001 Oct;48(9):864 Information provision, patient involvement, and emotional support: prospective areas for improving anesthetic care--Hadjistavropoulos HD [Link]; page 6153 Int J Health Care Qual Assur. 1995;8(5):4-7. Improving the peri-operative experience: a multidisciplinary team approach.--Johns C [Link]; page 615

  3. 3 Link no longer available; page 615

  4. 4 Anesth Analg. 1999 Sep;89(3):652-8. Macario A. Which clinical anesthesia outcomes are important to avoid? The perspective of patients. [Link]; page 615

  5. 5 J Public Health Med. 1999 Sep;21(3):243-8. Clinical interventions and outcomes of One-to-One midwifery practice. Page L, McCourt C, Beake S, Vail A, Hewison J. [Link]; page 615

  6. 6 Med Instrum. 1983 Mar-Apr;17(2):107-8. Operating room event analysis--McDonald JS [Link]; page 615

  7. 7 Masui. 2000 Jan;49(1):7-17 Lack of communication between anesthesiologists and surgeons: comparison of questionnaire survey among anesthesiologists with that among surgeons concerning pre-anesthetic evaluation of surgical patients Irita K [Link]; page 615

  8. 8 Paediatr Anaesth. 2004 Jul;14(7):551 Anaesthesia induction in children: a psychological evaluation of the efficiency of parents’ presence.--Messeri A [Link]; page 616

  9. 9 Singapore Med J. 1992 Dec;33(6):608-10. Ranitidine and sodium citrate as prophylaxis against acid aspiration syndrome in obstetric patients undergoing caesarean section. Lim SK [Link]; page 616

  10. 10 Yu HP, Hseu SS, Yien HW, Teng YH, Chan KH. Oral clonidine premedication preserves heart rate variability for patients undergoing larparoscopic cholecystectomy.Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2003 Feb;47(2):185-90. PMID: 12631048 [Link]; page 616

  11. 11 Image of Yankauer Catheter [Link]; page 618

  12. 12 Randomized trial N=24 Can J Anaesth. 2001 May;48(5):439-45. Wilder-Smith OH. Midazolam premedication reduces propofol dose requirements for multiple anesthetic endpoints. [Link]; page 620

  13. 13 Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2001 Sep;45(8):1011-22. Figueredo E. Assessment of the efficacy of esmolol on the haemodynamic changes induced by laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation: a meta-analysis. [Link]; page 624

  14. 14 AANA J. 1998 Jun;66(3):299-303. Davis D. Pediatric endotracheal tube selection: a comparison of age-based and height-based criteria. [Link]; page 627

  15. 15 The use of the laryngeal mask airway with mechanical positive pressure ventilation. Author: Chmielewski C, Snyder-Clickett S. Journal: AANA J; 2004 Oct ; 72(5):347-51. PubMed ID: 15529730[Link]; page 627

  16. 16 Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway [Link]; page 627

  17. 17 Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 2000 Oct;48(5):459-72 (French). Ancelin ML. [Anesthesia and postoperative cognitive dysfunction in the elderly: a review of clinical and epidemiological observations][Link]; page 630

  18. 18 Ugeskr Laeger. 2001 Feb 12;163(7):929-30 (Danish). Barnung SK. [Premedication in ambulatory surgery] [Link]; page 630

  19. 19 Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2001 Jul;45(6):659-70. Kranke P. The influence of a dominating centre on a quantitative systematic review of granisetron for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. [Link]; page 630

  20. 20 Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 1999 Sep;34(9):528-36 (German). Eberhart LH. [Meta-analysis of controlled randomized studies on droperidol for prevention of postoperative phase vomiting and nausea] [Link]; page 630

  21. 21 Anesth Analg. 1999 Jun;88(6):1370-9. Domino KB. Comparative efficacy and safety of ondansetron, droperidol, and metoclopramide for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis.[Link]; page 630

  22. 22 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(4):CD001893. Jorgensen H. Epidural local anaesthetics versus opioid-based analgesic regimens on postoperative gastrointestinal paralysis, PONV and pain after abdominal surgery. [Link]; page 630

  23. 23 Lancet. 2002 Apr 13;359(9314):1276-82 Epidural anaesthesia and analgesia and outcome of major surgery: a randomised trial.--Rigg JR [Link]; page 630

  24. 24 Lancet. 2002 Apr 13;359(9314):1276-82. Epidural anaesthesia and analgesia and outcome of major surgery: a randomised trial. Rigg J [Link]; page 635

  25. 25 Neurosurg Rev. 2000 Dec;23(4):175-204; discussion 205. Reihsaus E. Spinal epidural abscess: a meta-analysis of 915 patients. [Link]; page 635

  26. 26 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(2):CD002765. Lee A. Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on post-operative renal function in normal adults. [Link]; page 636

  27. 27 Br J Anaesth. 2000 Apr;84(4):450-5. Urwin SC. General versus regional anaesthesia for hip fracture surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. [Link]; page 636

  28. 28 Anaesth Intensive Care. 1997 Dec;25(6):679-85. Horan BF. Evidence-based medicine and anaesthesia: uneasy bedfellows? [Link]; page 637

Web-based references relating to the disc signs in footnotes, organised by page number

  • Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2000 Apr;19(4):242-8. Impact of an information booklet on patient satisfaction in anesthesia--Albaladejo P [Link]; page 615

