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Frontmatter

  1. 1 Image of mad-hatter--wearing three hats, courtesy of OUP; no link available; page iv

  2. 2 Jeanne Lenzer 2008. Doctor takes ‘march of shame, to atone for drug company payments. BMJ 2008 336 20. [Link]; page v

  3. 3 Image of abbreviations courtesy of JM Longmore; no link available; page xi

Chapter 01: Obstetrics

  1. 1 SDMS CME on The Umbilicus [Link]; page 0

  2. 2 Intimate partner violence: causes and prevention. Author: Jewkes R. Journal: Lancet; 2002 Apr 20 ; 359(9315):1423-9. PubMed ID: 11978358. [Link]; page 1

  3. 3 EBM 1997 2 150; no link available; page 1

  4. 4 Office for National statistics 2007. England & Wales [Link]; page 1

  5. 5 Effect of the interval between pregnancies on perinatal outcomes. Zhu BP, N Engl J Med; 1999 Feb 25 ; 340(8):589-94. PubMed ID: 10029642 [Link]; page 2

  6. 6 A Andersen 2000 BMJ 320 1708 [Link]; page 2

  7. 7 he use of a birthroom: a randomized controlled trial comparing delivery with that in the labour ward. Author: Chapman MG, Jones M, Spring JE, De Swiet M, Chamberlain GV. Journal: Br J Obstet Gynaecol; 1986 Feb ; 93(2):182-7. PubMed ID: 3511958. [Link]; page 4

  8. 8 Birth Centre (Ashurst, UK) [Link]; page 4

  9. 9 BMJ. 1998 Feb 21;316(7131):566-7. Macfarlane A. At last--maternity statistics for England. [Link]; page 5

  10. 10 Pregnancy weight gain and postpartum loss: avoiding obesity while optimizing the growth and development of the fetus. Author: Lederman SA. Journal: J Am Med Womens Assoc; 2001 Spring ; 56(2):53-8. PubMed ID: 11326797. [Link]; page 7

  11. 11 High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant non-Western women in The Hague, Netherlands. Author: van der Meer IM, Karamali NS, Boeke AJ, Lips P, Middelkoop BJ, Verhoeven I, Wuister JD. Journal: Am J Clin Nutr; 2006 Aug ; 84(2):350-3; quiz 468-9. PubMed ID: 16895882. [Link]; page 8

  12. 12 RCOG 2005 Greentop Guideline no 8 Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling [Link]; page 10

  13. 13 The value of sonography in early pregnancy for the detection of fetal abnormalities in an unselected population. Br J Obstet Gynaecol; 1999 Sep ; 106(9):929-36. PubMed ID: 10492104 [Link]; page 11

  14. 14 BMJ 1999;318:70-71 Down’s syndrome, cardiac anomalies, and nuchal translucency Fetal heart failure might link nuchal translucency and Down’s syndrome [Link]; page 11

  15. 15 Using fetal nuchal translucency to screen for major congenital cardiac defects at 10-14 weeks of gestation: population based cohort study. BMJ; 1999 Jan 9 ; 318(7176):81-5. PubMed ID: 9880278[Link]; page 11

  16. 16 Screening performance of first-trimester nuchal translucency for major cardiac defects: a meta-analysis Makrydimas G, Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2003; 189:1330 PubMed ID: 14634564 [Link]; page 11

  17. 17 Fetal cardiac defects and increased nuchal translucency thickness: a prospective study. McAuliffe FM Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2004; 191:1486 PubMed ID: 15507988 [Link]; page 11

  18. 18 The clinical evaluation and pregnancy outcome of euploid fetuses with increased nuchal translucency. Maymon R Clin Genet; 2004; 66:426. PubMed ID: 15479188 [Link]; page 11

  19. 19 Chromosomal abnormality rates at amniocentesis and in live-born infants. Author: Hook EB, Cross PK, Schreinemachers DM. Journal: JAMA; 1983 Apr 15 ; 249(15):2034-8. PubMed ID: 6220164. [Link]; page 12

  20. 20 Down’s syndrome screening is unethical: views of today’s research ethics committees. Author: Reynolds TM. Journal: J Clin Pathol; 2003 Apr ; 56(4):268-70. PubMed ID: 12663637. [Link]; page 12

  21. 21 Risk factors for procedure-related fetal losses after mid-trimester genetic amniocentesis. Author: Kong CW, Leung TN, Leung TY, Chan LW, Sahota DS, Fung TY, Lau TK. Journal: Prenat Diagn; 2006 Oct ; 26(10):925-30. PubMed ID: 16838383. [Link]; page 12

  22. 22 RCOG Clinical Guideline 27 2005 Placenta praevia: diagnosis and management [Link]; page 14

  23. 23 Rudolph Cardinal 1998. Fetal development, placenta and maternal physiology. [Link]; page 15

  24. 24 Pre-eclampsia is associated with the failure of melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM/CD146) expression by intermediate trophoblast. Qin Liu1. [Link]; page 15

  25. 25 RCOG 2004 Clinical Guideline 37 Thromboprophylaxis [Link]; page 16

  26. 26 Recurrence risk in hyperemesis gravidarum. Author: Trogstad LI, Stoltenberg C, Magnus P, Skjaerven R, Irgens LM. Journal: BJOG; 2005 Dec ; 112(12):1641-5. PubMed ID: 16305568. [Link]; page 18

  27. 27 Nasogastric enteral feeding in the management of hyperemesis gravidarum. Hsu JJ, Obstet Gynecol; 1996 Sep ; 88(3):343-6. PubMed ID: 8752236 [Link]; page 18

  28. 28 Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with a jejunal port for severe hyperemesis gravidarum. Irving PM, Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2004; 16: 937. PubMed ID: 15316422 [Link]; page 18

  29. 29 BJOG. 2000 Feb;107(2):245-53. Sadler L. Pregnancy outcomes and cardiac complications in women with mechanical, bioprosthetic and homograft valves. [Link]; page 20

  30. 30 1. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pregnant women and neonatal withdrawal syndrome: a database analysis. Sanz E, Lancet; 2005 365 482. PubMed ID: 15705457 [Link]; page 21

  31. 31 BJOG. 2000 Apr;107(4):437-8. Guidotti RJ. Anaemia in pregnancy in developing countries. [Link]; page 22

  32. 32 [The effectiveness of three regimens using ferrous sulfate to treat anemia in pregnant women] Author: de Souza AI, Batista Filho M, Ferreira LO, Figueirôa JN. Journal: Rev Panam Salud Publica; 2004 May ; 15(5):313-9. PubMed ID: 15231078. [Link]; page 22

  33. 33 Duration of ruptured membranes and vertical transmission of HIV-1: a meta-analysis from 15 prospective cohort studies.Author: International Perinatal HIV Group .Journal: AIDS; 2001 Feb 16 ; 15(3):357-68. PubMed ID: 11273216. [Link]; page 23

  34. 34 Effect of breastfeeding and formula feeding on transmission of HIV-1: a randomized clinical trial. Nduati R, JAMA; 2000 Mar 1 ; 283(9):1167-74. PubMed ID: 10703779 [Link]; page 23

  35. 35 L Kuhn 2008. Effects of early, abrupt weaning on HIV-free Survival of Children in Zambia. NEJM 359 130 [Link]; page 23

  36. 36 RCOG Clinical Guideline 39 2004 Management of HIV in pregnancy [Link]; page 23

  37. 37 Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 1999 Oct;13(4):452-65. Williams MA. A population-based cohort study of the relation between maternal birthweight and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in four racial/ethnic groups. [Link]; page 24

  38. 38 Diabetes. 1985 Jun;34 Suppl 2:106-10. Stowers JM. Long-range implications for the mother. The Aberdeen experience. [Link]; page 24

  39. 39 Dr François Nosten; Shoklo Malaria Research Unit (SMRU) is a field station attached to the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand and is part of the Wellcome-Oxford-Mahidol-University-Research Programme. [Link]; page 27

  40. 40 Safety, efficacy and determinants of effectiveness of antimalarial drugs during pregnancy: implications for prevention programmes in Plasmodium falciparum-endemic sub-Saharan Africa. Author: Newman RD, Parise ME, Slutsker L, Nahlen B, Steketee RW. Journal: Trop Med Int Health; 2003 Jun ; 8(6):488-506. PubMed ID: 12791054 [Link]; page 27

  41. 41 ntermittent Presumptive Treatment for Malaria A better understanding of the pharmacodynamics will guide more rational policymaking--Nicholas J White [Link]; page 27

  42. 42 The longer term outcome of children born to mothers with epilepsy. Adab N, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2004; 75:1575 PubMed ID: 15491979 [Link]; page 29

  43. 43 [Link]; page 29

  44. 44 Thromboembolic Disease in Pregnancy and the Puerperium: Acute Management (28) - Apr 2001[Link]; page 32

  45. 45 RCOG Clinical guidelines 28 2001 Thromboembolic disease in pregnancy and puerperium [Link]; page 32

  46. 46 I Greer 2000 NEJM 342 424 [Link]; page 33

  47. 47 British Heart Foundation Factfile 02/2002 [Link]; page 33

  48. 48 BJOG. 2000 Jan;107(1):84-8. Antsaklis AJ. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal primary cytomegalovirus infection. [Link]; page 34

  49. 49 AidsMap 2008 [Link]; page 34

  50. 50 Zidovudine with nevirapine for the prevention of HIV mother-to-child transmission reduces nevirapine resistance in mothers from the Western Cape, South Africa. Author: van Zyl GU, Claassen M, Engelbrecht S, Laten JD, Cotton MF, Theron GB, Preiser W. Journal: J Med Virol; 2008 Jun ; 80(6):942-6. PubMed ID: 18428139. [Link]; page 35

  51. 51 Guideline for preventing neonatal HIV. 2008 [Link]; page 35

  52. 52 K Kumwenda 2008. Extended antiviral prophylaxis to reduce breast-milk HIV-1 transmission. NEJM 359 119. [Link]; page 35

  53. 53 Tanania regimen for HIV in labour [Link]; page 35

  54. 54 Feasibility of prevention of perinatal HIV infection by nevirapine in rural areas of the northeast Democratic Republic of Congo, 2002-2004. Author: Kirere Mathe M, Sondag-Thull D, Lepage P. Journal: J Med Virol; 2008 May ; 80(5):772-6. PubMed ID: 18360889 [Link]; page 35

  55. 55 From PMTCT to a more comprehensive AIDS response for women: a much-needed shift. Author: Eyakuze C, Jones DA, Starrs AM, Sorkin N. Journal: Dev World Bioeth; 2008 Apr ; 8(1):33-42. PubMed ID: 18315723 [Link]; page 35

  56. 56 Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1999 Jan;106(1):66-71. Newell ML. Antenatal screening for hepatitis B infection and syphilis in the UK. [Link]; page 36

  57. 57 N Engl J Med. 1999 Mar 11;340(10):798-9. Ince N. The increasing incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. [Link]; page 36

  58. 58 Liver disease during pregnancy: acute viral hepatitis. Sookoian S. Ann Hepatol; 2006; 5:231. PubMed ID: 17060891 [Link]; page 36

  59. 59 Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000 Dec;41(13):4074-9. Bowman RJ. Operational comparison of single-dose azithromycin and topical tetracycline for trachoma. [Link]; page 36

  60. 60 Selective neonatal BCG vaccination. Bakshi D, Acta Paediatr; 2004; 93:1207 PubMed ID: 15384885[Link]; page 37

  61. 61 Appendicitis in pregnancy: new information that contradicts long-held clinical beliefs. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2000 May ; 182(5):1027-9. PubMed ID: 10819817 [Link]; page 38

  62. 62 J Clin Ultrasound. 2001 Jun;29(5):306-11. Humphrey R. Rectus sheath hematoma in pregnancy.[Link]; page 38

  63. 63 Am J Perinatol. 1997 Jul;14(6):321-3. Ramirez MM. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma during pregnancy mimicking abruptio placenta. [Link]; page 38

  64. 64 The acute abdomen and the obstetrician. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol; 2000 Feb ; 14(1):89-102. PubMed ID: 10789262 [Link]; page 38

  65. 65 Image of fetal positions drawn by OUP for OHCS-1 ; no link available; page 41

  66. 66 Hunter, William (1718-1783). Title: Anatomia uteri humani gravidi tabulis illustrata = The anatomy of the human gravid uterus exhibited in figures. [Link]; page 41

  67. 67 Image of pelvic diametres vs fetal head drawn by OUP for OHCS-2 ; no link available; page 43

  68. 68 Image of fetal heart rate patterns drawn by OUP for OHCS-3 ; no link available; page 45

  69. 69 Image of fetal heart deceleration patterns drawn for OHCS-3 by OUP ; no link available; page 45

  70. 70 NICE Guideline 2001 Electronic Fetal Monitoring [Link]; page 45

  71. 71 Accuracy and limitations of transabdominal fetal echocardiography at 12-15 weeks of gestation in a population at high risk for congenital heart disease. Simpsom JM, BJOG; 2000; 107:1492 PubMed ID: 11192105 [Link]; page 46

  72. 72 Lancet. 2000 Jan 8;355(9198):87-92. von Dadelszen P. Fall in mean arterial pressure and fetal growth restriction in pregnancy hypertension: a meta-analysis. [Link]; page 48

  73. 73 Lancet. 2002 Feb 23;359(9307):673-4. Wang JX. Surgically obtained sperm, and risk of gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. [Link]; page 48

  74. 74 Viske BE 2008 NEJM 359 800. Preeclampsia and risk of end-stae renal failure. [Link]; page 48

  75. 75 Brain lesions in newborns exposed to high-dose magnesium sulfate during preterm labor. Author: Mittendorf R, Dammann O, Lee KS. Journal: J Perinatol; 2006 Jan 1 ; 26(1):57-63. PubMed ID: 16319938. [Link]; page 48

  76. 76 The effect of second-trimester antibiotic therapy on the rate of preterm birth. Author: Morency AM, Bujold E. Journal: J Obstet Gynaecol Can; 2007 Jan ; 29(1):35-44. PubMed ID: 17346476. [Link]; page 50

  77. 77 BJOG. 2000 Jul;107(7):877-84. Baud O. The relationships between antenatal management, the cause of delivery and neonatal outcome in a large cohort of very preterm singleton infants. [Link]; page 50

  78. 78 N Engl J Med. 1999 Jan 14;340(2):154. Oei SG. Myocardial infarction during nifedipine therapy for preterm labor [Link]; page 50

  79. 79 Lancet. 2000 Jan 8;355(9198):87-92. von Dadelszen P. Fall in mean arterial pressure and fetal growth restriction in pregnancy hypertension: a meta-analysis. [Link]; page 52

  80. 80 Lancet. 1999 Apr 10;353(9160):1202-4. Schatz M. Asthma and pregnancy. [Link]; page 52

  81. 81 E Eichenwald 2008 NEJM 358 1700. Management and outcomes of very low birthweight. [Link]; page 52

  82. 82 Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1999 May;106(5):481-5. Boulvain M. Sweeping of the membranes to prevent post-term pregnancy and to induce labour: a systematic review. Medline abstract, Meta-analysis [Link]; page 54

  83. 83 Incidence, treatment and outcome of peripartum sepsis. Author: Kankuri E, Kurki T, Carlson P, Hiilesmaa V. Journal: Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 2003 Aug ; 82(8):730-5. PubMed ID: 12848644.[Link]; page 55

  84. 84 Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1999 Mar;78(3):186-90. Chan CC. Antepartum hemorrhage of unknown origin--what is its clinical significance? [Link]; page 56

  85. 85 Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 1982 Nov;42(11):798-802.The maternal perception of fetal movements during the last trimester of pregnancy Schmidt W [Link]; page 58

  86. 86 Towards better births. 2008 Health Care Commission. [Link]; page 58

  87. 87 BJOG. 2000 Jul;107(7):939-40. Acute postpartum myocardial infarction after ergometrine administration in a woman with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Mousa HA [Link]; page 58

  88. 88 Image of normal labour drawn by OUP for OHCS 1e ; no link available; page 59

  89. 89 BJOG. 2000 Feb;107(2):222-7. Ngai SW. Labour characteristics and uterine activity: misoprostol compared with oxytocin in women at term with prelabour rupture of the membranes. [Link]; page 60

  90. 90 Reproduced with permission from the Oxford Handbook of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2nd Edition ; no link available; page 63

  91. 91 J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 1999 Dec;8(10):1257-64. Scott KD. The obstetrical and postpartum benefits of continuous support during childbirth. [Link]; page 65

  92. 92 N Engl J Med. 1995 Sep 21;333(12):745-50. Frigoletto FD Jr. A clinical trial of active management of labor. [Link]; page 65

  93. 93 Towards better births. 2008 Health Care Commission. [Link]; page 66

  94. 94 BJOG. 2000 Oct;107(10):1248-51. Related Articles, Books, LinkOut Subcutaneous versus intracutaneous injections of sterile water for labour analgesia: a comparison of perceived pain during administration.Martensson L, Nyberg K, Wallin G. &: Contemp Rev Obs 12 29 [Link]; page 66

  95. 95 RCOG 2005 Greentop Guideline 26 Operative Vaginal Delivery [Link]; page 66

  96. 96 2001 Why Mothers Die 1997–9 Annexe C, chapter 2 page 74 RCOG; no link available; page 66

  97. 97 Prediction of chorionicity in twin pregnancies at 10-14 weeks of gestation. Carroll SG, BJOG; 2002 Feb ; 109:182. PubMed ID: 11905430 [Link]; page 68

  98. 98 Psychological consequences of having triplets: a 4-year follow-up study. Garel M. Fertil Steril; 1997 Jun ; 67(6):1162-5. PubMed ID: 9176462 [Link]; page 69

  99. 99 Psychological reactions after multifetal pregnancy reduction: a 2-year follow-up study. Garel M. Hum Reprod; 1997 Mar ; 12(3):617-22. PubMed ID: 9130770 [Link]; page 69