  • Meta-analysis of trials comparing postoperative recovery after anesthesia with sevoflurane or desflurane. Author: Macario A, Dexter F, Lubarsky D. Journal: Am J Health Syst Pharm; 2005 Jan 1 ; 62(1):63-8. PubMed ID: 15658074. [Link]; page 618

  • Ketamine and postoperative pain - a quantitative systematic review of randomised trials. Author: Elia N, TramÂ�r MR. Journal: Pain; 2005 Jan ; 113(1-2):61-70. PubMed ID: 15621365. [Link]; page 621

  • Hypoxia and surgical patients - prevention and treatment of an unnecessary cause of morbidity and mortality. L. STRACHAN and D.W. NOBLE [Link]; page 630

  • LEVOBUPIVACAINE A long acting local anaesthetic, with less cardiac and neurotoxicity [Link]; page 632

  • The risk of cesarean delivery with neuraxial analgesia given early versus late in labor. Author: Wong CA, Scavone BM, Peaceman AM, McCarthy RJ, Sullivan JT, Diaz NT, Yaghmour E, Marcus RJ, Sherwani SS, Sproviero MT, Yilmaz M, Patel R, Robles C, Grouper [Link]; page 635

Chapter 10: Eponymous syndromes

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  2. 2 Evaluation of a new computer intervention to teach people with autism or Asperger syndrome to recognize and predict emotions in others. Author: Silver M, Oakes P. Journal: Autism; 2001 Sep ; 5(3):299-316. PubMed ID: 11708589 [Link]; page 638

  3. 3 Genomics. 1998 Sep 1;52(2):219-22. Hoang EH. Cloning of a novel C-terminal kinesin (KIFC3) that maps to human chromosome 16q13-q21 and thus is a candidate gene for Bardet-Biedl syndrome.[Link]; page 638

  4. 4 Hum Mol Genet. 2001 Oct 1;10(20):2293-9. Katsanis N. Exploring the molecular basis of Bardet-Biedl syndrome. [Link]; page 638

  5. 5 Cancer Res. 2002 Feb 1;62(3):801-8. Rylova SN. The CLN3 gene is a novel molecular target for cancer drug discovery. [Link]; page 638

  6. 6 J Child Neurol. 2001 Nov;16(11):870-1. Johnsen SD. Prednisone therapy in Becker’s muscular dystrophy. [Link]; page 638

  7. 7 Can J Cardiol. 2001 Oct;17(10):1061-9. Finsterer J. Cardiac involvement in myotonic dystrophy, Becker muscular dystrophy and mitochondrial myopathy: a five-year follow-up. [Link]; page 638

  8. 8 Lancet. 1997 Mar 8;349(9053):663-4. Pritchard-Jones K. Biology of Wilms’ tumour. [Link]; page 638

  9. 9 Tuberous sclerosis--eMedicine [Link]; page 638

  10. 10 We thank Mr CN ChauFRCS for permission to reproduce this image. [Link]; page 639

  11. 11 Crit Care. 2001 Aug;5(4):232-5. Dejode JM. Capgras syndrome: a clinical manifestation of watershed cerebral infarct complicating the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. [Link]; page 640

  12. 12 Swiss Surg. 2002;8(1):7-10. Altinli E. Castleman’s disease masquerading as sigmoid colon tumor and Hodgkin lymphoma. [Link]; page 640

  13. 13 Am J Med Genet. 2002 Feb 15;108(1):16-22. Karim MA. Apparent genotype-phenotype correlation in childhood, adolescent, and adult Chediak-Higashi syndrome. [Link]; page 640

  14. 14 Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet. 2001;2:299-341. Kelley RI. Inborn errors of sterol biosynthesis.[Link]; page 640

  15. 15 Am J Ment Retard. 2002 Mar;107(2):146-54. Hyman P. Self-injurious behavior, self-restraint, and compulsive behaviors in Cornelia de Lange syndrome. [Link]; page 640

  16. 15 Psychiatry. 2000 Summer;63(2):208-13. Allen JR. A disturbed child’s use of a public event: Cotard’s syndrome in a ten-year-old. [Link]; page 640

  17. 16 Transplantation. 2002 Jan 15;73(1):67-9. Schauer R. Successful liver transplantation of two brothers with crigler-najjar syndrome type 1 using a single cadaveric organ. [Link]; page 640

  18. 17 J Intellect Disabil Res. 1996 Jun;40 ( Pt 3):275-8. Mann J. Homo-erotomania for a delusional parent: erotomania with Capgras and Fregoli syndromes in a young male with learning difficulties. [Link]; page 640

  19. 18 Sangre (Barc). 1997 Jun;42(3):223-5 (Spanish). Escalante RM. [Diamond-Blackfan syndrome: pregnancy and heredity] [Link]; page 640

  20. 19 Preimplantation HLA testing. Author: Verlinsky Y, Rechitsky S, Sharapova T, Morris R, Taranissi M, Kuliev A. Journal: JAMA; 2004 May 5 ; 291(17):2079-85. PubMed ID: 15126435 [Link]; page 640

  21. 20 Marianne Rosendal 2005 Management of medically unexplained symptoms BMJ 2005;330:4-5[Link]; page 641

  22. 21 Capgras syndrome and possible worlds or places where the real person and its imposter coexist. Author: Niiyama Y. Journal: Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi; 2004 ; 106(3):281-303. PubMed ID: 15164577[Link]; page 641

  23. 22 Clonal pluralization of the self’: a new form of delusional misidentification syndrome. Author: VÅ¡rÅ¡s V, TŽnyi T, Simon M, Trixler M. Journal: Psychopathology; 2003 Jan-Feb ; 36(1):46-8. PubMed ID: 12679592 [Link]; page 641