  100. 100 Dramatic reduction in triplet and higher order births in England and Wales. Simmons R, BJOG; 2004; 111:856 PubMed ID: 15270936 [Link]; page 69

  101. 101 External cephalic version: a safe procedure? A systematic review of version-related risks. Collaris RJ, Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 2004 ; 83:511. PubMed ID: 15144330 [Link]; page 70

  102. 102 Planned caesarean section versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: a randomised multicentre trial. Term Breech Trial Collaborative Group. Hannah ME, Lancet; 2000; 356:1375. PubMed ID: 11052579 [Link]; page 70

  103. 103 From the Daily Telegraph 17/05/2006. Why I still believe in home births [Link]; page 72

  104. 104 he mortality and morbidity associated with umbilical cord prolapse. Author: Murphy DJ, MacKenzie IZ. Journal: Br J Obstet Gynaecol; 1995 Oct ; 102(10):826-30. PubMed ID: 7547741. [Link]; page 72

  105. 105 RCOG 2008 Green-top guidelines. Prolapsed cord. [Link]; page 72

  106. 106 RCOG 2005 Green-top guidelines. Shoulder dystocia. [Link]; page 72

  107. 107 Changing obstetric practices associated with decreasing incidence of meconium aspiration syndrome. Yoder BA, Obstet Gynecol; 2002; 99:731 PubMed ID: 11978280 [Link]; page 73

  108. 108 Intrapartum amnioinfusion for meconium-stained amniotic fluid: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Author: Xu H, Hofmeyr J, Roy C, Fraser WD. Journal: BJOG; 2007 Apr ; 114(4):383-90. PubMed ID: 17378813. [Link]; page 73

  109. 109 Amnioinfusion for the prevention of the meconium aspiration syndrome. Author: Fraser WD, Hofmeyr J, Lede R, Faron G, Alexander S, Goffinet F, Ohlsson A, Goulet C, Turcot-Lemay L, Prendiville W, Marcoux S, Laperrière L, Roy C, Petrou S, Xu HR, Wei B, Amnioinfusion Trial Group . Journal: N Engl J Med; 2005 Sep 1 ; 353(9):909-17. PubMed ID: 16135835. [Link]; page 73

  110. 110 Surfactant for meconium aspiration syndrome in full term/near term infants. Author: El Shahed AI, Dargaville P, Ohlsson A, Soll RF. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2007 ; (3):CD002054. PubMed ID: 17636695. [Link]; page 73

  111. 111 Towards better births. 2008 Health Care Commission. [Link]; page 73

  112. 112 Communication between members of the cardiac arrest team--a postal survey. Author: Pittman J, Turner B, Gabbott DA. Journal: Resuscitation; 2001 May ; 49(2):175-7. PubMed ID: 11382523. [Link]; page 73

  113. 113 RCOG 2008 Green-top guidelines. Plolapsed cord. [Link]; page 73

  114. 114 BJOG. 2000 Jul;107(7):932-4. Related Articles, Books, LinkOut Outcome of the next labour in women who had a vaginal delivery in their first pregnancy. Mawdsley SD [Link]; page 76

  115. 115 Image of brachial plexus injury from OUP image bank. ; no link available; page 77

  116. 116 Brachial plexus paresis associated with fetal neck compression from forceps. Author: Gei AF, Smith RA, Hankins GD. Journal: Am J Perinatol; 2003 Aug ; 20(6):289-91. PubMed ID: 14528397 [Link]; page 77

  117. 117 Associated factors in 1611 cases of brachial plexus injury. Author: Gilbert WM, Nesbitt TS, Danielsen B. Journal: Obstet Gynecol; 1999 Apr ; 93(4):536-40. PubMed ID: 10214829 [Link]; page 77

  118. 118 Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy--etiopathogenesis, risk factors, prevention, prognosis Author: Gosk J, Rutowski R. Journal: Ginekol Pol; 2004 Oct ; 75(10):814-20. PubMed ID: 15587915 [Link]; page 77

  119. 119 Effect of operative vaginal delivery on the outcome of permanent brachial plexus injury. Author: Poggi SH, Ghidini A, Allen RH, Pezzullo JC, Rosenbaum TC, Spong CY. Journal: J Reprod Med; 2003 Sep ; 48(9):692-6. PubMed ID: 14562633. [Link]; page 77

  120. 120 RCOG Clinical Guideline 37 2004 Thomboprophylaxis [Link]; page 79

  121. 121 NICE Clinical Guideline 2004 Caesarean section [Link]; page 79

  122. 122 [Prophylaxis and therapy of the acid aspiration syndrome] Author: Ellmauer S. Journal: Anaesthesist; 1987 Nov ; 36(11):599-607. PubMed ID: 3322095. [Link]; page 80

  123. 123 RCOG 2005 Good Practice Paper 4 Registration of stillbirths and certification for pregnancy loss before 24 weeks of gestation [Link]; page 83

  124. 124 The B-Lynch technique for postpartum haemorrhage: an option for every gynaecologist. Holtsema H, Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2004; 115:39 PubMed ID: 15223163 [Link]; page 84

  125. 125 M Hall 2004 Ch 4 in Why Mothers Die; Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health 2000–2[Link]; page 85

  126. 126 Lancet. 1999 Sep 18;354(9183):983-6. Fynes M. Effect of second vaginal delivery on anorectal physiology and faecal continence: a prospective study. [Link]; page 91

  127. 127 Image of episeotomy drawn for OHCS-2 by OUP ; no link available; page 93

  128. 128 Contraceptive choices for breastfeeding women 2004 Br J Fam Plan and Reprod 30 181 [Link]; page 95

Web-based references relating to the disc signs in footnotes, organised by page number

  • Antenatal and postnatal mental health: clinical management and service guidance [Link]; page 2

  • RCOG 2007 Diabetes in pregnancy. Are we providing the best care? [Link]; page 2

  • RCOG Statement no 5. Alcohol consumption and outcomes of pregnancy [Link]; page 2

  • RCOG 2007 Diabetes in Pregnancy Are we providing the best care?[Link]; page 3

  • 2008 NICE Clinical Guideline 63 Diabetes in Pregnancy [Link]; page 3

  • An estimation of intrapartum-related perinatal mortality rates for booked home births in England and Wales between 1994 and 2003. Mori R, BJOG; 2008; 115:554 PubMed ID: 18333936 [Link]; page 5

  • Saving Mothers’ Lives: Reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer [Link]; page 7

  • Pregnancy weight gain: still controversial. Author: Abrams B, Altman SL, Pickett KE. Journal: Am J Clin Nutr; 2000 May ; 71(5 Suppl):1233S-41S [Link]; page 7

  • Discordance in nuchal translucency thickness in the prediction of severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Kagan KO, Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2007; 29:527 PubMed ID: 17444560 [Link]; page 11

  • Fetal nuchal translucency thickness. Witters I, Genet Couns; 2007 ; 18:1. PubMed ID: 17515296 [Link]; page 11

  • Chromosomal abnormality rates at amniocentesis and in live-born infants. Author: Hook EB, Cross PK, Schreinemachers DM. Journal: JAMA; 1983 Apr 15 ; 249(15):2034-8. PubMed ID: 6220164. [Link]; page 12

  • Maternal age and Down’s. [Link]; page 12

  • American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Later Childbearing. ACOG, Washington, DC, 1999. [Link]; page 12

  • Dose dependency between cigarette consumption and reduced maternal serum PAPP-A levels at 11-13(+6) weeks of gestation. Kagan KO, Prenat Diagn; 2007; 27:849. PubMed ID: 17590888 [Link]; page 12

  • In vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic screening. Mastenbroek S, N Engl J Med; 2007; 357:9. PubMed ID: 17611204 [Link]; page 13

  • p82 in Saving Mothers’ Lives: Reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer 2003-5 [Link]; page 14

  • page 68 in Saving Mothers’ Lives: Reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer 2003-5 [Link]; page 16

  • Relapse of major depression during pregnancy in women who maintain or discontinue antidepressant treatment. Cohen L JAMA; 2006 295 499. PubMed ID: 16449615 [Link]; page 21

  • 2007 NICE clinical guideline 45 Antenatal and postnatal mental health [Link]; page 21

  • Paroxetine and congenital malformations: meta-Analysis and consideration of potential confounding factors. Bar-Oz B, Clin Ther; 2007; 29:918. PubMed ID: 17697910 [Link]; page 21

  • NICE guideline 2008 Diabetes in pregnancy [Link]; page 24

  • Propylthiouracil versus methimazole in treatment of Graves’ disease during pregnancy. Chattaway JM, Ann Pharmacother; 2007; 41:1018. PubMed ID: 17504839 [Link]; page 25

  • Unresolved questions in managing hypothyroidism during pregnancy. Glinoer D, BMJ; 2007 ; 335:300. PubMed ID: 17690371 [Link]; page 25

  • RCOG 2006 Greentop Guideline 43 Obstetric cholestasis [Link]; page 26

  • Malaria misconceptions. Nosten F, Lancet; 2005; 365 653. PubMed ID: 15721465 [Link]; page 27

  • Effect of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance on the efficacy of intermittent preventive therapy for malaria control during pregnancy: a systematic review. ter Kuile FO, van Eijk AM, Filler SJ. JAMA; 2007 Jun 20 ; 297:2603 PubMed ID: 17579229 [Link]; page 27

  • Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Macejko AM, Urol Clin North Am; 2007; 34:35 PubMed ID: 17145359 [Link]; page 28

  • Am J Med Genet. 2001 Jan 15;98(2):168-75. Kozma C. Valproic acid embryopathy: report of two siblings with further expansion of the phenotypic abnormalities and a review of the literature. [Link]; page 29

  • Pregnancy in rheumatology patients exposed to anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha therapy. Roux CH, Rheumatology (Oxford); 2007; 46:695 PubMed ID: 17158212 [Link]; page 30

  • RCOG 2007 Greentop Guideline 28 Thromboembolic disease in pregnancy and the puerperium: Acute management. [Link]; page 32

  • Laparoscopic appendectomy during pregnancy: between personal experiences and scientific evidence. Moreno-Sanz C, J Am Coll Surg; 2007; 205:37. PubMed ID: 17617330 [Link]; page 38

  • Fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) for fetal monitoring during labour. Author: Neilson JP. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2006 ; 3():CD000116. PubMed ID: 16855950 [Link]; page 44

  • Fetal pulse oximetry and cesarean delivery. Bloom SL, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network . N Engl J Med; 2006 Nov 23 ; 355(21):2195-202. PubMed ID: 17124017 [Link]; page 44

  • BJOG. 2000 Dec;107(12):1492-7. Simpsom JM. Accuracy and limitations of transabdominal fetal echocardiography at 12-15 weeks of gestation in a population at high risk for congenital heart disease.[Link]; page 47

  • Antibiotics in preterm labour--the Oracle speaks [Link]; page 50

  • Childhood outcomes after prescription of antibiotics to pregnant women with spontaneous preterm labour: 7-year follow-up of the ORACLE II trial [Link]; page 50

  • Cerebral palsy among very preterm children in relation to gestational age and neonatal ultrasound abnormalities: the EPIPAGE cohort study. Ancel PY, EPIPAGE Study Group . Pediatrics; 2006; 117:828 PubMed ID: 16510664 [Link]; page 51

  • Repeat doses of prenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of preterm birth for preventing neonatal respiratory disease. Crowther C, Database Syst Rev; 2007 CD003935. PubMed ID: 17636741 [Link]; page 51

  • Critical care decisions in fetal and neonatal medicine; ethical issues [Link]; page 51

  • Perinatal Mortality 2005 [Link]; page 51

  • Induction of labour for improving birth outcomes for women at or beyond term. Gülmezoglu AM, Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2006 ; 56 :CD004945. PubMed ID: 17054226 [Link]; page 54

  • CG62 Antenatal Care [Link]; page 54

  • CEMACH publication Perinatal Mortality 2005 [Link]; page 54

  • p97 in Saving Mothers’ Lives: Reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer 2003-5 [Link]; page 55

  • Association of caesarean delivery for first birth with placenta praevia and placental abruption in second pregnancy. Yang Q, BJOG; 2007; 114:609. PubMed ID: 17355267 [Link]; page 56

  • Thrombophilia in pregnancy: a systematic review. Robertson L, The Thrombosis: Risk and Economic Assessment of Thrombophilia Screening (TREATS) Study . Br J Haematol; 2006; 132:171. PubMed ID: 16398652 [Link]; page 56

  • Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1984 Oct;91(10):1014-8. Singhi S. Intrapartum infusion of aqueous glucose solution, transplacental hyponatraemia and risk of neonatal jaundice. [Link]; page 58

  • East Afr Med J. 1991 Feb;68(2):88-92. Omigbodun AO. Effects of using either saline or glucose as a vehicle for infusion in labour. [Link]; page 58

  • Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1995 Apr;59(2):149-51. Stratton JF. Hyponatraemia and non-electrolyte solutions in labouring primigravida. [Link]; page 58

  • Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1996 Sep;68(1-2):47-8. Higgins J. Maternal and neonatal hyponatraemia: a comparison of Hartmanns solution with 5% dextrose for the delivery of oxytocin in labour. [Link]; page 58

  • Saving Mothers Lives: Reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer 2003-5 [Link]; page 58

  • Planned early birth versus expectant management (waiting) for prelabour rupture of membranes at term (37 weeks or more). Dare MR, Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2006 ; 20:CD005302. PubMed ID: 16437525 [Link]; page 60

  • Oral misoprostol administration for labor induction. Weeks A, Clin Obstet Gynecol; 2006; 49:658. PubMed ID: 16885670 [Link]; page 62

  • Combined spinal-epidural versus epidural analgesia in labour. Simmons S, Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2007 ; 197:CD003401. PubMed ID: 17636721 [Link]; page 67

  • Managing twins discordant for fetal anomaly. Author: Rustico MA, Baietti MG, Coviello D, Orlandi E, Nicolini U. Journal: Prenat Diagn; 2005 Sep ; 25(9):766-71. PubMed ID: 16170860. [Link]; page 68

  • RCOG 2007 Scientific Advisory paper 8 Perinatal risks associated with IVF [Link]; page 69

  • Greentop Guideline 20(a) External cephalic version [Link]; page 70

  • External cephalic version for breech presentation with or without spinal analgesia in nulliparous women at term: a randomized controlled trial. Weiniger CF, Obstet Gynecol; 2007 110:1343 PubMed ID: 18055730 [Link]; page 70

  • RCOG 2006 Greentop Guideline 20(b) The management of Breech presentation [Link]; page 70

  • Five years to the term breech trial: the rise and fall of a randomized controlled trial. Author: Glezerman M. Journal: Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2006; 194:20. PubMed ID: 16389006 [Link]; page 70

  • Is planned vaginal delivery for breech presentation at term still an option? Results of an observational prospective survey in France and Belgium. Goffinet F, PREMODA Study Group . Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2006; 194:1002 PubMed ID: 16580289 [Link]; page 70

  • RCOG 2005 Geentop Guideline 26 Operative Vaginal Delivery [Link]; page 76

  • Anne Kirkeby Hansen Risk of respiratory morbidity in term infants delivered by elective caesarean section: cohort study BMJ 336 85 [Link]; page 79

  • RCOG 2007 Greentop Guidelines Birth after previous Caesarean section [Link]; page 80

  • Uterine rupture and labour after a previous low transverse caesarean section. Author: Turner MJ, Agnew G, Langan H. Journal: BJOG; 2006 Jun ; 113(6):729-32. PubMed ID: 16709218 [Link]; page 80

  • Avoiding manual removal of placenta: evaluation of intra-umbilical injection of uterotonics using the Pipingas technique for management of adherent placenta. Rogers MS, Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 2007 ; 86:48 PubMed ID: 17230289 [Link]; page 86

  • p89 in Saving Mothers’ Lives: Reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer [Link]; page 89

  • Amniotic-fluid embolism and medical induction of labour: a retrospective, population-based cohort study. Kramer MS, Maternal Health Study Group of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System Lancet; 2006; 368:1444 PubMed ID: 17055946 [Link]; page 89

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  • RCOG 2007 Greentop Guideline 29 Management of 3rd and 4th degree perineal tears [Link]; page 91

  • Obstetric vesicovaginal fistula as an international public-health problem. Wall LL. Lancet; 2006 ; 368:1201. PubMed ID: 17011947 [Link]; page 91

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  • Saving Mothers’ Lives: Reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer [Link]; page 96

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  • CEMACH 2007 Perinatal Mortality 2005 [Link]; page 97

Chapter 02: Paediatrics

  1. 1 Image of Loveless Spiral provided by OUP for OHCS-8 ; no link available; page 99

  2. 2 Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected pediatric patients improves with home-based intensive nursing intervention. Author: Berrien VM, Salazar JC, Reynolds E, McKay K, HIV Medication Adherence Intervention Group . Journal: AIDS Patient Care STDS; 2004 Jun ; 18(6):355-63. PubMed ID: 15294086 [Link]; page 99

  3. 3 Parenting Stress in Parents of Children With Epilepsy and Asthma. Journal: J Child Neurol; 2008 Jan 8 ; ():. PubMed ID: 18182646. [Link]; page 99

  4. 4 MABL & JBL [aged 14 & 15]: personal communication; no link available; page 99

  5. 5 Should adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia be treated as old children or young adults? Comparison of the French FRALLE-93 and LALA-94 trials. Author: Boissel N, Journal: J Clin Oncol; 2003 Mar 1 ; 21(5):774-80. PubMed ID: 12610173 [Link]; page 99

  6. 6 G Rylance 1999 BMJ i 301. Privacy, dignity, and confidentiality: interview study with structured questionnaire [Link]; page 100

  7. 7 Shakespeare’s sister. Versions of this speech were delivered by Woolf at Girton and Newnham colleges, University of Cambridge, on October 20 & 26 1928. Virginia Woolf. Wednesday May 2, 2007. Guardian. [Link]; page 101

  8. 8 NICE provisional guidance Nov 2006. Feverish illness: assessment and initial management in children younger than 5 years of age [Link]; page 103