  24. 23 Brain Dev. 2001 Dec;23(8):810-4. Roubertie A. Neurological presentation of three patients with 22q11 deletion (CATCH 22 syndrome). [Link]; page 642

  25. 24 Recenti Prog Med. 1999 Apr;90(4):213-5 (Italian). Bindi M. [Chronic erythremic myelosis (or the chronic form of Di Guglielmo’s disease). A case report] [Link]; page 642

  26. 25 Glucocorticoid corticosteroids for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Author: Manzur AY, Kuntzer T, Pike M, Swan A. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2004 ; (2):CD003725. PubMed ID: 15106215 [Link]; page 642

  27. 26 Rev Port Cardiol. 2001 Sep;20(9):865-73 (English, Portuguese). Moura C. Ebstein’s anomaly in neonates. [Link]; page 642

  28. 27 Int J Epidemiol. 1999 Aug;28(4):711-6. Naguib KK. Trisomy 18 in Kuwait. [Link]; page 642

  29. 28 J Heart Lung Transplant. 2002 Feb;21(2):226-32. Charman SC. Assessment of survival benefit after lung transplantation by patient diagnosis. [Link]; page 642

  30. 29 Korean J Radiol. 2001 Jul-Sep;2(3):121-31. Choe YH. MR imaging of congenital heart diseases in adolescents and adults. [Link]; page 644

  31. 30 Int J Hematol. 2001 Jul;74(1):33-41. Yamashita T. Current knowledge on the pathophysiology of Fanconi anemia: from genes to phenotypes. [Link]; page 644

  32. 31 Brain Inj. 2000 Dec;14(12):1101-5. Dalfen AK. Head injury, dissociation and the Ganser syndrome.[Link]; page 644

  33. 32 J Pediatr. 2001 Dec;139(6):862-4. Lee SY. Gaucher disease with pulmonary involvement in a 6-year-old girl: report of resolution of radiographic abnormalities on increasing dose of imiglucerase. [Link]; page 644

  34. 33 Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir. 1999 May;3(3):158-64 (German). Schultze A. [Oral manifestations of Lpngerhans’ cell histiocytosis. Therapeutic strategies involving oral and maxillofacial surgery] [Link]; page 644

  35. 34 J Assoc Physicians India. 2000 Mar;48(3):346-8. Agarwal V. Langerhans cell histiocytosis. [Link]; page 644

  36. 35 Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Jun 8;284(2):255-60. Nozaki J. Homozygosity mapping to chromosome 5p15 of a gene responsible for Hartnup disorder. [Link]; page 644

  37. 36 Clin Exp Dermatol. 1994 Sep;19(5):407-8. Oakley A. Hartnup disease presenting in an adult. [Link]; page 644

  38. 37 Detection of a new mutation (G1253T) of iduronate-2-sulfatase gene for the patient with mucopolysaccharidosis type II. Author: Zhang CY, Li LY, Liu SF, Fu JJ, Lu GX. Journal: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi; 2004 Jun ; 21(3):269-71. PubMed ID: 15192834 [Link]; page 644

  39. 38 Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Jun 8;284(2):255-60. Nozaki J. Homozygosity mapping to chromosome 5p15 of a gene responsible for Hartnup disorder. [Link]; page 644

  40. 39 J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000 Dec;69(6):773-9. Kirkwood SC. Subtle changes among presymptomatic carriers of the Huntington’s disease gene. [Link]; page 646

  41. 40 Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2001 Nov;25(5):577-83. Zariwala M. Germline mutations in an intermediate chain dynein cause primary ciliary dyskinesia. [Link]; page 646

  42. 41 Intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of Kawasaki disease in children. Author: Oates-Whitehead RM, Baumer JH, Haines L, Love S, Maconochie IK, Gupta A, Roman K, Dua JS, Flynn I.Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2003 ; (4):CD004000. PubMed ID: 14584002 [Link]; page 646

  43. 42 Circulation. 2002 Feb 26;105(8):908-11. Greil GF. Coronary magnetic resonance angiography in adolescents and young adults with kawasaki disease. [Link]; page 646

  44. 43 Circulation. 2002 Feb 26;105(8):908-11. Greil GF. Coronary magnetic resonance angiography in adolescents and young adults with kawasaki disease. [Link]; page 646

  45. 44 Neurology. 2001 Aug 28;57(4):733-5. Yamanaka G. Tongue atrophy in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. [Link]; page 648

  46. 45 J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000 Jul;69(1):114-6. van der Kooi AJ. Extension of the clinical range of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: report of six cases. [Link]; page 648

  47. 46 J Am Board Fam Pract. 2002 Jan-Feb;15(1):50-4. Khotianov N. Lewy body dementia: case report and discussion. [Link]; page 648

  48. 47 J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2001 Oct;14(10):1033-5. Ananthasubramaniam K. Giant left atrium secondary to tight mitral stenosis leading to acquired Lutembacher syndrome: a case report with emphasis on role of echocardiography in assessment of Lutembacher syndrome. [Link]; page 648

  49. 48 Mol Med Today. 2000 May;6(5):193-8. Kooy RF. Fragile X syndrome at the turn of the century.[Link]; page 648

  50. 49 J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2001 Oct;14(10):1033-5. Ananthasubramaniam K. Giant left atrium secondary to tight mitral stenosis leading to acquired Lutembacher syndrome: a case report with emphasis on role of echocardiography in assessment of Lutembacher syndrome. [Link]; page 649

  51. 50 Am J Orthop. 2000 Feb;29(2):115-8. Biyani A. Complications in the management of complex Monteggia-equivalent fractures in adults. [Link]; page 650

  52. 51 Am J Orthop. 2000 Feb;29(2):115-8. Biyani A. Complications in the management of complex Monteggia-equivalent fractures in adults. [Link]; page 650

  53. 52 [Presentation of Niemann-Pick type C disease with psychiatric disturbance in an adult. Tyvaert L, Journal: Rev Neurol (Paris); 2005 Mar ; 161(3):318-22. PubMed ID: 15800453. [Link]; page 650

  54. 53 Am J Hum Genet. 1998 Jul;63(1):52-4. Greer WL. The Nova Scotia (type D) form of Niemann-Pick disease is caused by a G3097-->T transversion in NPC1. [Link]; page 650

  55. 54 Activating mutations of the noonan syndrome-associated SHP2/PTPN11 gene in human solid tumors and adult acute myelogenous leukemia. Neel BG. Journal: Cancer Res; 2004 Dec 15 ; 64(24):8816-20. PubMed ID: 15604238 [Link]; page 650

  56. 55 Ann Plast Surg. 1998 Jul;41(1):75-80. Szwajkun P. The “Taiwanese giant”: hormonal and genetic influences in fibrous dysplasia. [Link]; page 651

  57. 56 J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Jan-Feb;11(1):77-81. Schmidt H. Secondary central precocious puberty in a girl with McCune-Albright syndrome responds to treatment with GnRH analogue. [Link]; page 651

  58. 57 Minerva Stomatol. 1998 Jan-Feb;47(1-2):37-44 (Italian). Mandrioli S. [Fibrous dysplasia. The clinico-therapeutic picture and new data on its etiology. A review of the literature] [Link]; page 651

  59. 58 Hum Mutat. 1998;11(5):413. Beesley CE. The identification of five novel mutations in the lysosomal acid a-(1-4) glucosidase gene from patients with glycogen storage disease type II. Mutations in brief no. 134. Online. [Link]; page 652

  60. 59 J Intellect Disabil Res. 2002 Jan;46(Pt 1):41-50. Descheemaeker MJ. Prader-Willi syndrome: new insights in the behavioural and psychiatric spectrum. [Link]; page 652

  61. 60 Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2002 Jan;111(1):68-76. Kaberos A. Audiological assessment in Ramsay Hunt syndrome. [Link]; page 652

  62. 61 Eur J Hum Genet. 2001 Mar;9(3):231-6. Girard M. Parental origin of de novo MECP2 mutations in Rett syndrome. [Link]; page 652

  63. 62 Arch Dis Child. 2001 Jul;85(1):29-37. Julu PO. Characterisation of breathing and associated central autonomic dysfunction in the Rett disorder. [Link]; page 652

  64. 63 Indian J Pediatr. 2001 May;68(5):423-6. Johnston MV. Developmental disorders of activity dependent neuronal plasticity. [Link]; page 652

  65. 64 GENOMIC IMPRINTING : A TALK WITH DAVID HAIG [Link]; page 652

  66. 65 From gene to diseases; hypokalemic periodic paralysis. Author: Links TP, Ginjaar HB, van der Hoeven JH. Journal: Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2004 May 22 ; 148(21):1035-8. PubMed ID: 15185439[Link]; page 652

  67. 66 Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2001 Jul;41(7):397-401 (Japanese). Katsuno M. [A case of familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis with hyperuricemia during paralytic attack and genetic analysis of the pedigree] [Link]; page 652

  68. 67 Unique maternal deletion of 15q in a patient with some symptoms of Prader-Willi syndrome. Author: Ninomiya S, Yokoyama Y, Kawakami M, Une T, Maruyama H, Morishima T. Journal: Pediatr Int; 2005 Oct ; 47(5):541-5. PubMed ID: 16190961. [Link]; page 653

  69. 68 Glucocorticoid Responsiveness in PTSD: Evidence of Epigenetic Origins? Rachel Yehuda, PhD, Division of Traumatic Stress Studies, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Bronx Veterans Affairs, New York, NY [Link]; page 653

  70. 69 Cardiovascular and diabetes mortality determined by nutrition during parents’ and grandparents’ slow growth period. Author: Kaati G, Bygren LO, Edvinsson S. Journal: Eur J Hum Genet; 2002 Nov ; 10(11):682-8. PubMed ID: 12404098. [Link]; page 653

  71. 70 Changes to the genome that do not affect DNA sequence [Link]; page 653

  72. 71 Archives of Disease in Childhood 2003;88:1015-1016--A novel presentation of juvenile idiopathic arthropathy. L Dyet [Link]; page 654

  73. 72 Postgrad Med J. 2002 Feb;78(916):97-8. Stoica GS. Adult Still’s disease and respiratory failure in a 74 year old woman. [Link]; page 654

  74. 73 Eur Heart J. 1995 Oct;16(10):1448-50. Zenagui D. Atypical presentation of adult Still’s disease mimicking acute bacterial endocarditis. [Link]; page 654

  75. 74 Ann Rheum Dis. 2001 Nov;60 Suppl 3:iii55-7. Kraetsch HG. Successful treatment of a small cohort of patients with adult onset of Still’s disease with infliximab: first experiences. [Link]; page 654