  9. 9 Critique of NICE traffic-light system: not evidence based; too much ephasis on vital signs (which vary greatly). it may be better to look at alertness, activity, colour and respiratory effort. Anthony Harndon 2007 BMJ. [Link]; page 103

  10. 10 A simple hospital triaging system for infants with acute illness. Author: Hewson PH, Gollan RA. Journal: J Paediatr Child Health; 1995 Feb ; 31(1):29-32. PubMed ID: 7748685. [Link]; page 103

  11. 11 Symptoms and signs in infants younger than 6 months of age correlated with the severity of their illness. Author: Morley CJ, Thornton AJ, Cole TJ, Fowler MA, Hewson PH. Journal: Pediatrics; 1991 Dec ; 88(6):1119-24. PubMed ID: 1956728. [Link]; page 103

  12. 12 Bilious vomiting in the newborn: How often is it pathologic? Author: Godbole P, Stringer MD. Journal: J Pediatr Surg; 2002 Jun ; 37(6):909-11. PubMed ID: 12037761. [Link]; page 103

  13. 13 Bilious emesis in the pediatric emergency department: etiology and outcome. Author: Sadow KB, Atabaki SM, Johns CM, Chamberlain JM, Teach SJ. Journal: Clin Pediatr (Phila); 2002 Sep ; 41(7):475-9. PubMed ID: 12365309. [Link]; page 103

  14. 14 Malrotation and volvulus in infancy and childhood. Author: Millar AJ, Rode H, Cywes S. Journal: Semin Pediatr Surg; 2003 Nov ; 12(4):229-36. PubMed ID: 14655161. [Link]; page 103

  15. 15 Hiscock H. Journal: Aust Fam Physician; 2006 Sep ; 35(9):680-4. PubMed ID: 16969435. [Link]; page 104

  16. 16 The signal functions of early infant crying. Author: Soltis J. Journal: Behav Brain Sci; 2004 Aug ; 27(4):443-58; discussion 459-90. PubMed ID: 15773426. [Link]; page 104

  17. 17 Infant crying and abuse. Author: Reijneveld SA, van der Wal MF, Brugman E, Sing RA, Verloove-Vanhorick SP. Journal: Lancet; 2004 Oct 9-15 ; 364(9442):1340-2. PubMed ID: 15474137 [Link]; page 104

  18. 18 CRI-SIS support for crying infants. [Link]; page 104

  19. 19 [‘Reading-your-baby lessons’ for parents of excessively crying infants--the concept of ‘guided parent-infant training sessions’] Author: Barth R. Journal: Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr; 2000 Oct ; 49(8):537-49. PubMed ID: 11098644. [Link]; page 104

  20. 20 [Why babies cry?] Author: Michelsson K. Journal: Nord Med; 1995 ; 110(11):271-2. PubMed ID: 8778673. [Link]; page 104

  21. 21 Problem crying in infancy. Author: Hiscock H, Jordan B. Journal: Med J Aust; 2004 Nov 1 ; 181(9):507-12. PubMed ID: 15516199. [Link]; page 104

  22. 22 Improvement of symptoms in infant colic following reduction of lactose load with lactase. Author: Kanabar D, Randhawa M, Clayton P. Journal: J Hum Nutr Diet; 2001 Oct ; 14(5):359-63. PubMed ID: 11906576. [Link]; page 104

  23. 23 Archives of Disease in Childhood 2004;89:908-912. Infant colic and feeding difficulties--C Miller-Loncar [Link]; page 104

  24. 24 Child Dev. 2000 Jul-Aug;71(4):862-77. White BP. Behavioral and physiological responsivity, sleep, and patterns of daily cortisol production in infants with and without colic. [Link]; page 104

  25. 25 A Systematic Review of Treatments for Infant Colic. Michelle M.PEDIATRICS Vol. 106 No. 1 Supplement July 2000, pp. 184-190 [Link]; page 104

  26. 26 Infant Colic. BMJ 1998 Responses to a BMJ paper. [Link]; page 104

  27. 27 Some new and important clues to the causes of colic. Author: Buckley M. Journal: Br J Community Nurs; 2000 Sep ; 5(9):462, 464-5. PubMed ID: 12192339. [Link]; page 104

  28. 28 Improvement of symptoms in infant colic following reduction of lactose load with lactase. Author: Kanabar D, Randhawa M, Clayton P. Journal: J Hum Nutr Diet; 2001 Oct ; 14(5):359-63. PubMed ID: 11906576. [Link]; page 104

  29. 29 Oral hypertonic glucose solution in the treatment of infantile colic. Author: Akçam M, Yilmaz A. Journal: Pediatr Int; 2006 Apr ; 48(2):125-7. PubMed ID: 16635169. [Link]; page 104

  30. 30 The effect of fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare) seed oil emulsion in infantile colic: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Author: Alexandrovich I, Rakovitskaya O, Kolmo E, Sidorova T, Shushunov S. Journal: Altern Ther Health Med; 2003 Jul-Aug ; [Link]; page 104

  31. 31 Effect of a low-allergen maternal diet on colic among breastfed infants: a randomized, controlled trial. Author: Hill DJ, Roy N, Heine RG, Hosking CS, Francis DE, Brown J, Speirs B, Sadowsky J, Carlin JB. Journal: Pediatrics; 2005 Nov ; 116(5):e709-15. [Link]; page 104

  32. 32 Reducing parenting stress in families with irritable infants. Author: Keefe MR, Kajrlsen KA, Lobo ML, Kotzer AM, Dudley WN. Journal: Nurs Res; 2006 May-Jun ; 55(3):198-205. PubMed ID: 16708044.[Link]; page 104

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  34. 34 Diaper dermatitis: current concepts. Author: Weston WL, Lane AT, Weston JA. Journal: Pediatrics; 1980 Oct ; 66(4):532-6. PubMed ID: 7432838. [Link]; page 104

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  36. 36 Acta Derm Venereol Suppl (Stockh). 1981;95:40-2. Thomsen K. Seborrhoeic dermatitis and napkin dermatitis. [Link]; page 104

  37. 37 Jean Dunning &: Des Moines Register on Monday, October 9; R Forgrave. [Link]; page 105

  38. 38 Associations between housing instability and food insecurity with health care access in low-income children. Author: Ma CT, Gee L, Kushel MB. Journal: Ambul Pediatr; 2008 Jan-Feb ; 8(1):50-7. PubMed ID: 18191782. [Link]; page 105

  39. 39 J Consult Clin Psychol. 1996 Oct;64(5):1029-36. Walker JG. Emotionally focused marital intervention for couples with chronically ill children. [Link]; page 105

  40. 40 J Pediatr Psychol. 1992 Jun;17(3):345-57. Walker JG. Measuring marital distress in couples with chronically ill children: the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. [Link]; page 105

  41. 41 Child Care Health Dev. 1997 Nov;23(6):479-80. Logan S. Emotionally focused therapy improves marital adjustment in parents of children with chronically ill children. [Link]; page 105

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  44. 44 Axillary and Rectal Temperature Measurements Poorly Agree in Newborn Infants. Journal: Neonatology; 2008 Jan 4 ; 94(1):31-34. PubMed ID: 18176084. [Link]; page 106

  45. 45 Arch Dis Child. 1990 Jul;65(7):750-6. Hewson PH. Markers of serious illness in infants under 6 months old presenting to a children’s hospital. [Link]; page 106

  46. 46 Pediatrics. 1992 Dec;90(6):846-50. Kluger MJ. Fever revisited. [Link]; page 106

  47. 47 J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1990 Sep;72(5):846-51. Knudsen CJ. Neonatal osteomyelitis. [Link]; page 106

  48. 48 Sante. 1999 Jan-Feb;9(1):38-45 (French). Hoarau C. [Congenital syphilis: update and perspectives][Link]; page 106

  49. 49 Ann Trop Paediatr. 1993;13(4):395-7. Kini PG. Unusual presentation of cytomegaloviral infection in a 5-month-old baby: case report. [Link]; page 106

  50. 50 J Appl Physiol. 2001 Jan;90(1):90-8. Hasday JD. Exposure to febrile temperature modifies endothelial cell response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha. [Link]; page 106

  51. 51 J Appl Physiol. 2001 Jan;90(1):90-8. Hasday JD. Exposure to febrile temperature modifies endothelial cell response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha. [Link]; page 106

  52. 52 Adenoviral infections in children: the impact of rapid diagnosis. Rocholl C, Gerber K, Daly J, Pavia AT, Byington CL. Pediatrics [NLM - MEDLINE]. Jan 2004.Vol.113, Iss. 1; Part 1. pg. e51 [Link]; page 106

  53. 53 [Neonatal Resuscitation] Author: Burón Martínez E, Aguayo Maldonado J, Grupo de RCP Neonatal de la Sociedad Española de Neonatología . Journal: An Pediatr (Barc); 2006 Nov ; 65(5):470-7. PubMed ID: 17195347. [Link]; page 107

  54. 54 kin-to-skin contact may reduce negative consequences of; no link available; page 107

  55. 55 Biol Neonate. 2004 Sep 20;87(1):27-34 Resuscitation of Depressed Newborn Infants with Ambient Air or Pure Oxygen: A Meta-Analysis--Saugstad OD [Link]; page 107

  56. 56 NEJM 2001 [Link]; page 107

  57. 57 Neonatal resuscitation. Kapoor Sarin H1, Kapoor D2 [Link]; page 107

  58. 58 Addressing the ‘New’ NEC: Part I: rediscovering the basics. Author: Simmonds A, LaGamma EF. Journal: Indian J Pediatr; 2006 Nov ; 73(11):1011-8. PubMed ID: 17127784. [Link]; page 108

  59. 59 Neonatal shaken baby syndrome--lessons to be learned / Author’s reply D B Knight, R sunderland, A N Williams. Archives of Disease in Childhood. London: Mar 2003.Vol.88, Iss. 2; pg. F161, 2 pgs [Link]; page 108

  60. 60 Infant to staff ratios and risk of mortality in very low birthweight infants L A Callaghan, D W Cartwright, P O’Rourke, M W Davies. Archives of Disease in Childhood. London: Mar 2003.Vol.88, Iss. 2; pg. F94, 4 pgs [Link]; page 108

  61. 61 Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Jun;20(6):644-52. Erenberg A. Caffeine citrate for the treatment of apnea of prematurity: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Medline abstract, N=85 [Link]; page 108

  62. 62 Drug Saf. 2000 Nov;23(5):363-79. Hascoet JM. Risks and benefits of therapies for apnoea in premature infants. [Link]; page 108

  63. 63 Lancet. 1999 Jan 16;353(9148):166-7. Fleck BW. Therapy for retinopathy of prematurity. [Link]; page 108

  64. 64 Rev Neurol. 2000 Aug 1-15;31(3):238-43 (Spanish). Antoniuk S. [Periventricular and intraventricular hemorrhage in the premature infants] [Link]; page 108

  65. 65 Delayed cord clamping in very preterm infants reduces the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage and late-onset sepsis: a randomized, controlled trial. Author: Mercer JS, Vohr BR, McGrath MM, Padbury JF, Wallach M, Oh W. Journal: Pediatrics; 2006 Apr ; 117(4):1235-42. PubMed ID: 16585320. [Link]; page 108

  66. 66 Pulmonary Revies [2000] accessed 2004 Nitric oxide helps neonates with pulmonary hypertension[Link]; page 109

  67. 67 Inhaled nitric oxide in the treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension/ hypoxic respiratory failure in neonates: an update. Author: Cook LN, Stewart DL. Journal: J Ky Med Assoc; 2005 Apr ; 103(4):138-47. PubMed ID: 15853181 [Link]; page 109

  68. 68 JEJM 2006 355 345 Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Preterm Infants Undergoing Mechanical Ventilation. Roberta A. [Link]; page 109

  69. 69 Kinsella J. NEJM 2006 355 354. Early Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy in Premature Newborns with Respiratory Failure. John P. Kinsella [Link]; page 109

  70. 70 Inhaled nitric oxide in the treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension/ hypoxic respiratory failure in neonates: an update. Author: Cook LN, Stewart DL. Journal: J Ky Med Assoc; 2005 Apr ; 103(4):138-47. PubMed ID: 15853181 [Link]; page 109

  71. 71 Acute and chronic effects of sildenafil in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Journal: Respir Med; 2005 May 9 ; ():. PubMed ID: 15890512 [Link]; page 109

  72. 72 Meta-analysis of inhaled nitric oxide in premature infants: an update. Author: Hoehn T, Krause MF, Bührer C. Journal: Klin Padiatr; 2006 Mar-Apr ; 218(2):57-61. PubMed ID: 16506103. [Link]; page 109

  73. 73 Inhaled prostacyclin for term infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension refractory to inhaled nitric oxide. Author: Kelly LK, Porta NF, Goodman DM, Carroll CL, Steinhorn RH. Journal: J Pediatr; 2002 Dec ; 141(6):830-2. PubMed ID: 12461501 [Link]; page 109

  74. 74 Management of Pulmornay Hypertension [Link]; page 109

  75. 75 Baquero H, Soliz A, Neira F, Venegas ME, Sola A. Journal: Pediatrics; 2006 Apr ; 117(4):1077-83. PubMed ID: 16585301. [Link]; page 109

  76. 76 Lancet. 1996 Jul 13;348(9020):75-82. UK collaborative randomised trial of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. UK Collaborative ECMO Trail Group. Medline abstract, N=185 [Link]; page 109

  77. 77 BMJ. 1998 Oct 3;317(7163):911-5; discussion 915-6. Roberts TE. Economic evaluation and randomised controlled trial of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: UK collaborative trial. The Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Economics Working Group. [Link]; page 109

  78. 78 Intensive Care Med. 2000 Oct;26(10):1489-95. Kossel H. Do we need new indications for ECMO in neonates pretreated with high-frequency ventilation and/or inhaled nitric oxide? [Link]; page 109

  79. 79 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000948. Spence K. Nasal versus oral intubation for mechanical ventilation of newborn infants. [Link]; page 110

  80. 80 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(1):CD000456. Greenough A. Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants. [Link]; page 110

  81. 81 Lancet. 2000 Jul 8;356(9224):90-1. Soll R. Patient-triggered ventilation of the newborn. [Link]; page 110

  82. 82 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(1):CD000456. Greenough A. Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants. [Link]; page 110

  83. 83 Is elective high frequency oscillatory ventilation better than conventional mechanical ventilation in very low birth weight infants?--Report by Sachin Shah. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2003;88:833-834 [Link]; page 110

  84. 84 Continuous negative extrathoracic pressure or continuous positive airway pressure for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in children. Author: Shah PS, Ohlsson A, Shah JP. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005 ; (3):CD003699. PubMed ID: 16034907. [Link]; page 110

  85. 85 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(4):CD002773. Cools F. Neuromuscular paralysis for newborn infants receiving mechanical ventilation. [Link]; page 110

  86. 86 Royal College of Paediatrics Acute pain guidelines [Link]; page 110

  87. 87 How Well Do Clinical Pain Assessment Tools Reflect Pain in Infants? Rebeccah Slater. PLOS medicine 2008 [Link]; page 110

  88. 88 John Tyson 2008 NEJM 358 1672. Intensive care for extreme prematurity--moving beyond gestational age. [Link]; page 111

  89. 89 Efficacy and safety of cefepime in late-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia in infants: a pilot randomized and controlled study. Author: Shahid SK. Journal: Ann Trop Med Parasitol; 2008 Jan ; 102(1):63-71. PubMed ID: 18186979. [Link]; page 111

  90. 90 Cochrane meta-analysis. 2007 Issue 4. Nasal versus oral intubation for mechanical ventilation of newborn infants. Spence K . [Link]; page 111

  91. 91 Airway complications in neonates who received mechanical ventilation.Kolatat T, Aunganon K, Yosthiem P. [Link]; page 111

  92. 92 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(1):CD000506. Davies MW. Nebulized racemic epinephrine for extubation of newborn infants. [Link]; page 111

  93. 93 Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) for preterm neonates after extubation. Author: Davis PG, Lemyre B, de Paoli AG. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2001 ; (3):CD003212. Pub; no link available; page 111

  94. 94 Neurol Clin. 2001 May;19(2):427-63. Mizrah EM. Neonatal seizures and neonatal epileptic syndromes. [Link]; page 112

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  122. 122 Indian Pediatr. 1995 Sep;32(9):971-7. Merchant RH. Fetal outcome following intrauterine intravascular transfusion in rhesus alloimmunization. Medline abstract, n=14 [Link]; page 116

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  716. 717 Drinite site [Link]; page 211

  717. 718 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(3):CD002238. Glazener CM. Drugs for nocturnal enuresis in children (other than desmopressin and tricyclics). Medline abstract, Meta-analysis [Link]; page 211

  718. 719 Minerva Pediatr. 1999 May;51(5):149-52 (Italian). De Grazia E. [Oxybutinin-desmopressin association in the treatment of primary nocturnal enuresis with diurnal urination disorders] [Link]; page 211

  719. 720 Prevalence of methylphenidate use among Canadian children following parental divorce. Author: Strohschein LA. Journal: CMAJ; 2007 Jun 5 ; 176(12):1711-4. PubMed ID: 17548384. [Link]; page 212

  720. 721 Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2001 Jan-Feb;23(1):1-11. Fried PA. A literature review of the consequences of prenatal marihuana exposure. An emerging theme of a deficiency in aspects of executive function.[Link]; page 212

  721. 722 Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2000 May-Jun;22(3):325-36. Goldschmidt L. Effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on child behavior problems at age 10. [Link]; page 212

  722. 723 Risperidone effects in the presence/absence of psychostimulant medicine in children with ADHD, other disruptive behavior disorders, and subaverage IQ. Author: Aman MG, Binder C, Turgay A. Journal: J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol; 2004 Summer ; 14(2):243-54. PubMed ID: 15319021. [Link]; page 212

  723. 724 Attention deficit disorder and hospitalization owing to intra- and interpersonal violence among children and young adolescents. Author: Lam LT. Journal: J Adolesc Health; 2005 Jan ; 36(1):19-24. PubMed ID: 15661592. [Link]; page 212

  724. 725 Disability discrimination. Lancet 2008 371 2056 [Link]; page 212

  725. 726 Methylphenidate (Ritalin)-associated Cataract and Glaucoma. Author: Lu CK, Kuang TM, Chou JC. Journal: J Chin Med Assoc; 2006 Dec ; 69(12):589-90. PubMed ID: 17182354. [Link]; page 212

  726. 727 CMAJ. 2001 Nov 27;165(11):1475-88. Schachter HM. How efficacious and safe is short-acting methylphenidate for the treatment of attention-deficit disorder in children and adolescents? A meta-analysis. [Link]; page 212

  727. 728 Evid Rep Technol Assess (Summ). 1999 Nov;(11):i-viii, 1-341. Jadad AR. Treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Medline abstract, Meta-analysis [Link]; page 212

  728. 729 CMAJ. 2001 Nov 27;165(11):1475-88. Schachter HM. How efficacious and safe is short-acting methylphenidate for the treatment of attention-deficit disorder in children and adolescents? A meta-analysis. [Link]; page 212

  729. 730 Longer eye contact improves ADHD children’s compliance with parents’ commands. Author: Kapalka GM.. [Link]; page 212

  730. 731 The effects of yoga on the attention and behavior of boys with Attention-Deficit/ hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Author: Jensen PS, Kenny DT. Journal: J Atten Disord; 2004 May ; 7(4):205-16. PubMed ID: 15487477. [Link]; page 212

  731. 732 Homeopathy for childhood and adolescence ailments: systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Author: Altunç U, Pittler MH, Ernst E. Journal: Mayo Clin Proc; 2007 Jan ; 82(1):69-75. PubMed ID: 17285788. [Link]; page 212

  732. 733 Arch Gen Psychiatry 1991 Apr;48(4):324-8 Leckman JF, Hardin MT, Riddle MA, Stevenson J, Ort SI, Cohen DJ. Clonidine treatment of Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome English [Link]; page 212

  733. 734 Ment Retard 2001 Aug;39(4):259-67. Agarwal V, Sitholey P, Kumar S, Prasad M Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of clonidine in hyperactive children with mental retardation English [Link]; page 212

  734. 735 J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2003 Aug;42(8):886-94. Hazell PL, Stuart JE. A randomized controlled trial of clonidine added to psychostimulant medication for hyperactive and aggressive children. English [Link]; page 212

  735. 736 Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2000 Jan;39(1):15-25. Connor DF. A pilot study of methylphenidate, clonidine, or the combination in ADHD comorbid with aggressive oppositional defiant or conduct disorder. [Link]; page 212

  736. 737 School refusal in children and adolescents. Author: Fremont WP. Journal: Am Fam Physician; 2003 Oct 15 ; 68(8):1555-60. PubMed ID: 14596443. [Link]; page 212

  737. 738 Tele-hypnosis in the treatment of adolescent school refusal. Author: Aviv A. Journal: Am J Clin Hypn; 2006 Jul ; 49(1):31-40. PubMed ID: 16889360. [Link]; page 212

  738. 739 J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001 Feb;40(2):206-13. Bernstein GA. Treatment of school refusal: one-year follow-up. [Link]; page 212

  739. 740 D Moster 2008 NEJM 359 262. Long-term medical and social consequences of preterm birth. [Link]; page 214

  740. 741 Dickinson H 2007 Lancet 369 2171. Self-reported quality of life of 8-12-yrear old children with cerebral palsy. [Link]; page 214

  741. 742 Dickinson H 2007 Lancet 369 2171. Self-reported quality of life of 8-12-yrear old children with cerebral palsy. [Link]; page 214

  742. 743 Pediatric endurance and limb strengthening for children with cerebral palsy (PEDALS) - A randomized controlled trial protocol for a stationary cycling intervention. Journal: BMC Pediatr; 2007 Mar 21 ; 7(1):14. PubMed ID: 17374171. [Link]; page 214

  743. 744 BMJ. 1989 Nov 4;299(6708):1145-9. Robinson RO. Conductive education at the Peto Institute, Budapest. [Link]; page 214

  744. 745 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001408. Ade-Hall RA. Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of lower limb spasticity in cerebral palsy. Medline abstract, Meta-analysis [Link]; page 214

  745. 746 Eur J Neurol. 2001 Nov;8 Suppl 5:1-20. Boyd RN. Current evidence for the use of botulinum toxin type A in the management of children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review. [Link]; page 214

  746. 747 Arch Dis Child. 2000 Dec;83(6):481-7. Ubhi T. Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial of the effect of botulinum toxin on walking in cerebral palsy. [Link]; page 214

  747. 748 Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko. 2000 Jul-Sep;(3):2-6; discussion 6 (Russian). Shabalov VA. [The use of chronic epidural electrostimulation of the spinal cord in children with spastic diplegia--a type of infantile cerebral palsy] [Link]; page 214

  748. 749 J Neurosurg. 1997 Sep;87(3):409-14. Armstrong RW. Intrathecally administered baclofen for treatment of children with spasticity of cerebral origin. [Link]; page 214

  749. 750 Dev Med Child Neurol. 2001 Feb;43(2):103-7. Roijen LE. Development of bladder control in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Medline abstract, n=601 [Link]; page 214

  750. 751 BMJ. 2000 Oct 14;321(7266):923-6. Glogowska M. Randomised controlled trial of community based speech and language therapy in preschool children. Medline abstract, N=159 [Link]; page 215

  751. 752 Pediatrics in the Community: Community Pediatrics Training Initiative (CPTI). Author: Kaczorowski J. Journal: Pediatr Rev; 2008 Jan ; 29(1):31-2. PubMed ID: 18166619 [Link]; page 217

  752. 753 Family pediatrics: report of the Task Force on the Family. Author: Schor EL, American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on the Family . Journal: Pediatrics; 2003 Jun ; 111(6 Pt 2):1541-71. PubMed ID: 12777595. [Link]; page 217

  753. 754 Family pediatrics: report of the Task Force on the Family. Author: Schor EL, American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on the Family . Journal: Pediatrics; 2003 Jun ; 111(6 Pt 2):1541-71. PubMed ID: 12777595 [Link]; page 217

  754. 755 G Cooke et al. Institute for Public Policy 2008 report; Guardian 3 Jan 2008 page 10 col 1 [Link]; page 217

  755. 756 Family pediatrics: report of the Task Force on the Family. Author: Schor EL, American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on the Family . Journal: Pediatrics; 2003 Jun ; 111(6 Pt 2):1541-71. PubMed ID: 12777595 [Link]; page 217

  756. 757 Family pediatrics: report of the Task Force on the Family. Author: Schor EL, American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on the Family . Journal: Pediatrics; 2003 Jun ; 111(6 Pt 2):1541-71. PubMed ID: 12777595 [Link]; page 217

  757. 758 Aust Fam Physician. 2000 Aug;29(8):731-4. Oberklaid F. Is developmental assessment worthwhile?[Link]; page 218

  758. 759 Denver developmental screening test (after H Silver Handbook of Paediatrics, Lange). Redrawn by OUP for 1st ed. ; no link available; page 220

  759. 760 PatientPlus: Denver developmental screening test. [Link]; page 220

  760. 761 The Denver II: a major revision and restandardization of the Denver Developmental Screening Test. Author: Frankenburg WK, Dodds J, Archer P, Shapiro H, Bresnick B. Journal: Pediatrics; 1992 Jan ; 89(1):91-7. PubMed ID: 1370185. [Link]; page 220

  761. 762 Neurodevelopmental Screening in Toddlers and Early Preschoolers With Sickle Cell Disease. Journal: J Child Neurol; 2007 Dec 26 ; ():. PubMed ID: 18160556. [Link]; page 220

  762. 763 Image of teeth eruption times drawn by OUP for 1st ed.; no link available; page 223

  763. 764 J Tanner 1976 Arch Dis Child 41 454 ; no link available; page 224

  764. 765 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 growth charts and the growth of breastfed infants. Author: de Onis M, Onyango AW. Journal: Acta Paediatr; 2003 Apr ; 92(4):413-9. PubMed ID: 12801105 [Link]; page 224

  765. 766 L Damien 2008 Family Dietary Coaching to Improve Nutritional Intakes and Body Weight Control. A Randomized Controlled Trial. [Link]; page 226

  766. 767 Preventing childhood obesity: can we do it? Author: Isganaitis E, Levitsky LL. Journal: Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes; 2008 Feb ; 15(1):1-8. PubMed ID: 18185057. [Link]; page 226

  767. 768 Increasing children’s physical activity: a peer modelling, rewards and pedometer-based intervention. Journal: Eur J Clin Nutr; 2007 Sep 19 ; ():. PubMed ID: 17882131. [Link]; page 226

  768. 769 Markers for predicting mortality in untreated HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings: a meta-analysis. Author: Cross Continents Collaboration for Kids (3Cs4kids) Analysis and Writing Committee . Journal: AIDS; 2008 Jan 2 ; 22(1):97-105. PubMed ID: 18090397. [Link]; page 227

  769. 770 Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in children and adolescents with varying degrees of obesity. Journal: Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Dec 7 ; ():. PubMed ID: 17980007. [Link]; page 227

  770. 771 The frequency of elevated blood pressure in obese minority youth. Author: Puri M, Flynn JT, Garcia M, Nussbaum H, Freeman K, DiMartino-Nardi JR. Journal: J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich); 2008 Feb ; 10(2):119-24. PubMed ID: 18256576 [Link]; page 227

  771. 772 Prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents: the role of the severity of obesity. Journal: Eur J Pediatr; 2008 Jan 17 ; ():. PubMed ID: 18205011. [Link]; page 227

  772. 773 Reducing weight gain in children through enhancing physical activity and nutrition: the APPLE project. Author: Taylor RW, Mcauley KA, Williams SM, Barbezat W, Nielsen G, Mann JI. Journal: Int J Pediatr Obes; 2006 ; 1(3):146-52. PubMed ID: 17899632. [Link]; page 227

  773. 774 Image of Dubovitze scoring systems by kind permission of the Journal of Paediatrics; no link available; page 228

  774. 775 By kind permission of the Journal of Paediatrics.” >[Link]; page 229

  775. 776 Materna Premium stage 2 [Link]; page 234

  776. 777 J Trace Elem Med Biol. 1996 Apr;10(1):25-30. Ruiz MC. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and iron content of infant formulas and estimated daily intakes. [Link]; page 234

  777. 778 Intravenous Fluids [Link]; page 235

  778. 779 Pediatr Radiol. 2000 May;30(5):323-5. Korkmaz A. Cranial MRI in neonatal hypernatraemic dehydration. [Link]; page 235

  779. 780 J Paediatr Child Health. 1999 Dec;35(6):585-7. Ng PC. Early onset of hypernatraemic dehydration and fever in exclusively breast-fed infants. [Link]; page 235

  780. 781 Afr J Med Med Sci. 1996 Sep;25(3):209-12. Eke F. A prospective clinical study of patients with hypernatraemic dehydration. [Link]; page 235

  781. 782 Pediatrics. 2000 Sep;106(3):E29. Niermeyer S. International Guidelines for Neonatal Resuscitation: An excerpt from the Guidelines 2000 for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care: International Consensus on Science. Contributors and Reviewers for the Neonatal Resuscitation Guidelines [Link]; page 236

  782. 783 J Accid Emerg Med. 2000 Jan;17(1):29-32. Lavis M. Adult intraosseous infusion in accident and emergency departments in the UK. [Link]; page 236

  783. 784 May 2005 Revision of Resusc Council guidelines on anaphylaxis, and BNF [Link]; page 237

  784. 785 BMJ. 1998 May 9;316(7142):1442-5. Ewan PW. Anaphylaxis. [Link]; page 237

  785. 786 J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1986-87;24(6):485-502. Flachsenberger WA. Respiratory failure and lethal hypotension due to blue-ringed octopus and tetrodotoxin envenomation observed and counteracted in animal models. [Link]; page 238

Web-based references relating to the disc signs in footnotes, organised by page number

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  • Changing patterns of perinatal death, 1982–2000: a retrospective cohort study--R Bell. Archives of Disease in Childhood Fetal and Neonatal Edition 2004;89:F531-F536 [Link]; page 108

  • Intracranial Hemorrhage in Asymptomatic Neonates: Prevalence on MR Images and Relationship to Obstetric and Neonatal Risk Factors. Author: Looney CB, Smith JK, Merck LH, Wolfe HM, Chescheir NC, Hamer RM, Gilmore JH. Journal: Radiology; 2007 Feb ; 242(2):535-41. PubMed ID: 17179400. [Link]; page 108

  • Inhaled NO for Preterm infants--Getting to Yes? NEJM 2006 355 404 Inhaled NO for Preterm Infants — Getting to Yes? Ann R. Stark, M.D. [Link]; page 109

  • Oxygen index auto-calculator [Link]; page 109

  • Neurol Clin. 2001 May;19(2):427-63. Mizrah EM. Neonatal seizures and neonatal epileptic syndromes.[Link]; page 114

  • [Sudden death of twins: botulism because of contamination by pap vegetables] Author: Fischer D, Freislederer A, Jorch G. Journal: Klin Padiatr; 2004 Jan-Feb ; 216(1):31-5. PubMed ID: 14747969[Link]; page 114

  • ‘Shake hands’: diagnosing a floppy infant--myotonic dystrophy and the congenital subtype: a difficult perinatal diagnosis. [Link]; page 114

  • Association of H2-blocker therapy and higher incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants. Author: Guillet R, Stoll BJ, Cotten CM, Gantz M, McDonald S, Poole WK, Phelps DL, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network . Journal: Pediatrics; 2006 Feb ; 117(2):e137-42. PubMed ID: 16390920. [Link]; page 120

  • Necrotizing enterocolitis: a practical guide to its prevention and management. Author: Panigrahi P. Journal: Paediatr Drugs; 2006 ; 8(3):151-65. PubMed ID: 16774295. [Link]; page 122

  • Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: what is the evidence to support current recommendations? Author: Fewtrell MS, Morgan JB, Duggan C, Gunnlaugsson G, Hibberd PL, Lucas A, Kleinman RE. Journal: Am J Clin Nutr; 2007 Feb ; 85(2):635S-638S. PubMed ID: 17284769. [Link]; page 126

  • The effect of infant diets supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid on growth and development: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Author: Udell T, Makrides M, Gibson RA. Journal: Asia Pac J Clin Nutr; 2003 ; 12 Suppl():S45. PubMed ID: 15023661 [Link]; page 127

  • BMJ 2004 Prospective randomised controlled trial of an infection screening programme to reduce the rate of preterm delivery--Herbert Kiss [Link]; page 128

  • WAGR syndrome: is the ‘R’ always justified? Journal: Clin Dysmorphol; 2007 Jan ; 16(1):69-70. PubMed ID: 17159522 [Link]; page 133

  • Lancet. 1999 Oct 23;354(9188):1444-5. Ong YC. Directed pharmacological therapy of ambiguous genitalia due to an androgen receptor gene mutation. [Link]; page 135

  • Urodynamic Findings in Children With Myelomeningocele After Untethering of the Spinal Cord. Journal: J Urol; 2007 Jan ; 177(1):331-334. PubMed ID: 17162083. [Link]; page 140

  • Forensic Sci Int. 2001 Jan 1;115(1-2):147-53. Bajanowski T. Prolonged QT interval and sudden infant death--report of two cases. [Link]; page 148

  • J Pediatr. 2000 Apr;136(4):481-9. Zupancic JA. Cost-effectiveness and implications of newborn screening for prolongation of QT interval for the prevention of sudden infant death syndrome. [Link]; page 148

  • Prevalence of long-QT syndrome gene variants in sudden infant death syndrome. Author: Arnestad M, Crotti L, Rognum TO, Insolia R, Pedrazzini M, Ferrandi C, Vege A, Wang DW, Rhodes TE, George AL, Schwartz PJ. Journal: Circulation; 2007 Jan 23 ; 115(3):361-7. PubMed ID: 17210839 [Link]; page 148

  • Jenkins R, J. Appl Microbiol 2005 99 573, PMID 16108799; no link available; page 148

  • Detection of toxigenic bacteria in polyurethane foam from cot mattresses by polymerase chian reaction. Author: Sherburn RE, Webb TE, Jenkins RO. Journal: Jpn J Infect Dis; 2007 Feb ; 60(1):19-22. PubMed ID: 17314420. [Link]; page 148

  • Engelsen O, Brustad M, Aksnes L, Lund E. Journal: Photochem Photobiol; 2005 Nov-Dec ; 81(6):1287-90. PubMed ID: 16354110. [Link]; page 151

  • [Vitamin D forming effectiveness of ultraviolet radiation from sunlight in different months in Budapest, Hungary] Author: Bakos J, Mikó P. Journal: Orv Hetil; 2007 Feb 18 ; 148(7):319-25. PubMed ID: 17344152. [Link]; page 151

  • The solar UV radiation level needed for cutaneous production of vitamin D3 in the face. A study conducted among subjects living at a high latitude (68 degrees N). Author: Edvardsen K, Brustad M, Engelsen O, Aksnes L. Journal: Photochem Photobiol Sci; 2007 Jan ; 6(1):57-62. PubMed ID: 17200737. [Link]; page 151

  • Indian and Pakistani immigrants have the same capacity as Caucasians to produce vitamin D in response to ultraviolet irradiation. Author: Lo CW, Paris PW, Holick MF. Journal: Am J Clin Nutr; 1986 Nov ; 44(5):683-5. PubMed ID: 3766454 [Link]; page 151

  • Association of subclinical vitamin D deficiency in newborns with acute lower respiratory infection and their mothers. Journal: Eur J Clin Nutr; 2007 Nov 21 ; ():. PubMed ID: 18030309. [Link]; page 151

  • Accuracy of clinical diagnosis in Down’s syndrome--S SivakumarArchives of Disease in Childhood 2004;89:691 [Link]; page 152