  76. 75 Biol Psychiatry. 2000 May 15;47(10):851-7. Murphy TK. On defining Sydenham’s chorea: where do we draw the line? [Link]; page 654

  77. 76 Brain Dev. 2002 Mar;24(2):73-6. Genel F. Sydenham’s chorea: clinical findings and comparison of the efficacies of sodium valproate and carbamazepine regimens. [Link]; page 654

  78. 77 J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jul;14 Suppl 2:959-65. Guarneri MP. Turner’s syndrome. [Link]; page 655

  79. 78 Endocrine. 2001 Jun;15(1):5-13. Bramswig JH. Long-term results of growth hormone therapy in Turner syndrome. [Link]; page 655

  80. 79 Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2001 Aug;55(2):227-31. Elsheikh M. Hormone replacement therapy may improve hepatic function in women with Turner’s syndrome. [Link]; page 655

  81. 80 Transplantation. 2001 Jul 27;72(2):343-4. Gossmann J. Multiple adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma in a renal transplant patient with glycogen storage disease type 1a (von Gierke disease).[Link]; page 655

  82. 81 Mol Biol Cell. 1999 Aug;10(8):2655-68. Balajee AS. The Werner syndrome protein is involved in RNA polymerase II transcription. [Link]; page 655

  83. 82 Genes Cells. 2001 May;6(5):421-30. Sakamoto S. Werner helicase relocates into nuclear foci in response to DNA damaging agents and co-localizes with RPA and Rad51. [Link]; page 655

  84. 83 Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2001 Sep;1(5):430-7. Nonoyama S. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. [Link]; page 655

Web-based references relating to the disc signs in footnotes, organised by page number

  • Definition of alcoholic proof--Wikipedia [Link]; page 639

Chapter 11: Orthopaedics and trauma

  1. 1 Emergency medicine. Daniel M Fatovich. [Link]; page 657

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  181. 183 J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2000 Nov-Dec;8(6):364-72. Woo SL. Healing and repair of ligament injuries in the knee. [Link]; page 752

  182. 184 Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2000 May;8(2):243-70. Rubin DA. Current concepts and controversies in meniscal imaging. [Link]; page 752

  183. 185 Magn Reson Imaging. 1999 Sep;17(7):947-5 Medial tibial pain: a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI study--Mattila KT [Link]; page 752

  184. 186 Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech. 2002;69(5):312-6. Occult bone trauma detected by magnetic resonance imaging. Drugova B [Link]; page 752

  185. 187 Arthroscopy. 2002 Oct;18(8):935-8. Serious consequences of the wrong diagnosis of meniscal lesion in a case of stress fracture of the distal femur--Huber W [Link]; page 752

  186. 188 Am J Knee Surg. 1995 Summer;8(3):114-6. Prince AR. Arthroscopic treatment of an avulsion fracture of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia. Case report. [Link]; page 752

  187. 189 Radiographics. 2000 Oct;20 Spec No:S135-51. Bone contusion patterns of the knee at MR imaging: footprint of the mechanism of injury--Sanders TG [Link]; page 753

  188. 190 Courtesy of Hollis M. Fritts.MD” > [Link]; page 753

  189. 191 Clin J Sport Med. 2000 Oct;10(4):291-6. Verhagen EA. The effect of preventive measures on the incidence of ankle sprains. [Link]; page 754

  190. 192 Orthopedics. 2000 Jul;23(7):687-90. Babis GC. Operative treatment for Maisonneuve fracture of the proximal fibula. Medline abstract, n=26 [Link]; page 754

  191. 193 Int J Trauma Nurs. 2000 Oct-Dec;6(4):133-6. Patterson M. Lisfranc’s or tarsometatarsal fracture-dislocation. [Link]; page 754

  192. 194 AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1999 Dec;173(6):1673-7. Preidler KW. Conventional radiography, CT, and MR imaging in patients with hyperflexion injuries of the foot: diagnostic accuracy in the detection of bony and ligamentous changes. [Link]; page 754

  193. 195 Acta Orthop Belg. 1997 Jun;63(2):82-90. Mulier T. The treatment of Lisfranc injuries. [Link]; page 754

  194. 196 Unfallchirurg. 1999 Mar;102(3):152-66 (German). Thermann H. [Treatment of intraarticular calcaneal fractures in adults. A treatment algorithm] [Link]; page 754

  195. 197 Clin Orthop. 1989 Jun;(243):195-9. Tountas AA. Occult fracture-subluxation of the midtarsal joint.[Link]; page 754

  196. 198 Rev Prat. 1997 Jan 1;47(1):50-5 (French). Marcelli C. [Fatigue fractures of the foot] [Link]; page 754

  197. 199 Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1999 Oct 16;143(42):2097-101 (Dutch). van Dijk CN. [CBO-guideline for diagnosis and treatment of the acute ankle injury. National organization for quality assurance in hospitals] [Link]; page 755

  198. 200 Orthopade. 1999 Jun;28(6):476-82 (German). Wulker N. [Lateral ankle ligament rupture. When is surgical management indicated and when conservative therapy preferred?] [Link]; page 755

  199. 201 Clin J Sport Med. 1999 Jan;9(1):40-5. Frost SC. Is stress radiography necessary in the diagnosis of acute or chronic ankle instability? Medline abstract, meta-analysis [Link]; page 755

  200. 202 Ann Chir Gynaecol. 1998;87(4):311-6. Ahmad MA. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and injured lateral collateral ligaments of the ankle. [Link]; page 755