  • Health Survey for England, Dept Health 2005 [Link]; page 156

  • Prevalence of the insulin resistance syndrome in obesity. Author: Viner RM, Segal TY, Lichtarowicz-Krynska E, Hindmarsh P. Journal: Arch Dis Child; 2005 Jan ; 90(1):10-4. PubMed ID: 15613503 [Link]; page 156

  • Impaired microvascular function in normal children: effects of adiposity and poor glucose handling. Author: Khan F, Green FC, Forsyth JS, Greene SA, Morris AD, Belch JJ. Journal: J Physiol; 2003 Sep 1 ; 551(Pt 2):705-11. PubMed ID: 12824443 [Link]; page 156

  • Pediatrics. 1996 Oct;98(4 Pt 1):649-58. Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents: a working group report from the National High Blood Pressure Education Program. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on Hypertension Control in Children and Adolescents. [Link]; page 156

  • Evidence based guidelines for the performance of the sweat test for the investigation of cystic fibrosis in the UK--J H Baumer. Archives of Disease in Childhood. London: Dec 2003.Vol.88, Iss. 12; pg. 1126[Link]; page 163

  • Pediatr Pulmonol. 1995 Dec;20(6):369-71. Augarten A. The significance of sweat Cl/Na ratio in patients with borderline sweat test. [Link]; page 163

  • Anti-IgE for chronic asthma. Author: Walker S, Monteil M, Phelan K, Lasserson TJ, Walters EH. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2003 ; (3):CD003559. PubMed ID: 12917972 [Link]; page 165

  • What works? Interventions for maternal and child undernutrition and survival. Journal: Lancet; 2008 Jan 16 ; ():. PubMed ID: 18206226. [Link]; page 169

  • Bicarbonate dosage from the Los Angeles Childrens’ Hospital h[Link]; page 177

  • Am J Nephrol. 2005 Feb 1;25(1):30-35 Polymorphism of the Interleukin-4, Interleukin-13, and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 6 Genes in Indonesian Children with Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome--Acharya B [Link]; page 178

  • Autoantibodies in type 1 diabetes. Author: Taplin CE, Barker JM. Journal: Autoimmunity; 2008 Feb ; 41(1):11-8. PubMed ID: 18176860. [Link]; page 186

  • Diabetes Care. 1999 May;22(5):674-7. Wagner A. Therapy of severe diabetic ketoacidosis. Zero-mortality under very-low-dose insulin application. [Link]; page 189

  • Ann Pharmacother. 1994 Jan;28(1):43-6. Phillips DE. Heparin-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia.[Link]; page 189

  • Med J Aust. 1982 Sep 18;2(6):270-2. Bergman N. Potential life-threatening variations of drug concentrations in intravenous infusion systems: potassium chloride, insulin, and heparin. [Link]; page 189

  • Ann Hematol 2005 Jul 27 Specchia G, Pastore D, Carluccio P, Liso A, Mestice A, Rizzi R, Ciuffreda L, Pietrantuono G, Liso V FLAG-IDA in the treatment of refractory/relapsed adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. English [Link]; page 195

  • Med Pediatr Oncol 1999 Jun;32(6):411-5. McCarthy AJ, Pitcher LA, Hann IM, Oakhill A. FLAG (fludarabine, high-dose cytarabine, and G-CSF) for refractory and high-risk relapsed acute leukemia in children. English [Link]; page 195

  • First report of autologous cord blood transplantation in the treatment of a child with leukemia. Author: Hayani A, Lampeter E, Viswanatha D, Morgan D, Salvi SN. Journal: Pediatrics; 2007 Jan ; 119(1):e296-300. PubMed ID: 17200253. [Link]; page 195

  • Rituximab treatment for symptomatic chronic ITP. Author: Tamminga RY, Bruin MC. Journal: Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Oct 15 ; 47(5 Suppl):714-6. PubMed ID: 16933264 [Link]; page 197

  • A review of anti-D treatment of childhood idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Author: Kjaersgaard M, Hasle H. Journal: Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Oct 15 ; 47(5 Suppl):717-20. PubMed ID: 16933265.[Link]; page 197

  • Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in children: a multicenter cohort from the United States. Author: Wasay M, Dai AI, Ansari M, Shaikh Z, Roach ES. Journal: J Child Neurol; 2008 Jan ; 23(1):26-31. PubMed ID: 18184940 [Link]; page 200

  • Diazepam rectubes summary of product characteristics [Link]; page 206

  • Encopresis and anal masturbation. Author: Aruffo RN, Ibarra S, Strupp KR. Journal: J Am Psychoanal Assoc; 2000 ; 48(4):1327-54. PubMed ID: 11212192. [Link]; page 210

  • A behavioral approach to the treatment of nonretentive nocturnal encopresis in an adult with severe learning disabilities. Author: Smith LJ. Journal: J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry; 1994 Mar ; 25(1):81-6. PubMed ID: 7962585. [Link]; page 210

  • Disabled Living Foundation [Link]; page 216

  • Arch Dis Child. 1995 Jul;73(1):17-24. Cross sectional stature and weight reference curves for the UK, 1990.--Freeman JV, Cole TJ [Link]; page 224

  • The new guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a critical analysis. Author: Zorzela L, Garros D, de Caen AR. Journal: J Pediatr (Rio J); 2007 May ; 83(2 Suppl):S64-70. PubMed ID: 17508093. [Link]; page 239

Chapter 03: Gynaecology

  1. 1 Image of fibroid in a balloon drawn by OUP for OHCS-8. ; no link available; page 240

  2. 2 Rolls R (2003). Caleb Hillier Parry (1755-1822). The James Lind Libray. © Roger Rolls, 2003.By kind permission. [Link]; page 241

  3. 3 Integrated medicine [Link]; page 241

  4. 4 The Spirit of Inquiry; no link available; page 241

  5. 5 Med J Aust. 1983 May 28;1(11):524-6. Dennerstein L. Psychosis and the menstrual cycle. [Link]; page 241

  6. 6 Emotional aspects of endometriosis: a physician’s perspective. Author: Jones KP. Journal: Clin Obstet Gynecol; 1988 Dec ; 31(4):874-82. PubMed ID: 3229043. [Link]; page 241

  7. 7 Shaun Conway and Ian Harvey Use and offering of chaperones by general practitioners: postal questionnaire survey in Norfolk BMJ, Jan 2005; 330: 235 - 236 ; doi:10.1136/bmj.38320.472986.8F[Link]; page 242

  8. 8 A definition of sexual health. Greenhouse P. BMJ; 1995 Jun 3 ; 310(6992):1468-9. PubMed ID: 7613294 A definition of sexual health. Greenhouse P. BMJ; 1995 Jun 3 ; 310(6992):1468-9. PubMed ID: A definition of sexual health. Greenhouse P. BMJ; 1995 Jun 3 ; 310(6992):1468-9. PubMed ID: 7613294; no link available; page 243

  9. 9 Sexual dysfunction in the United States: prevalence and predictors. Laumann EO, JAMA; 1999 Feb 10 ; 281(6):537-44. PubMed ID: 10022110 [Link]; page 243

  10. 10 ABC of sexual health: female sexual problems I: loss of desire-what about the fun? Butcher J. BMJ; 1999 Jan 2 ; 318(7175):41-3. PubMed ID: 9872888 [Link]; page 243

  11. 11 Image of Gynaecological Anatomy. Artwork by OUP eds 1-7 ; no link available; page 245

  12. 12 PEDIATRICS Vol. 118 No. 2 August 2006, pp. e391-e399 (doi:10.1542/peds.2005-2939). Increased Risk of Precocious Puberty in Internationally Adopted Children in Denmark. Grete Teilmann, [Link]; page 248

  13. 13 Menstruation in Adolescents: What’s Normal, What’s Not. Author: Adams Hillard PJ. Journal: Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2008 Jun ; 1135():29-35. PubMed ID: 18574205. [Link]; page 248

  14. 14 Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for primary dysmenorrhoea. Marjoribanks J, Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2003 ; (4):CD001751. PubMed ID: 14583938 [Link]; page 250

  15. 15 Premature ovarian failure: a review. Author: Nippita TA, Journal: Climacteric; 2007 Feb ; 10(1):11-22. PubMed ID: 17364600 [Link]; page 251

  16. 16 International Diabetes Federation and Cite this article as: BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.38429.473310.AE 2005 April [Link]; page 252

  17. 17 Laparoscopic ovarian drilling as first line of treatment in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Author: Cleemann L, Lauszus FF, Trolle B. Journal: Gynecol Endocrinol; 2004 Mar ; 18(3):138-43. PubMed ID: 15255282. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling as first line of treatment in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Author: Cleemann L, Lauszus FF, Trolle B. Journal: Gynecol Endocrinol; 2004 Mar ; 18(3):138-43. PubMed ID: 15255282; no link available; page 252

  18. 18 RCOG Guideline 33 2003 Long term consequences of polycystic ovarian syndrome [Link]; page 252

  19. 19 1. Clinical outcomes and costs with the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or hysterectomy for treatment of menorrhagia: randomized trial 5-year follow-up. Hurskainen R, Teperi J, Rissanen P, Aalto AM, Grenman S, Kivelä A, Kujansuu E, Vuorma S, Yliskoski M, Paavonen J. JAMA; 2004 Mar 24 ; 291(12):1456-63. PubMed ID: 15039412 [Link]; page 253

  20. 20 The occurrence and outcome of 39 pregnancies after 1621 cases of transcervical resection of endometrium. Xia E, Hum Reprod; 2006 Dec ; 21(12):3282-6. PubMed ID: 17041231 [Link]; page 253

  21. 21 A review of treatment of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Rapkin A. Journal: Psychoneuroendocrinology; 2003 Suppl 3():39-53. PubMed ID: 12892989 [Link]; page 254

  22. 22 Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for premenstrual syndrome. Wyatt KM, Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2002 ; (4):CD001396. PubMed ID: 12519554 [Link]; page 254

  23. 23 Luteal phase administration of agents for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Freeman EW. CNS Drugs; 2004 ; 18(7):453-68. PubMed ID: 15139800 [Link]; page 254

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  • Eric Rovner 2007 eMedicine Painful bladder syndrome [Link]; page 307

  • Total versus subtotal hysterectomy for benign gynaecological conditions. Lethaby A, Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2006 ; 41:CD004993. PubMed ID: 16625620 [Link]; page 308

  • RCOG 2005 Guideline 41 The initial management of chromic pelvic pain [Link]; page 310

  • p 92 in Saving Mothers’ Lives: Reviewing Maternal Deaths to make motherhood safer 2003-5 [Link]; page 311

  • RCOG 2006 greentop guideline no5 Management of Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome [Link]; page 311

Chapter 04: Psychiatry

  1. 1 Neil Houghton Gallery [Link]; page 313

  2. 2 TS Eliot ‘Murder in the Cathedral. Thomas, Interlude, p. 49 [Link]; page 314

  3. 3 See TS Eliot’s Marina [Link]; page 315

  4. 4 Relevant dimensions of delusions: continuing the continuum versus category debate. Author: Lincoln TM. Journal: Schizophr Res; 2007 Jul ; 93(1-3):211-20. PubMed ID: 17398072. [Link]; page 316

  5. 5 Relevant dimensions of delusions: continuing the continuum versus category debate. Author: Lincoln TM. Journal: Schizophr Res; 2007 Jul ; 93(1-3):211-20. PubMed ID: 17398072. [Link]; page 316

  6. 6 Living a Second Life Sep 28th 2006 | SAN FRANCISCO. From The Economist print edition [Link]; page 317

  7. 7 Squibb academic lecture: Shakespeare and DSM-III. Author: Colman EA. Journal: Aust N Z J Psychiatry; 1986 Mar ; 20(1):30-6. PubMed ID: 3524554. [Link]; page 317

  8. 8 Image of Listening without judging drawn by OUP artist.; no link available; page 318

  9. 9 Hermann Hesse 1919; Demian, Dover, USA. page 69. ISBN 0-486-41413-2 pub 2000; no link available; page 319

  10. 10 Salman Rushdie: Midnight’s Children Salman Rushdie: Midnight’s Children; no link available; page 320

  11. 11 George Orwell, Inside the Whale, 1940 [Link]; page 320

  12. 12 Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, 1st ed; Gelder; no link available; page 320

  13. 13 Reith Lectures:The Philosophy of Trust [Link]; page 321

  14. 14 BMJ 1999;318:186-188. Narrative based medicine. Stories we hear and stories we tell: analysing talk in clinical practice. Glyn Elwyn [Link]; page 321

  15. 15 Mishler E, 1984 The Discourse of Medicine: Dialectics of- Medical Interviews, Norwood, NJ, Ablex[Link]; page 321

  16. 16 Negotiated nonmonogamy and male couples. Author: Shernoff M. Journal: Fam Process; 2006 Dec ; 45(4):407-18. PubMed ID: 17220111. [Link]; page 322

  17. 17 Psychol Bull. 1998 Jul;124(1):22-53. Rind B. A meta-analytic examination of assumed properties of child sexual abuse using college samples. Medline abstract, 59 trials [Link]; page 323

  18. 18 Polonius—W Shakespeare; Hamlet, Prince of Denmark [Link]; page 324

  19. 19 Identity experience among progressive gay Muslims in North America: a qualitative study within Al-Fatiha. Author: Minwalla O, Rosser BR, Feldman J, Varga C. Journal: Cult Health Sex; 2005 Mar ; 7(2):113-28. PubMed ID: 16864192. [Link]; page 325

  20. 20 Exploring the implications for health professionals of men coming out as gay in healthcare settings. Author: Cant B. Journal: Health Soc Care Community; 2006 Jan ; 14(1):9-16. PubMed ID: 16324183.[Link]; page 325

  21. 21 Sexuality and human rights: an Asian perspective. Author: Laurent E. Journal: J Homosex; 2005 ; 48(3-4):163-225. PubMed ID: 15814505. [Link]; page 325

  22. 22 William Shakespeare. King Lear. I iv 238 [Link]; page 325

  23. 23 Opposing Selves—Roles and Masks; no link available; page 325

  24. 24 The benefits of back pain. Author: Chew CA, May CR. Journal: Fam Pract; 1997 Dec ; 14(6):461-5. PubMed ID: 9476077. [Link]; page 326

  25. 25 High Quality Care For All: NSR final report: 30 June 2008. Lord Darzi [Link]; page 327

  26. 26 Dr Mark Salter 2008. (consultant psychiatrist, East London). The Guardian for 1.7.2008 p 6, col 4[Link]; page 327

  27. 27 Measuring the Quality of Outpatient Treatment for Schizophrenia. Alexander S. Young, MD, MSHS; Greer Sullivan, MD, MSPH; M. Audrey Burnam, PhD; Robert H. Brook, Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55:611-617 [Link]; page 327

  28. 28 Antipsychotic safety and efficacy concerns. Author: Meyer JM. Journal: J Clin Psychiatry; 2007 ; 68 Suppl 14():20-6. PubMed ID: 18284274. [Link]; page 327

  29. 30 Safer Ward for Acute Psychiatry. 2004. National Patients’ Safety Agency. [Link]; page 327

  30. 31 Acute in-patient psychiatry: service improvement - the time is now. Maureen McGeorge, Malcolm Rae.[Link]; page 327

  31. 32 Quality of care for primary care patients with anxiety disorders. Author: Stein MB, Sherbourne CD, Craske MG, Means-Christensen A, Bystritsky A, Katon W, Sullivan G, Roy-Byrne PP. Journal: Am J Psychiatry; 2004 Dec ; 161(12):2230-7. PubMed ID: 15569894. [Link]; page 327

  32. 33 Quality of mental health care for youth with asthma and comorbid anxiety and depression. Author: Katon WJ, Richardson L, Russo J, Lozano P, McCauley E. Journal: Med Care; 2006 Dec ; 44(12):1064-72. PubMed ID: 17122709. [Link]; page 327

  33. 34 Dr Mark Salter 2008. (consultant psychiatrist, East London). The Guardian for 1.7.2008 p 6, col 4[Link]; page 327

  34. 35 Intimate partner sexual assault against women: frequency, health consequences, and treatment outcomes. Author: McFarlane J, Malecha A, Watson K, Gist J, Batten E, Hall I, Smith S. Journal: Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Jan ; 105(1):99-108. PubMed ID: 15625149. [Link]; page 328

  35. 36 Emma, Jane Austen; Chapter XII [Link]; page 328

  36. 37 Reproductive health of Arab young people Jocelyn DeJong. BMJ 2006;333:849-851 (21 October), doi:10.1136/bmj.38993.460197.68 [Link]; page 328

  37. 38 Issues of sexual orientation and suicide [Link]; page 328

  38. 39 Lucinda Brayford, Martin Boyd. 1952 [Link]; page 328

  39. 40 Parents’ problems with gay offspring [Link]; page 328

  40. 41 Pollack and Schwartz in their book, The Journey Out - A guide for and about lesbian, gay, and bisexual teens. [Link]; page 328

  41. 42 Health Commun. 2000;12(2):195-218. Troth A. Factors predicting safe-sex talk and condom use in early sexual relationships. [Link]; page 328

  42. 43 We thank Beth Miller & Justin Williams for formulating this page; no link available; page 328

  43. 44 London addresses: Family Planning: 2 Pentonville Rd, N1 9FP 0207 837 4044; Brook Centre: 165 Grays Inn Rd, WC1X 8UD; 0207 713 9000. Sex Education Forum: 8 Wakley Street, EC1V 7QE; Contraceptive Education Service 0207 837 4044. [phone numbers]; No link available; page 328

  44. 45 Brief checklists for assessing violence risk among patients discharged from acute psychiatric facilities: a preliminary study. Author: Hartvig P, Alfarnes S, Ostberg B, Skjonberg M, Moger TA. Journal: Nord J Psychiatry; 2006 ; 60(3):243-8. PubMed ID: 16720517. [Link]; page 329

  45. 46 Are violence risk assessment tools clinically useful? [Link]; page 329

  46. 47 Sebastian Faulks 2007. Engleby. Page 282. Hutchinson. No link available; page 329

  47. 48 Dr Jonathan Schaeffer. Moves to perfect draughts computer. MARTYN MCLAUGHLIN [Link]; page 329

  48. 49 Prospective replication of the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide in predicting violent recidivism among forensic patients. Author: Harris GT, Rice ME, Cormier CA. Journal: Law Hum Behav; 2002 Aug ; 26(4):377-94. PubMed ID: 12182529 [Link]; page 329

  49. 50 The uncritical acceptance of risk assessment in forensic practice. Author: Rogers R. Journal: Law Hum Behav; 2000 Oct ; 24(5):595-605. PubMed ID: 11026213 [Link]; page 329

  50. 51 Application of risk assessment for violence methods to general adult psychiatry: a selective literature review. Author: Kumar S, Simpson AI. Journal: Aust N Z J Psychiatry; 2005 May ; 39(5):328-35. PubMed ID: 15860019. [Link]; page 329

  51. 52 Sebastian Faulks 2007. Engleby. Page 282. Hutchinson.; no link available; page 329

  52. 53 Systematic reviews of the effectiveness of day care for people with severe mental disorders: (1) acute day hospital versus admission; (2) vocational rehabilitation; (3) day hospital versus outpatient care. Author: Marshall M, Crowther R, Almaraz-Serrano A, Creed F, Sledge W, Kluiter H, Roberts C, Hill E, Wiersma D, Bond GR, Huxley P, Tyrer P. Journal: Health Technol Assess; 2001 ; 5(21):1-75. PubMed ID: 11532238. [Link]; page 329

  53. 54 Worthing Churches Homeless Project [Link]; page 329

  54. 55 Psychiatr Q. 2001 Winter;72(4):291-306. Hellerstein DJ. Integrating services for schizophrenia and substance abuse. [Link]; page 329

  55. 56 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(4):CD001088. Ley A. Treatment programmes for people with both severe mental illness and substance misuse. [Link]; page 329

  56. 57 Image of doctor as puppet cutting himself free -- artwork by OUP based on design of the author (JML); no link available; page 330

  57. 58 Loneliness and risk of Alzheimer disease. Author: Wilson RS, Krueger KR, Arnold SE, Schneider JA, Kelly JF, Barnes LL, Tang Y, Bennett DA. Journal: Arch Gen Psychiatry; 2007 Feb ; 64(2):234-40. PubMed ID: 17283291. [Link]; page 331

  58. 59 BMJ 1996;313:352-354 (10 August). Caring for Older People: Loneliness [Link]; page 331

  59. 60 Suicide in the Elderly: A Psychological Autopsy Study in a North Italy Area (1994-2004). Journal: Am J Geriatr Psychiatry; 2008 Jun 12 ; ():. PubMed ID: 18556398. [Link]; page 331

  60. 61 Caregiving and Post-Caregiving Experiences of Midlife and Older Gay Men and Lesbians. Journal: J Gerontol Soc Work; 2006 ; 47(3/4):121-138. PubMed ID: 17062526. [Link]; page 331

  61. 62 Image of man dissecting his own brain drawn by OUP to the design of JML, 2007; no link available; page 332

  62. 63 Speak up or burn out. Author: Grenny J. Journal: Physician Exec; 2006 Nov-Dec ; 32(6):24-8. PubMed ID: 17176707. [Link]; page 333

  63. 64 Evidence that impaired sleep recovery may complicate burnout improvement independently of depressive mood. Author: Sonnenschein M, Sorbi MJ, van Doornen LJ, Schaufeli WB, Maas CJ. Journal: J Psychosom Res; 2007 Apr ; 62(4):487-94. PubMed ID: 17383501. [Link]; page 333

  64. 65 Expressed emotion and burnout: the experience of staff caring for men with learning disability and psychosis in a medium secure setting. Author: Dennis AM, Leach C. Journal: J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs; 2007 Jun ; 14(3):267-76. PubMed ID: 17430450. [Link]; page 333

  65. 66 Prevalence of the burnout syndrome among Brazilian medical oncologists. Author: Glasberg J, Horiuti L, Novais MA, Canavezzi AZ, da Costa Miranda V, Chicoli FA, Gonçalves MS, Bensi CG, del Giglio A. Journal: Rev Assoc Med Bras; 2007 Jan-Feb ; 53(1):85-9. PubMed ID: 17420901. [Link]; page 333

  66. 67 High level of burnout in intensivists: prevalence and associated factors. Author: Embriaco N, Azoulay E, Barrau K, Kentish N, Pochard F, Loundou A, Papazian L. Journal: Am J Respir Crit Care Med; 2007 Apr 1 ; 175(7):686-92. PubMed ID: 17234905. [Link]; page 333

  67. 68 Burn-out of urologists in the county of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany: a comparison of hospital and private practice urologists. Author: Böhle A, Baumgärtel M, Götz ML, Müller EH, Jocham D. Journal: J Urol; 2001 Apr ; 165(4):1158-61. PubMed ID: 11257659. [Link]; page 333

  68. 69 Burnout and ‘stress of conscience’ among healthcare personnel. Author: Glasberg AL, Eriksson S, Norberg A. Journal: J Adv Nurs; 2007 Feb ; 57(4):392-403. PubMed ID: 17291203. [Link]; page 333

  69. 70 [Burnout in Mental Health Professionals in Psychiatric Hospitals.] Journal: Psychiatr Prax; 2007 Jan ; 34(S 1):151-152. PubMed ID: 17253401. [Link]; page 333

  70. 71 Vicarious traumatization: the impact on therapists who work with sexual offenders. Author: Moulden HM, Firestone P. Journal: Trauma Violence Abuse; 2007 Jan ; 8(1):67-83. PubMed ID: 17204600.[Link]; page 333

  71. 72 ob burnout in psychiatric and medical nurses in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. Author: Yousefy AR, Ghassemi GR. Journal: East Mediterr Health J; 2006 Sep ; 12(5):662-9. PubMed ID: 17333807.[Link]; page 333

  72. 73 Expressed emotion and burnout: the experience of staff caring for men with learning disability and psychosis in a medium secure setting. Author: Dennis AM, Leach C. Journal: J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs; 2007 Jun ; 14(3):267-76. PubMed ID: 17430450. [Link]; page 333

  73. 74 Burnout and psychiatric morbidity among medical students entering clinical training: a three year prospective questionnaire and interview-based study. Journal: BMC Med Educ; 2007 Apr 12 ; 7(1):6. PubMed ID: 17430583. [Link]; page 333

  74. 75 Reframing Hope: Meaning-Centered Care for Patients Near the End of Life: An Interview with William Breitbart, MD [Link]; page 333

  75. 76 Patient Educ Couns. 2001 Apr;43(1):23-30. Gorter RC. A career counseling program for dentists: effects on burnout. Medline abstract, n=171 [Link]; page 333

  76. 77 Stress Busting Groups for Consultant Psychiatrists. See Minerva 2007 BMJ 334 858 & Psychiatric Bulletin 2007 31 128 [Link]; page 333

  77. 78 Burnout and ‘stress of conscience’ among healthcare personnel. Author: Glasberg AL, Eriksson S, Norberg A. Journal: J Adv Nurs; 2007 Feb ; 57(4):392-403. PubMed ID: 17291203. [Link]; page 333

  78. 79 Dr Francis J Braceland, ‘Living with executive tensions’ The National Observer Dec 28th 1964; no link available; page 334

  79. 80 Management of medically unexplained symptoms; BMJ editorial; F Olesen. BMJ 2005;330:4-5 (1 January), doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7481.4 [Link]; page 334

  80. 82 Behav Res Ther. 2001 Apr;39(4):423-42. Visser S. The treatment of hypochondriasis: exposure plus response prevention vs cognitive therapy. [Link]; page 334

  81. 82 Simon Hatcher 2008. Assessment and management of medically unexplained symptoms. BMJ 336 1124. [Link]; page 334

  82. 83 Hypnosis and conversion hysteria: a unifying model. Author: Oakley DA. Journal: Cognit Neuropsychiatry; 1999 Aug ; 4(3):243-65. PubMed ID: 16571508. [Link]; page 334

  83. 84 Systematic review of misdiagnosis of conversion symptoms ; no link available; page 335

  84. 85 Detail from Pietà by Michelangelo, San Pietro, (C) Vatican [Link]; page 335

  85. 86 La belle indifférence in conversion symptoms and hysteria: systematic review. Author: Stone J, Smyth R, Carson A, Warlow C, Sharpe M. Journal: Br J Psychiatry; 2006 Mar ; 188():204-9. PubMed ID: 16507959. [Link]; page 335

  86. 87 Dissociation in people who have near-death experiences: out of their bodies or out of their minds? Author: Greyson B. Journal: Lancet; 2000 Feb 5 ; 355(9202):460-3. PubMed ID: 10841127 [Link]; page 335

  87. 88 Elizabeth’s Little Blog [Link]; page 335

  88. 89 Depression: management of depression in primary and secondary care [Link]; page 336

  89. 90 Psychiatr Q. 2002 Spring;73(1):71-82. Joseph J. Twin studies in psychiatry and psychology: science or pseudoscience? [Link]; page 336

  90. 91 Associations of hormones and menopausal status with depressed mood in women with no history of depression. Author: Freeman EW, Sammel MD, Lin H, Nelson DB. Journal: Arch Gen Psychiatry; 2006 Apr ; 63(4):375-82. PubMed ID: 16585466. [Link]; page 336

  91. 92 Neurosci Res. 2000 Oct;38(2):193-8. Kram ML. Effects of learned helplessness on brain GABA receptors. [Link]; page 336

  92. 93 Am J Psychiatry. 2000 Oct;157(10):1552-62. Sullivan PF. Genetic epidemiology of major depression: review and meta-analysis. [Link]; page 336

  93. 94 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000448. Linde K. St John’s wort for depression. Medline abstract, Meta-analysis [Link]; page 336

  94. 95 Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with recurrent self-harm Single-centre double-blind randomised controlled trial. BRIAN HALLAHAN, Br J Psych 2007 190 118-22 [Link]; page 336

  95. 96 Belmaker RH, 2007 nejm 356 1771. Treatment of Bipolar Depression [Link]; page 336

  96. 97 J Affect Disord. 2001 May;64(2-3):261-5. Bschor T. Predictors of response to lithium augmentation in tricyclic antidepressant-resistant depression. [Link]; page 336

  97. 98 Psychometric comparison of PHQ-9 and HADS for measuring depression severity in primary care Publisher: Royal College of General Practitioners [Link]; page 337

  98. 99 The British Journal of Psychiatry (2001) 179: 479-481; Royal College of Psychiatrists. Adjustment disorders. Fault line in the psychiatric glossary--PATRICIA CASEY, MD [Link]; page 337

  99. 100 CG16 Self-harm - NICE guideline [Link]; page 338

  100. 101 Br J Psychiatry. 2005 Jan;186:60-6. Related Articles Comment in: Br J Psychiatry. 2005 Sep;187:289. Value of measuring suicidal intent in the assessment of people attending hospital following self-poisoning or self-injury. Harriss L, Hawton K [Link]; page 338

  101. 102 National Institute for Mental Health in England 2003-2005; no link available; page 338

  102. 103 Data on more than a million people born between 1969 and 1986. Perinatal circumstances and risk of offspring suicide: Birth cohort study. Riordan DV. Br J Psychiatry; 2006 Dec ; 189():502-7. PubMed ID: 17139033. [Link]; page 338

  103. 104 Giving up or finding a solution? The experience of attempted suicide in later life. Author: Crocker L, Clare L, Evans K. Journal: Aging Ment Health; 2006 Nov ; 10(6):638-47. PubMed ID: 17050093. [Link]; page 338

  104. 105 Cognitive vulnerability to depression, rumination, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation: multiple pathways to self-injurious thinking. Author: Smith JM, Alloy LB, Abramson LY. Journal: Suicide Life Threat Behav; 2006 Aug ; 36(4):443-54. PubMed ID: 16978098. [Link]; page 338

  105. 106 Tokushima J Exp Med. 1994 Dec;41(3-4):115-32. Goto H. Epidemiological studies on regional differences in suicide mortality and its correlation with socioeconomic factors. [Link]; page 338

  106. 107 Lancet. 1999 Apr 24;353(9162):1397-400. Appleby L. Aftercare and clinical characteristics of people with mental illness who commit suicide: a case-control study. Medline abstract, n=149 [Link]; page 338

  107. 108 The decline in Australian young male suicide. Journal: Soc Sci Med; 2006 Oct 31 ; ():. PubMed ID: 17079062. [Link]; page 338

  108. 109 Predicting and preventing suicide: do we know enough to do either? Author: Paris J. Journal: Harv Rev Psychiatry; 2006 Sep-Oct ; 14(5):233-40. PubMed ID: 16990168. [Link]; page 338

  109. 110 Religious affiliation and suicide attempt. Author: Dervic K, Oquendo MA, Grunebaum MF, Ellis S, Burke AK, Mann JJ. Journal: Am J Psychiatry; 2004 Dec ; 161(12):2303-8. PubMed ID: 15569904.[Link]; page 338

  110. 111 Family dinner meal frequency and adolescent development: relationships with developmental assets and high-risk behaviors. Author: Fulkerson JA, Story M, Mellin A, Leffert N, Neumark-Sztainer D, French SA. Journal: J Adolesc Health; 2006 Sep ; 39(3):337-45. PubMed ID: 16919794. [Link]; page 338

  111. 112 Suicides in Northern India: Comparison of trends and review of literature. Journal: J Clin Forensic Med; 2006 Nov 15 ; ():. PubMed ID: 17112767. [Link]; page 338

  112. 113 A poet is to be appointed in a drive to reduce the number of people taking their own lives in the Highlands. [Link]; page 338

  113. 114 Am J Med. 2000 Jan;108(1):54-64. Mulrow CD. Efficacy of newer medications for treating depression in primary care patients. [Link]; page 340

  114. 115 J Affect Disord. 2000 Nov;60(2):121-30. Coppen A. Enhancement of the antidepressant action of fluoxetine by folic acid: a randomised, placebo controlled trial. Medline abstract, N=127 [Link]; page 340

  115. 116 Br J Psychiatry. 2002 May;180:396-404. Smith D. Efficacy and tolerability of venlafaxine compared with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and other antidepressants: a meta-analysis. Medline abstract, n=5562 [Link]; page 340

  116. 117 Am J Psychiatry. 2000 Mar;157(3):351-9. Robinson RG. Nortriptyline versus fluoxetine in the treatment of depression and in short-term recovery after stroke: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. [Link]; page 340

  117. 119 Psychother Psychosom. 1998 Jul-Oct;67(4-5):271-4. Benazzi F. Weight gain in depression remitted with antidepressants: pharmacological or recovery effect? [Link]; page 340

  118. 120 ‘Do unto others as...’-which treatments do psychiatrists prefer? [Link]; page 340

  119. 121 Strategies for managing sexual dysfunction induced by antidepressant medication. Author: Rudkin L, Taylor MJ, Hawton K. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2004 ; (4):CD003382. PubMed ID: 15495050. [Link]; page 340

  120. 122 Bleeding induced by SSRIs. Author: Ceylan ME, Alpsan-Omay MH. Journal: Eur Psychiatry; 2005 Dec ; 20(8):570-1. PubMed ID: 16337893. [Link]; page 340

  121. 123 Emotional effects of sertraline: novel findings revealed by meditation. Author: Walsh R, Victor B, Bitner R. Journal: Am J Orthopsychiatry; 2006 Jan ; 76(1):134-7. PubMed ID: 16569138. [Link]; page 340

  122. 124 PLos Med 2008 5(2) e45 Initial Severity and Antidepressant Benefits: A Meta-Analysis of Data Submitted to the Food and Drug Administration [Link]; page 341

  123. 125 JAMA. 2004;292:379-381. Suicide Risk and the SSRIs. Simon Wessely. [Link]; page 341

  124. 126 BMJ. Risk of suicide during treatment with venlafaxine, citalopram, fluoxetine, and dothiepin: Retrospective cohort study [Link]; page 341

  125. 127 Familial Pathways to Suicide Behaviour--Understanding and Preventing Suicide among Adolescents. D Brent 2006 NEJM 355 2719 [Link]; page 341

  126. 128 Elkin I et al. National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. General effectiveness of treatments. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1989 Nov;46(11):971-82; discussion 983. [Link]; page 341

  127. 129 Conte HR et al. Combined psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for depression. A systematic analysis of the evidence. Vol. 43 No. 5, May 1986. [Link]; page 341

  128. 130 Paykel ES. Psychotherapy, medication combination and compliance. J Clin Psychiatry. 1995;56(suppl 1):24-30. [Link]; page 341

  129. 131 Loonen AJ. Continuation and maintenance therapy with antidepressive agents: meta-analysis of research. Pharm weekly Sci 1991;13: [Link]; page 341

  130. 132 Geddes JR et al. Relapse prevention with antidepressant drug treatment in depressive disorders: a systematic review. Lancet 2003;361:653-661 [Link]; page 341

  131. 133 Essential Psychpharmacology. Neuroscientific basis and practical applications. Second Edition. Stahl SM. publisher [Link]; page 341

  132. 134 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000448. Linde K. St John’s wort for depression. [Link]; page 341

  133. 135 Rapid relief of severe major depressive disorder by use of preoperative ketamine and electroconvulsive therapy. Author: Goforth HW, Holsinger T. Journal: J ECT; 2007 Mar ; 23(1):23-5. PubMed ID: 17435569. [Link]; page 342

  134. 136 Electroconvulsive Therapy for the Elderly: A Review. Charles F. Zorumski [Link]; page 342

  135. 137 Long-term follow-up after successful electroconvulsive therapy for depression: a 4- to 8-year naturalistic follow-up study. Author: van Beusekom BS, van den Broek WW, Birkenhäger TK. Journal: J ECT; 2007 Mar ; 23(1):17-20. PubMed ID: 17435567. [Link]; page 342