  201. 203 Orthopade. 1999 Jun;28(6):476-82 (German). Wulker N. [Lateral ankle ligament rupture. When is surgical management indicated and when conservative therapy preferred?] [Link]; page 755

  202. 204 [Injury. 1998 Oct;29(8):577-80 (English), Kennedy JG. An evaluation of the Weber classification of ankle fractures.] [Link]; page 755

  203. 205 [Injury 1997;28 Suppl 1:A42-7 (English), discussion A47-8. Helfet DL Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis of distal fractures of the tibia.] [Link]; page 755

  204. 206 CG4 Head injury: Triage, assessment, investigation and early management of head injury in infants, children and adults - NICE guideline [Link]; page 756

  205. 207 Link no longer available; page 758

  206. 208 J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 1999 Aug;27(4):235-42. Eckelt U. Clinical and radiological evaluation following surgical treatment of condylar neck fractures with lag screws. [Link]; page 758

  207. 209 Spine. 2000 Jul 15;25(14):1782-7. Rosenfeld M. Early intervention in whiplash-associated disorders: a comparison of two treatment protocols. [Link]; page 758

  208. 210 Ann Surg. 2000 May;231(5):689-700. McCarter FD. Institutional and individual learning curves for focused abdominal ultrasound for trauma: cumulative sum analysis. [Link]; page 761

  209. 211 Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1999 Nov;28(6):805-9. Yeo A. Focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST). [Link]; page 761

  210. 212 J Trauma. 2000 Sep;49(3):505-10. Ochsner MG. Significance of minimal or no intraperitoneal fluid visible on CT scan associated with blunt liver and splenic injuries: a multicenter analysis. Medline abstract, n=938 [Link]; page 761

  211. 213 J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2000 Jul-Aug;8(4):243-52. Lee SK. Peripheral nerve injury and repair.[Link]; page 762

  212. 214 Hand neuroanatomy [Link]; page 762

  213. 215 Sensory relearning after nerve repair. Author: Lundborg G, RosŽn B. Journal: Lancet; 2001 Sep 8 ; 358(9284):809-10. PubMed ID: 11564490 [Link]; page 763

  214. 216 Hand anatomy [Link]; page 764

  215. 217 N Engl J Med. 1974 Nov 14;291(20):1059-67. Leffert RD. Brachial-plexus injuries. [Link]; page 766

  216. 218 Radiology. 1999 Jul;212(1):117-25. Blackmore CC. Cervical spine screening with CT in trauma patients: a cost-effectiveness analysis. [Link]; page 768

  217. 219 Lancet. 2002 Feb 2;359(9304):417-25. Spinal-cord injury. McDonald JW [Link]; page 768

  218. 219 The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2004. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Bracken MB. Steroids for acute spinal cord injury (Cochrane Review) [Link]; page 768

  219. 220 Undiagnosed spinal cord injuries in brain-injured children. Author: Sneed RC, Stover SL. Journal: Am J Dis Child; 1988 Sep ; 142(9):965-7. PubMed ID: 3414628 [Link]; page 769

  220. 221 Lancet. 2002 Feb 2;359(9304):417-25. McDonald JW. Spinal-cord injury. [Link]; page 774

  221. 222 Am J Psychother. 1994 Spring;48(2):208-20. Gunther MS. Countertransference issues in staff caregivers who work to rehabilitate catastrophic-injury survivors. [Link]; page 775

  222. 223 J Sex Marital Ther. 1975 Summer;1(4):312-8. Miller DK. Sexual counseling with spinal cord-injured clients. [Link]; page 775

  223. 224 Am Fam Physician. 1987 Jul;36(1):129-33. Walbroehl GS. Sexuality in the handicapped. [Link]; page 775

  224. 225 Scand J Rehabil Med Suppl. 1983;9:189-94. Sjogren K. The sexual experience in younger males with complete spinal cord injury. [Link]; page 775

  225. 226 J Sex Marital Ther. 2001 Oct-Dec;27(5):615-23. Tepper MS. Women with complete spinal cord injury: a phenomenological study of sexual experiences. [Link]; page 775

  226. 227 Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1992 Aug;71(4):225-31. White MJ. Sexual activities, concerns and interests of men with spinal cord injury. [Link]; page 775

  227. 228 Scand J Rehabil Med Suppl. 1983;9:189-94. Sjogren K. The sexual experience in younger males with complete spinal cord injury. [Link]; page 775

  228. 229 Ann Neurol. 2001 Jan;49(1):35-44. Sipski ML. Sexual arousal and orgasm in women: effects of spinal cord injury. [Link]; page 775

  229. 230 Neurology. 1998 Dec;51(6):1629-33. Derry FA. Efficacy and safety of oral sildenafil (Viagra) in men with erectile dysfunction caused by spinal cord injury. [Link]; page 775

  230. 231 Lancet. 2002 Feb 2;359(9304):417-25. McDonald JW. Spinal-cord injury. [Link]; page 775

  231. 232 Nexus cervical spine criteria. Vinson DR. Ann Emerg Med; 2001 Feb ; 37(2):237-8. PubMed ID: 11174248 [Link]; page 780

  232. 233 [Full-text] BMJ 2002;324:958-962 ( 20 April ). Clinical review Recent developments. Emergency medicine;Daniel M Fatovich [Link]; page 780

  233. 234 Health protection Agency [Link]; page 784

  234. 236 Prazosin therapy and scorpion envenomation. Author: Bawaskar HS, Bawaskar PH. Journal: J Assoc Physicians India; 2000 Dec ; 48(12):1175-80. PubMed ID: 11280223. [Link]; page 784