  136. 138 Cochrane reviews analysed [Link]; page 342

  137. 139 Treatment of post-electroconvulsive therapy delirium and agitation with donepezil. Author: Logan CJ, Stewart JT. Journal: J ECT; 2007 Mar ; 23(1):28-9. PubMed ID: 17435571. [Link]; page 342

  138. 140 [Electroconvulsive therapy for neurological disorders] Author: Doi N, Sameshima T, Suwa H, Mera H, Nagao T, Yokochi M, Nakamura M, Isse K. Journal: Brain Nerve; 2007 Apr ; 59(4):313-20. PubMed ID: 17447517. [Link]; page 342

  139. 141 ECT overview [Link]; page 342

  140. 142 J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2001 Apr;13(2):93-8. Walder B. Propofol [correction of propfol] versus methohexital for electroconvulsive therapy: a meta-analysis. [Link]; page 343

  141. 143 Bipolar Disord. 2001 Apr;3(2):95-104. Daly JJ. ECT in bipolar and unipolar depression: differences in speed of response. Medline abstract, N=228 [Link]; page 343

  142. 144 Gender differences in electroconvulsive therapy: a retrospective chart review. Author: Bloch Y, Ratzoni G, Sobol D, Mendlovic S, Gal G, Levkovitz Y. Journal: J Affect Disord; 2005 Jan ; 84(1):99-102. PubMed ID: 15620391. [Link]; page 343

  143. 145 Shock: The Healing Power of Electroconvulsive Therapy. ISBN 978-1583332658; no link available; page 343

  144. 146 Beyond Prozac. The Vanguard. [Link]; page 343

  145. 147 Electroconvulsive anyone? [Link]; page 343

  146. 148 Electroconvulsive anyone? [Link]; page 343

  147. 149 ECT overview [Link]; page 343

  148. 150 BMJ. 2001 Jul 21;323(7305):130. Ferriman A. Levels of neurosis remained static in the 1990s.[Link]; page 344

  149. 151 Physical activity and mental health: current concepts. Author: Paluska SA, Schwenk TL. Journal: Sports Med; 2000 Mar ; 29(3):167-80. PubMed ID: 10739267. [Link]; page 344

  150. 152 Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Author: Miller JJ, Fletcher K, Kabat-Zinn J. Journal: Gen Hosp Psychiatry; 1995 May ; 17(3):192-200. PubMed ID: 7649463 [Link]; page 344

  151. 153 Efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapy in generalized anxiety disorders. Results of a controlled clinical trial (Berlin CBT-GAD Study). Author: Linden M, Zubraegel D, Baer T, Franke U, Schlattmann P. Journal: Psychother Psychosom; 2005 ; 74(1):36-42. PubMed ID: 15627855. [Link]; page 344

  152. 154 Psychol Med. 1999 Nov;29(6):1425-34. Fisher PL. Recovery rates in generalized anxiety disorder following psychological therapy: an analysis of clinically significant change in the STAI-T across outcome studies since 1990. Medline abstract, N=404 [Link]; page 344

  153. 155 Depress Anxiety. 2001;14(4):255-62. Randall CL. Paroxetine for social anxiety and alcohol use in dual-diagnosed patients. Medline abstract, N=9 [Link]; page 344

  154. 156 Ballenger JC. Consensus statement on generalised anxiety disorder from the international consensus group on depression and anxiety. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2001; 62(Suppl. 11):53-58 [Link]; page 344

  155. 157 Randomized placebo-controlled trial of escitalopram and venlafaxine XR in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Journal: Depress Anxiety; 2007 Nov 29 ; ():. PubMed ID: 18050245. [Link]; page 344

  156. 158 Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998 Apr;55(4):317-25. Marks I. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by exposure and/or cognitive restructuring: a controlled study. Medline abstract, N=87 [Link]; page 344

  157. 159 J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino). 1997 Feb;38(1):69-75. Ashton C Jr. Self-hypnosis reduces anxiety following coronary artery bypass surgery. A prospective, randomized trial. Medline abstract, N=32 [Link]; page 344

  158. 160 Generalized anxiety disorder: a 40-year follow-up study. Author: Rubio G, López-Ibor JJ. Journal: Acta Psychiatr Scand; 2007 May ; 115(5):372-9. PubMed ID: 17430415. [Link]; page 344

  159. 161 NatureNeuroscience 11 March 2007 Reversal of neurosteroid effects at alpha 4 beta2delta GABAA receptors triggers anxiety at puberty; Hui Shen & Sheyl Smith [Link]; page 345

  160. 162 “Scared to Death” [Link]; page 345

  161. 163 “I think I’d just know” (concerning a panic attack) [Link]; page 345

  162. 164 “curse the internet if you will”; my thinking spot blog, relating the experience of a correspondent.[Link]; page 345

  163. 165 Blog for Thursday, December 7, 2006 [Link]; page 345

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  472. 474 Parent implemented early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review. Author: McConachie H, Diggle T. Journal: J Eval Clin Pract; 2007 Feb ; 13(1):120-9. PubMed ID: 17286734. [Link]; page 394

  473. 475 Brief Report: Relative Effectiveness of Different Home-based Behavioral Approaches to Early Teaching Intervention. Journal: J Autism Dev Disord; 2006 Dec 19 ; ():. PubMed ID: 17180714. [Link]; page 394

  474. 476 Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Aug 22--Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation in Children with Autism: A Double-blind Randomized, Placebo-controlled Pilot Study.Amminger GP, [Link]; page 394

  475. 478 Risperidone for autism spectrum disorder. Author: Jesner O, Aref-Adib M, Coren E. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2007 ; (1):CD005040. PubMed ID: 17253538. [Link]; page 394

  476. 479 Elimination diets in autism spectrum disorders: any wheat amidst the chaff? Author: Christison GW, Ivany K. Journal: J Dev Behav Pediatr; 2006 Apr ; 27(2 Suppl):S162-71. PubMed ID: 16685183. [Link]; page 394

  477. 480 BMJ 2002;324:878-879 Workplace bullying in junior doctors: questionnaire survey. Lyn Quine[Link]; page 395

  478. 481 Bullying in Schools: Prevalence and Short-term Impact. Journal: Indian Pediatr; 2007 Jan 7 ; 44(1):25-28. PubMed ID: 17277427. [Link]; page 395

  479. 482 Addiction. 2001 Feb;96(2):227-40. Rossow I. Shattered childhood: a key issue in suicidal behavior among drug addicts? [Link]; page 395

  480. 483 Bullying in Schools: Prevalence and Short-term Impact. Journal: Indian Pediatr; 2007 Jan 7 ; 44(1):25-28. PubMed ID: 17277427. [Link]; page 395

  481. 484 Child Maltreat. 2000 Nov;5(4):299-310. Connolly J. Dating experiences of bullies in early adolescence. [Link]; page 395

  482. 485 Bullying involvement in primary school and common health problems. Author: Wolke D, Woods S, Bloomfield L, Karstadt L. Journal: Arch Dis Child; 2001 Sep ; 85(3):197-201. PubMed ID: 11517098[Link]; page 395

  483. 486 BMJ. 2000 Mar 4;320(7235):612-3. Voss LD. Bullying in school: are short pupils at risk? Questionnaire study in a cohort. [Link]; page 395

  484. 487 J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2000 May;41(4):405-406. Skuse D. Editorial. [Link]; page 395

  485. 488 systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent bullying. Author: Vreeman RC, Carroll AE. Journal: Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med; 2007 Jan ; 161(1):78-88. PubMed ID: 17199071. [Link]; page 395

  486. 489 BMJ. 1995 Feb 4;310(6975):274-5. Dawkins J. Bullying in schools: doctors’ responsibilities. [Link]; page 395

  487. 490 BMJ. 1995 Jun 10;310(6993):1536. Dawkins J. Bullying in schools. [Link]; page 395

  488. 491 BMJ 2001;323:1314 Personal views. Bullying in medicine [Link]; page 395

  489. 492 Br J Educ Psychol. 2000 Jun;70 ( Pt 2):195-210. Stevens V. Bullying in Flemish schools: an evaluation of anti-bullying intervention in primary and secondary schools. [Link]; page 395

  490. 493 J Adolesc. 2001 Feb;24(1):129-40. Warwick I. Playing it safe: addressing the emotional and physical health of lesbian and gay pupils in the U.K. [Link]; page 395

  491. 494 Br J Soc Psychol. 2000 Dec;39 Pt 4:605-28. Hepburn A. Power lines: Derrida, discursive psychology and the management of accusations of teacher bullying. [Link]; page 395

  492. 495 Article on Prof Roderick Kramer by Carol Lewis: In business, nice gyus tend to come second. The Times 2005 Career p 8 col 2; no link available; page 395

  493. 496 J Am Optom Assoc. 1999 Oct;70(10):629-40. Harris D. Application of ChromaGen haploscopic lenses to patients with dyslexia: a double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. Medline abstract, N=47[Link]; page 396

  494. 497 Science. 1994 Oct 14;266(5183):276-9. Cardon LR. Quantitative trait locus for reading disability on chromosome 6. [Link]; page 396

  495. 498 Genes, cognition and dyslexia: learning to read the genome. Author: Fisher SE, Francks C. Journal: Trends Cogn Sci; 2006 Jun ; 10(6):250-7. PubMed ID: 16675285. [Link]; page 396

  496. 499 Ann Neurol. 1999 Aug;46(2):189-96. Jenner AR. Neuronal asymmetries in primary visual cortex of dyslexic and nondyslexic brains. [Link]; page 396

  497. 500 Brain. 2000 Dec;123 Pt 12:2373-99. Habib M. The neurological basis of developmental dyslexia: an overview and working hypothesis. [Link]; page 396

  498. 501 The GAPS test for dyslexia [Link]; page 396

  499. 502 The GAPS test [Link]; page 396

  500. 503 Gesundheitswesen. 1994 Oct;56(10):534-6 (German). Michaelis R. [Early indications for partial learning disorders--anamnestic and diagnostic strategies] [Link]; page 396

  501. 504 A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of supplementation with highly unsaturated fatty acids on ADHD-related symptoms in children with specific learning difficulties. Author: Richardso AJ, Puri BK. Journal: Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry; 2002 Feb ; 26(2):233-9. PubMed ID: 11817499 [Link]; page 396

  502. 505 Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):323S-6S. Stordy BJ. Dark adaptation, motor skills, docosahexaenoic acid, and dyslexia. Medline abstract, n=10 [Link]; page 396

  503. 506 The Mental Health Act 2007: the final report [Link]; page 398

  504. 507 Reforming - The Mental Health Act - Part I - The new legal framework [Link]; page 399

  505. 508 Consent: patients and doctors making decisions together. GMC 2008. [Link]; page 402

  506. 509 Consent: patients and doctors making decisions together. GMC 2008. [Link]; page 403

  507. 510 Multimedia educational aids for improving consumer knowledge about illness management and treatment decisions: A review of randomized controlled trials. Author: Jeste DV, Dunn LB, Folsom DP, Zisook D. Journal: J Psychiatr Res; 2008 Jan ; 42(1):1-21. PubMed ID: 17275026. [Link]; page 403

  508. 511 GMC advice [Link]; page 403

  509. 512 The interaction between the internal clock and antidepressant efficacy. Author: Racagni G, Riva MA, Popoli M. Journal: Int Clin Psychopharmacol; 2007 Oct ; 22 Suppl 2():S9-S14. PubMed ID: 17917564. [Link]; page 404

  510. 512 The Mental Health Act and Common Law. Feldman E: Liaison Psychiatry: Planning services for specialist settings. Eds. Peveler R, Feldman E, Friedman T. Gaskell: 2000 [Link]; page 403

  511. 513 The interaction between the internal clock and antidepressant efficacy. Author: Racagni G, Riva MA, Popoli M. Journal: Int Clin Psychopharmacol; 2007 Oct ; 22 Suppl 2():S9-S14. PubMed ID: 17917564. [Link]; page 404

  512. 514 Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001 Jan;58(1):69-75. Terman JS. Circadian time of morning light administration and therapeutic response in winter depression. [Link]; page 404

  513. 515 Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1999 May;99(5):315-23. Lee TM. Dose-response relationship of phototherapy for seasonal affective disorder: a meta-analysis. Medline abstract, 39 trials [Link]; page 404

  514. 516 J Biol Rhythms. 1999 Apr;14(2):116-21. Visser EK. Melatonin suppression by light in humans is maximal when the nasal part of the retina is illuminated. [Link]; page 404

  515. 517 Eagles JM. Light therapy and the management of winter depression. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 2004. 10:233-240 [Link]; page 404

  516. 518 J Eval Clin Pract. 1999 Nov;5(4):367-85. Browne G. Economic evaluations of community-based care: lessons from twelve studies in Ontario. Medline abstract, Meta-analysis [Link]; page 405

  517. 519 Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998 May;55(5):459-66. Rosenheck RA. Cost-effectiveness of intensive psychiatric community care for high users of inpatient services. [Link]; page 405

  518. 520 Maden A et al. Offending in psychiatric patients after discharge from medium secure units: prospective national cohort study. BMJ. 2004 June 26; 328(7455): 1534. [Link]; page 405

  519. 521 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000050. Marshall M. Case management for people with severe mental disorders. [Link]; page 405

  520. 522 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001089. Marshall M. Assertive community treatment for people with severe mental disorders. [Link]; page 405

  521. 523 Petersen, L. BMJ 2005 331 602 [Link]; page 405

  522. 524 Lancet. 2000 Mar 11;355(9207):882-6. Halliday G. Community study of people who live in squalor.[Link]; page 406

  523. 525 BMJ. 1994 Jan 1;308(6920):27-30. Fisher N. Estimating numbers of homeless and homeless mentally ill people in north east Westminster by using capture-recapture analysis. [Link]; page 406

  524. 526 Household income growth and distribution, 1998. Singapore Dept of Statistics [Link]; page 406

  525. 527 BMJ. 1994 Dec 3;309(6967):1470-4. Sloggett A. Higher mortality in deprived areas: community or personal disadvantage? [Link]; page 406

  526. 528 Dob Quixote, by Miguel Cervantes [Link]; page 407

  527. 529 First Part of the Ingenious Nobleman Don Quixote of La Mancha, by Miguel De Cerevantes (tr. Edith Grossman) [Link]; page 407

  528. 530 Don Quijote de la Mancha [Link]; page 407

  529. 531 Who wrote Don Quixote? [Link]; page 407

  530. 532 Shelton’s text is the raciest and most original translation [Link]; page 407

  531. 533 Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 1998 Feb;12(1):12-20. Beck CT. The effects of postpartum depression on child development: a meta-analysis. [Link]; page 408

  532. 534 J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1994 Jan;35(1):73-112. Cummings EM. Maternal depression and child development. [Link]; page 408

  533. 535 Blogs of postnatal depression. Link no longer available; page 408

  534. 536 Fathers and postnatal depression; by Beth McHug [Link]; page 408

  535. 537 [Peripartum psychiatric disorders--support through men? A first approach] Author: Grube M. Journal: Nervenarzt; 2004 May ; 75(5):483-8. PubMed ID: 15252889. [Link]; page 408

  536. 538 Psychological factors associated with persistent postnatal depression: past and current relationships, defence styles and the mediating role of insecure attachment style. Author: McMahon C, Barnett B, Kowalenko N, Tennant C. Journal: J Affect Disord; 2005 Jan ; 84(1):15-24. PubMed ID: 15620381. [Link]; page 408

  537. 539 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(2):CD002018. Hoffbrand S. Antidepressant drug treatment for postnatal depression. [Link]; page 408

  538. 540 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001690. Lawrie TA. Oestrogens and progestogens for preventing and treating postnatal depression. [Link]; page 408

  539. 541 Br J Psychiatry. 1987 Jun;150:782-6. Cox JL. Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Medline abstract, n=84 [Link]; page 409

  540. 542 Postnatal depression and child outcome at 11 years: The importance of accurate diagnosis. [Link]; page 409

  541. 543 Postnatal depression and child outcome at 11 years: The importance of accurate diagnosis. [Link]; page 409

Web-based references relating to the disc signs in footnotes, organised by page number

  • Psychiatry without context: turning sadness in disease. Horwitz AV. OUP 2007 ISBN 0-19-531304-8; no link available; page 312

  • Richard Layard 2005 Happiness: Lessons from a new science. Penguin [Link]; page 314

  • Happiness, Economics and Public Policy; H Jones & P Ormerod; The institute for Economic Affairs.[Link]; page 314

  • Livslognen/life-lie in The Wild Duck, 1884. Ibsen [Link]; page 316

  • BMJ 2005 330 11 Prospective cohort study of cannabis use, predisposition for psychosis, and psychotic symptoms in young people--Cécile Henquet [Link]; page 317

  • Cannabis and risk of psychosis. Author: Drewe M, Drewe J, Riecher-Rössler A. Journal: Swiss Med Wkly; 2004 Nov 13 ; 134(45-46):659-63. PubMed ID: 15611887 [Link]; page 317

  • Psychosis due to ‘skunk’. BMJ 1995 311 125. Wylie AS. [Link]; page 317

  • ‘Understanding Shuzui’ - About the Origin of the Western story.(Translated from the Chinese) [Link]; page 319

  • George Orwell. Tolstoy and Shakespeare [Link]; page 319

  • ‘Explanation and Condemnation’ Ward E. Jones Forthcoming in Judgement and Understanding, edited by Pedro A. Tabensky (Ashgate) [Link]; page 319

  • NICE 2004 Self-harm.The short-term physical and psychological management and secondary prevention of self-harm in primary and secondary care [Link]; page 339

  • Redrawing Papez’ circuit: a theory about how acute stress becomes chronic and causes disease. Author: Eggers AE. Journal: Med Hypotheses; 2007 ; 69(4):852-7. PubMed ID: 17376605. [Link]; page 347

  • Eating disorders NICE 2004 (Eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and related eating disorders) [Link]; page 348