  235. 237 Clinical and echocardiographic findings in patients with myocardial toxicity due to scorpion sting. Author: Rajasekhar D, Mohan A. Journal: Natl Med J India; 2004 Nov-Dec ; 17(6):307-9. PubMed ID: 15736551. [Link]; page 784

un-numbered, bottom of p. 786: typographical error Ã� Link no longer available” > [Link]; page 786

  1. 238 Am J Emerg Med. 1999 Oct;17(6):532-9. Backer HD. Exertional heat illness and hyponatremia in hikers. [Link]; page 788

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  • Exacerbating cervical spine injury by applying a hard collar [Link]; page 658

  • Spine. 2000 Sep 15;25(18):2326-32. Wiley JW. Effectiveness of the boston brace in treatment of large curves in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. [Link]; page 672

  • A population based historical cohort study of the mortality associated with nabumetone, Arthrotec, diclofenac, and naproxen. Author: Ashworth NL, Peloso PM, Muhajarine N, Stang M. Journal: J Rheumatol; 2004 May ; 31(5):951-6. PubMed ID: 15124256 [Link]; page 676

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  • Ann Rheum Dis. 2000 Dec;59(12):936-44. EULAR recommendations for the management of knee osteoarthritis: report of a task force of the Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutic Trials (ESCISIT). Pendleton A. [Link]; page 689

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  • Radiol Clin North Am. 1993 Mar;31(2):237-59. Giudici MA. Cartilaginous bone tumors. [Link]; page 700

  • N Engl J Med. 1999 Jan 14;340(2):156. Adler RH. The stethoscope as a diagnostic aid in tenosynovitis.[Link]; page 712

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  • CMAJ. 2002 Feb 19;166(4):437-41. Busse JW. The effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy on time to fracture healing: a meta-analysis. [Link]; page 732

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  • A fourth type of brachial plexus injury: middle lesion (C7). Author: Brunelli GA, Brunelli GR. Journal: Ital J Orthop Traumatol; 1992 ; 18(3):389-93. PubMed ID: 1308885. [Link]; page 766

  • Priapism--pathogenesis and therapy] Tscholl R. Schweiz Med Wochenschr; 1975 Apr 26 ; 105(17):517-21. PubMed ID: 1098140 [Link]; page 769

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  • Lancet. 2002 Feb 2;359(9304):417-25. McDonald JW. Spinal-cord injury. [Link]; page 773

Chapter 12: Pre-hospital care

  1. 1 Ensuring the safety of school age passengers [Link]; page 791

  2. 2 J Epidemiol Community Health. 1989 Sep;43(3):218-22. McCarthy M. The benefit of seat belt legislation in the United Kingdom. [Link]; page 791

  3. 3 Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1999;97:59-82; discussion 82-6. Stein JD. Air bags and ocular injuries.[Link]; page 791

  4. 4 Cutis. 2000 Oct;66(4):251-2. Foley E. Air bag injury and the dermatologist. [Link]; page 791

  5. 5 Inj Prev. 2000 Dec;6(4):293-8. Laflamme L. Social differences in traffic injury risks in childhood and youth--a literature review and a research agenda. [Link]; page 791

  6. 6 Lancet. 1998 Oct 24;352(9137):1331-6. Barbone F. Association of road-traffic accidents with benzodiazepine use. [Link]; page 791

  7. 7 Safety education of pedestrians for injury prevention: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Olivier Duperrex [Link]; page 791

  8. 8 London Times May 10th 2005 page 6; Speeding drivers sent to school (speed-awareness course) and: UK Minister of Transport (A Darling) [Link]; page 791

  9. 9 Ensuring the safety of school age passengers. Booster seats are necessary for optimal protection[Link]; page 792

  10. 9 J R Army Med Corps. 1999 Jun;145(2):55-9. Hodgetts TJ. Battlefield First Aid: a simple, systematic approach for every soldier. [Link]; page 794

  11. 10 Ann Vasc Surg. 2002 Jan;16(1):130-3. Epub 2002 Jan 17. Acute aortic thrombosis following incorrect application of the Heimlich maneuver. Mack L [Link]; page 795

  12. 11 Presse Med. 2000 Jul 1;29(23):1275-8 (French). Kintz P. [Drug tests on 198 drivers involved in an accident] [Link]; page 796

  13. 12 Aust J Public Health. 1995 Jun;19(3):235-42. Hall W. The public health significance of cannabis use in Australia. [Link]; page 796

  14. 13 Crit Care Med. 2000 Nov;28(11 Suppl):N196-8. Idris AH. Effects of inspired gas content during respiratory arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. [Link]; page 798

  15. 14 J R Army Med Corps. 1999 Jun;145(2):55-9. Hodgetts TJ. Battlefield First Aid: a simple, systematic approach for every soldier. [Link]; page 798

  16. 15 Anaesthesist. 1997 Feb;46(2):126-32 (German). Rossi R. [Early care or quick transport? The effectiveness of preclinical treatment of emergency patients] [Link]; page 799

  17. 16 N Engl J Med. 1995 Mar 9;332(10):681; author reply 682-3. Siegel JH. Immediate versus delayed fluid resuscitation in patients with trauma. [Link]; page 799

  18. 17 N Engl J Med. 1994 Oct 27;331(17):1105-9. Bickell WH. Immediate versus delayed fluid resuscitation for hypotensive patients with penetrating torso injuries. Medline abstract, n=598 [Link]; page 799

  19. 18 Anesteziol Reanimatol. 1998 Sep-Oct;(5):23-8 (Russian). Nikoda VV. [Comparative evaluation of the use of nalbuphine and buprenorphine in prehospital care] [Link]; page 802

  20. 19 Acad Emerg Med. 1997 Jan;4(1):22-6. Pierce MC. Evaluation of ketorolac in children with forearm fractures. [Link]; page 802

  21. 20 Can J Anaesth. 2000 Sep;47(9):866-74. Suzuki M. Midazolam attenuates ketamine-induced abnormal perception and thought process but not mood changes. [Link]; page 802

  22. 21 UK police ranks: Meaning [Link]; page 804

  23. 22 Rank Structure in the British Fire Service [Link]; page 804

  24. 23 Anaesthesist. 1997 Feb;46(2):114-20 (German). Mentges D. [Emergency medical service response to major incidents. A study of 21 cases] [Link]; page 806

  25. 24 Anaesthesist. 1997 Feb;46(2):114-20 (German). Mentges D. [Emergency medical service response to major incidents. A study of 21 cases] [Link]; page 806

  26. 25 Link no longer available; page 807

  27. 26 J Emerg Med. 2000 Apr;18(3):349-54. Cummings G. Scene disposition and mode of transport following rural trauma: a prospective cohort study comparing patient costs. [Link]; page 808

  28. 27 Lancet. 1996 May 18;347(9012):1348-9. Naylor CD. Air ambulances: missions of mercy or flights of futility? [Link]; page 808

  29. 28 BMJ. 1995 Jul 22;311(6999):217-22. Nicholl JP. Effects of London helicopter emergency medical service on survival after trauma. [Link]; page 808

  30. 29 J Burn Care Rehabil. 1997 May-Jun;18(3):200-5. Barillo DJ. Pressure-controlled ventilation for the long-range aeromedical transport of patients with burns. [Link]; page 808

  31. 30 Can J Anaesth. 1999 May;46(5 Pt 1):423-8. Fellahi JL. Hemodynamic effects of medical antishock trousers during mechanical ventilation. [Link]; page 809

  32. 31 JEMS. 2000 Feb;25(2):38-41, 44-5. Frank LR. Is MAST in the past? The pros and cons of MAST usage in the field. [Link]; page 809

  33. 32 Critical care and trauma scores--abbreviations explained [Link]; page 810

  34. 33 Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2000 May-Jun;79(3):235-42. Wagner AK. The value of trauma scores: predicting discharge after traumatic brain injury. [Link]; page 810

  35. 34 Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 2000 Apr 8;130(14):499-504 (German). Osterwalder JJ. [Quality assessment of multiple trauma management bu ISS, TRISS or ASCOT?] [Link]; page 810

  36. 35 Eur J Emerg Med. 2000 Sep;7(3):183-8. Ozguc H. Outcome of major trauma in a Turkish university hospital: did integrated approach make a difference? [Link]; page 810

  37. 36 Injury. 1997 Nov-Dec;28(9-10):633-7. Deo SD. Evaluation of a small trauma team for major resuscitation. [Link]; page 810

  38. 37 Chest. 1999 Dec;116(6):1683-8. Hirshberg B. Recovery from blast lung injury: one-year follow-up. Medline abstract, n=11 [Link]; page 812

  39. 38 J R Nav Med Serv. 2000;86(1):27-31. Guy RJ. Primary blast injury: pathophysiology and implications for treatment. Part III: Injury to the central nervous system and the limbs. [Link]; page 812

  40. 39 Psychiatr Serv. 2000 Mar;51(3):386-8. Pfefferbaum B. Posttraumatic stress among young children after the death of a friend or acquaintance in a terrorist bombing. [Link]; page 812

  41. 40 J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 1999 May;28(2):118-23 (French). Morales M. [Pregnancy and scuba diving: what precautions?] [Link]; page 814

Web-based references relating to the disc signs in footnotes, organised by page number

  • J R Army Med Corps. 1999 Jun;145(2):55-9.J R Army Med Corps. 2000 Feb;146(1):53. Battlefield First Aid: a simple, systematic approach for every soldier. Hodgetts TJ [Link]; page 794

  • AANA J. 1998 Jun;66(3):299-303. Davis D. Pediatric endotracheal tube selection: a comparison of age-based and height-based criteria. [Link]; page 806

  • J Pediatr Surg. 2001 Jan;36(1):106-12. Potoka DA. Development of a novel age-specific pediatric trauma score. [Link]; page 810

  • J Trauma. 2000 Oct;49(4):729-36. Ott R. Prognostic value of trauma scores in pediatric patients with multiple injuries. [Link]; page 810

  • Pediatr Emerg Care. 1999 Jun;15(3):215-23. Furnival RA. ABCs of scoring systems for pediatric trauma.[Link]; page 810

  • Improving Risk Adjustment in Critically Ill Trauma Patients: The TRISS-SAPS Score. Author: Reiter A, Mauritz W, Jordan B, Lang T, PÅ¡lzl A, Pelinka L, Metnitz PG. Journal: J Trauma; 2004 Aug ; 57(2):375 PubMed ID: 15345988 [Link]; page 810

  • BMJ. 1997 Mar 8;314(7082):701-5. Knauth M. Cohort study of multiple brain lesions in sport divers: role of a patent foramen ovale. [Link]; page 814

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