  • Specialist palliative care in dementia BMJ ed 2005 [Link]; page 350

  • Johnstone et al. Predicting schizophrenia: findings from the Edinburgh High-Risk Study. B J Psych 2005. 186:18-25 [Link]; page 358

  • Analysis of suicide notes form persons committing completed suicides] Author: Pusztai A, Bugán A. Journal: Psychiatr Hung; 2005 ; 20(4):271-80. PubMed ID: 16462004. [Link]; page 366

  • Narcissism Jeremy Holmes. Ovid’s version of the Narcissus myth. [Link]; page 366

  • Equus is a play by Peter Shaffer (1973) about a psychiatrist who attempts to treat a young man who has a religious/sexual fascination with horses. [Link]; page 382

  • Pediatr Clin North Am. 1995 Feb;42(1):131-41. Klar H. Brief solution-focused strategies for behavioral pediatrics. [Link]; page 387

  • Dev Med Child Neurol. 2004 Jul;46(7):444-7.Dev Med Child Neurol. 2004 Jul;46(7):435. Autism spectrum disorders in children with normal intellectual levels: associated impairments and subgroups[Link]; page 394

  • Punking and bullying: strategies in middle school, high school, and beyond. Author: Phillips DA. Journal: J Interpers Violence; 2007 Feb ; 22(2):158-78. PubMed ID: 17202574. [Link]; page 395

  • Sexuality and school shootings: what role does teasing play in school massacres? Author: Klein J. Journal: J Homosex; 2006 ; 51(4):39-62. PubMed ID: 17135127. [Link]; page 395

  • Estrogen administration does not reduce the rate of recurrence of affective psychosis after childbirth. Author: Kumar C, McIvor RJ, Davies T, Brown N, Papadopoulos A, Wieck A, Checkley SA, Campbell IC, Marks MN. Journal: J Clin Psychiatry; 2003 Feb ; 64(2):112-8. PubMed ID: 12633118. [Link]; page 409

  • The role of estrogen therapy in postpartum psychiatric disorders: an update. Author: Gentile S. Journal: CNS Spectr; 2005 Dec ; 10(12):944-52. PubMed ID: 16344831 [Link]; page 409

Chapter 05: Ophthalmology

  1. 1 Ludwig Wittgenstein, Zettle, Blackwell, p222; no link available; page 410

  2. 2 Figure 1... [If you were cast a] “...notoriously gleaming glance... in a tutorial, would you meet his gaze? Choosing where to look can be perplexing...” Image derived from image of an eye courtesy of Ken Banks. [Link]; page 410

  3. 3 Brain regions that decide where we look. [Link]; page 410

  4. 4 Etymology of the word ‘Pupil’. [Link]; page 410

  5. 5 Marcel Proust; The Guermantes Way (À la recherche du temps perdu) has a many-pages description of a kiss going out of focus. ; no link available; page 411

  6. 6 Amblyopy (n.) Weakness of sight, without and opacity of the cornea, or of the interior of the eye; the first degree of amaurosis. [Link]; page 411

  7. 7 Image of hyphema courtesy of Prof J Trobe [Link]; page 413

  8. 8 Image of chalazion courtesy of Bristol eye hospital. ; no link available; page 416

  9. 9 Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1997 Aug;28(8):683-4. Santa Cruz CS. Chalazion-induced hyperopia as a cause of decreased vision. [Link]; page 416

  10. 10 J AAPOS. 2000 Dec;4(6):379-80. Meisler DM. Oral erythromycin treatment for childhood blepharokeratitis. [Link]; page 416

  11. 11 Image of Pinguecula drawn by OUP ; no link available; page 416

  12. 12 Aust N Z J Ophthalmol. 1998 May;26 Suppl 1:S2-5. Panchapakesan J. Prevalence of pterygium and pinguecula: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Medline abstract, n=3564 [Link]; page 416

  13. 13 Pinguecula [Link]; page 416

  14. 14 Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2000;98:505-32. Wilhelmus KR. The treatment of herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis. Medline abstract, Meta-analysis [Link]; page 416

  15. 15 Cornea. 1995 May;14(3):326-30. Minkovitz JB. Topical interferon alpha-2a treatment of herpes simplex keratitis resistant to multiple antiviral medications in an immunosuppressed patient. [Link]; page 416

  16. 16 Image Courtesy of Bristol Eye Hospital ; no link available; page 417

  17. 17 Image Courtesy of Bristol Eye Hospital ; no link available; page 417

  18. 18 Image of pterygium courtesy of Jon Miles [Link]; page 417

  19. 19 Image of Xanthelasma courtesy of Jon Miles ; no link available; page 417

  20. 20 eMedicine Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Eyelid [Link]; page 417

  21. 21 Image of Acute dacryocystitis courtesy of Bristol Eye Hospital ; no link available; page 418

  22. 22 Outcomes of dacryocystorhinostomy in patients with head and neck tumors. Author: Diba R, Saadati H, Esmaeli B. Journal: Head Neck; 2005 Jan ; 27(1):72-5. PubMed ID: 15565560. [Link]; page 418

  23. 23 Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2000 Oct;123(4):488-91. Cokkeser Y. Comparative external versus endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: results in 115 patients (130 eyes). [Link]; page 418

  24. 24 After DP Austin. [Link]; page 419

  25. 25 An Esp Pediatr. 2000 Dec;53(6):567-72 (Spanish). Rodriguez Ferran L. [Orbital and periorbital cellulitis. Review of 107 cases] [Link]; page 420

  26. 26 Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2000 Mar;51(2):113-9 (Spanish). Gomez Campdera J. [Orbital cellulitis in childhood. Medical-surgical treatment] [Link]; page 420

  27. 27 Neurochirurgia (Stuttg). 1982 Jan;25(1):7-10 (German). Willenberg E. [The treatment of carotico-cavernous fistulas, past and present (author’s transl)] [Link]; page 420

  28. 28 Ugeskr Laeger. 1995 Nov 27;157(48):6725-8 (Danish). Poulsgard L. [Sur-gical treatment of carotid-cavernous fistulas. A description of open surgical techniques in the treatment of carotid-cavernous fistula with preserved normal flow in the internal carotid artery] [Link]; page 420

  29. 29 Ugeskr Laeger. 1994 Oct 31;156(44):6541-8 (Danish). Bartholdy NJ. [Interventional neuroradiology. A presentation with preliminary results] [Link]; page 420

  30. 30 Image of zoster courtesy of Bristol Eye Hospital ; no link available; page 420

  31. 31 J Am Optom Assoc. 1997 Aug;68(8):527-38. McPherson RE. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus and the immunocompromised host: a case report and review. [Link]; page 420

  32. 32 Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1999 Feb 28;119(6):794-5 (Norwegian). Bagge-sen K. [Leukocoria (white pupil) among children--mother is always right] [Link]; page 421

  33. 33 Nippon Rinsho. 2000 Jul;58(7):1413-8 (Japanese). Kaneko A. [Retinoblas-toma] [Link]; page 421

  34. 34 Am J Ophthalmol. 2000 Mar;129(3):396-8. Smith JH. Siblings of retino-blastoma patients: are we underestimating their risk? [Link]; page 421

  35. 35 Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1998 Feb;76(1):27-7. Lennerstrand G. Treat-ment of strabismus and nystagmus with botulinum toxin type A. An evalua-tion of effects and complications. [Link]; page 422

  36. 36 Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 2000 Winter;15(4):351-6. Molteno AC. A comparative trial of Gobin’s method versus conventional surgery for refrac-tive/accommodative esotropia uncorrected by non-surgical methods. [Link]; page 422

  37. 37 Isolated sixth nerve palsy: an uncommon presenting sign of multiple scle-rosis. Author: Barr D, Kupersmith MJ, Turbin R, Bose S, Roth R. Journal: J Neurol; 2000 Sep ; 247(9):701-4. PubMed ID: 11081810 [Link]; page 422

  38. 38 Singapore Med J. 1999 Jun;40(6):405-9. Quah BL. A review of 5 years’ experience in the use of botulinium toxin A in the treatment of sixth cranial nerve palsy at the Singapore National Eye Centre. Medline abstract, n=19 [Link]; page 422

  39. 39 Image drawn by OUP ; no link available; page 423

  40. 40 Eye movement [Link]; page 423

  41. 41 Oblique primary, secondary, and tertiary actions [Link]; page 423

  42. 42 See Blue Mountain Eye Study 2004 BJ Ophthalmology 88 1119 & BMJ 2004 329 692 [Link]; page 423

  43. 43 Strabusmus lecture notes [Link]; page 423

  44. 44 J Fr Ophtalmol. 1992;15(4):243-7 (French). Maselli E. [Surgical treatment of strabismus by sagittal cutting of the oblique muscles. Apropos of 449 cases] Medline abstract, n=449 [Link]; page 423

  45. 45 Image drawn by OUP ; no link available; page 423

  46. 46 Image of secoral heterochromia courtesy of Jon Miles ; no link available; page 425

  47. 47 Images of iris hypoplasia courtesy of Jon Miles [Link]; page 425

  48. 48 Am J Hum Genet. 1998 Jul;63(1):109-19. Young TL. Evidence that a locus for familial high myopia maps to chromosome 18p. [Link]; page 426

  49. 49 Prog Retin Eye Res. 2000 Jul;19(4):421-57. Crewther DP. The role of photoreceptors in the control of refractive state. [Link]; page 426

  50. 50 BMJ 2002;324:1195-1199 Myopia--Douglas R Fredrick [Link]; page 426

  51. 51 BMJ 2002;324:1195-1199 ( 18 May Myopia. Douglas R Fredrick [Link]; page 426

  52. 52 Ophthalmology. 2002 Jan;109(1):175-87. Sugar A. Laser in situ keratomil-eusis for myopia and astigmatism: safety and efficacy: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. [Link]; page 426

  53. 53 Image drawn by OUP ; no link available; page 427

  54. 54 Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd. 1997 May;210(5):316-8 (French). Safran AB. [Scotomas: assessment by the patient and by the physician. There’s nothing to see] [Link]; page 428

  55. 55 J Heart Lung Transplant 1996 Nov;15(11):1158-64 (English), Drachman BM. [Cortical blindness secondary to cyclosporine after orthotopic heart transplantation: a case report and review of the literature] [Link]; page 428

  56. 56 Image of acute glaucoma courtesy of Prof J Trobe ; no link available; page 430

  57. 57 Image of Granulomatous Uveitis courtesy of Bristol Eye Hospital. ; no link available; page 430

  58. 58 Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1987 Oct 3;295(6602):812-3. Talbot EM. A simple test to diagnose iritis.[Link]; page 430

  59. 59 Image of acute glaucoma, courtesy of Bristol Eye Hospital and Gillian Bennerson ; no link available; page 431

  60. 60 Image of acute conjunctivitis courtesy of Bristol Eye Hospital ; no link available; page 431

  61. 61 Image courtesy of OUP image bank ; no link available; page 432

  62. 62 Ophthalmology. 1999 Dec;106(12):2377-9. Read RW. Episcleritis in childhood. [Link]; page 432

  63. 63 Br J Ophthalmol. 1981 Sep;65(9):641-3. Lloyd-Jones D. Clinical evaluation of clobetasone butyrate eye drops in episcleritis. [Link]; page 432

  64. 64 Ocular vasculitis: a multidisciplinary approach. Author: Herbort CP, Ci-mino L, Abu El Asrar AM. Journal: Curr Opin Rheumatol; 2005 Jan ; 17(1):25-33. PubMed ID: 15604901. [Link]; page 432

  65. 65 Am J Ophthalmol. 2000 Oct;130(4):469-76. Jabs DA. Episcleritis and scleritis: clinical features and treatment results. [Link]; page 432

  66. 66 Update on bacterial conjunctivitis in South Florida. Author: Cavuoto K, Zutshi D, Karp CL, Miller D, Feuer W. Journal: Ophthalmology; 2008 Jan ; 115(1):51-6. PubMed ID: 17572497 [Link]; page 432

  67. 67 Acta Ophthalmol Scand Suppl. 1999;(228):43-6. Discepola M. Compari-son of the topical ocular antiallergic efficacy of emedastine 0.05% ophthal-mic solution to ketorolac 0.5% ophthalmic solution in a clinical model of allergic conjunctivitis. [Link]; page 432

  68. 68 Bacterial keratitis in Christchurch, New Zealand, 1997-;2001. Author: Hall RC, McKellar MJ.--Journal: Clin Experiment Ophthalmol; 2004 Oct ; 32(5):478-81. PubMed ID: 15498058 [Link]; page 433

  69. 69 Image of Vitreous haemorrhage and new vessels from OUP image ar-chive ; no link available; page 434

  70. 70 Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2000 Dec;75(12):819-24 (Spanish). Salazar JJ. [Apoptosis in ischemic optic neuropathy] [Link]; page 434

  71. 71 Image of optic neuritis from OUP image bank ; no link available; page 434

  72. 72 Acute Optic Neuritis [Link]; page 434

  73. 73 Transient loss of vision [Link]; page 434

  74. 74 Optometry. 2000 Nov;71(11):703-14. Wong DM. Case presentations of retinal artery occlusions.[Link]; page 435

  75. 75 Branch retinal artery occlusion secondary to dengue fever. Author: Kanungo S, Shukla D, Kim R. Journal: Indian J Ophthalmol; 2008 Jan-Feb ; 56(1):73-4. PubMed ID: 18158412 [Link]; page 435

  76. 76 Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1999 Dec;237(12):1024-7. Battaglia Parodi M. Grid laser treatment in macular branch retinal vein occlusion. [Link]; page 435

  77. 77 Ophthalmologica. 1996;210(3):168-70. Kiryu J. Hyperbaric oxygen treat-ment for macular edema in retinal vein occlusion: relation to severity of retinal leakage. [Link]; page 435

  78. 78 Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2000 Aug;78(4):456-9. Erdol H. Arterial crimp-ing in branch retinal vein occlusion with macular edema. Medline abstract, n=72 [Link]; page 435

  79. 79 Brain. 1998 Oct;121 ( Pt 10):1819-40, (English) Manford M. [Complex visual hallucinations. Clinical and neurobiological insights.] [Link]; page 438

  80. 80 Delay in treating age-related macular degeneration in Spain is associated with progressive vision loss. Journal: Eye; 2008 Jan 18 ; ():. PubMed ID: 18202712. [Link]; page 438

  81. 81 Am J Ophthalmol. 1993 Jul 15;116(1):84-7. Rizzo JF 3rd. Tobacco amblyopia. [Link]; page 438

  82. 82 Acta Neurol Scand. 1985 Aug;72(2):180-7. Krumsiek J. Tobacco-alcohol amblyopia neuro-ophthalmological findings and clinical course. [Link]; page 438

  83. 83 Arukoru Kenkyuto Yakubutsu Ison. 1994 Apr;29(2):114-20 (Japanese). Miyashita H. [A case of Wernicke’s encephalopathy which accompanied a passing blindness] [Link]; page 438

  84. 84 Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 1985 Mar;53(3):88-93 (German). Krumsiek J. [Tobacco-alcohol amblyopia. Clinical course in 33 patients] [Link]; page 438

  85. 85 Image courtesy of OUP image back ; no link available; page 438

  86. 86 BMJ. 1998 May 30;316(7145):1643-6. Reidy A. Prevalence of serious eye disease and visual impairment in a north London population: population based, cross sectional study. [Link]; page 439

  87. 87 Ophthalmology. 1981 Oct;88(10):1066-80 Pathology and pathogenesis of drusen of the optic nervehead. Tso MO [Link]; page 439

  88. 88 Drusen [Link]; page 439

  89. 89 MRC Ophthalmology questions; Mr CN Chau [Link]; page 439

  90. 90 Surv Ophthalmol. 2000 Nov-Dec;45(3):195-214. Schmidt-Erfurth U. Mechanisms of action of photodynamic therapy with verteporfin for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. [Link]; page 439

  91. 91 Photodynamic therapy for neovascular age-related macular degenera-tion. Author: Wormald R, Evans J, Smeeth L, Henshaw K. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2007 ; (3):CD002030. PubMed ID: 17636693. [Link]; page 439

  92. 92 NEJM 2006. 355:1409-1412. The Price of Sight — Ranibizumab, Bevaci-zumab, and the Treatment of Macular Degeneration. Robert Steinbrook, M.D. [Link]; page 439

  93. 93 Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 5, 123-132 (February 2006) | doi:10.1038/nrd1955. Case Histories. Pegaptanib, a targeted anti-VEGF ap-tamer for ocular vascular disease. Eugene W. [Link]; page 439

  94. 94 Ranibizumab for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular de-generation: a review. Author: Kourlas H, Abrams P. Journal: Clin Ther; 2007 Sep ; 29(9):1850-61. PubMed ID: 18035187. [Link]; page 439

  95. 95 Intravitreal Bevacizumab and Triamcinolone Acetonide Combination Therapy for Exudative Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Short-Term Optical Coherence Tomography Results. Journal: J Ocul Phar-macol Ther; 2008 Jan 17 ; ():. PubMed ID: 18201136 [Link]; page 439

  96. 96 BMJ. 2000 Dec 9;321(7274):1425-7. Bressler NM. Age related macular degeneration. New hope for a common problem comes from photody-namic therapy. [Link]; page 439

  97. 97 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000254. Evans JR. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for age-related macular degeneration. Medline abstract, meta-analysis [Link]; page 439

  98. 98 Primary Prevention of Age-related macular degeneration. J Evans 2007 BMJ 335 729 [Link]; page 439

  99. 99 Traffic Gap Judgment in People with Significant Peripheral Field Loss. Journal: Optom Vis Sci; 2008 Jan ; 85(1):26-36. PubMed ID: 18174838 [Link]; page 440

  100. 100 Am J Ophthalmol. 2000 Oct;130(4):429-40. The Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS): 7. The relationship between control of intraocu-lar pressure and visual field deterioration.The AGIS Investigators. Medline abstract, N=738 [Link]; page 440

  101. 101 Am J Ophthalmol. 2000 Nov;130(5):670-2. Hashimoto M. Normal-tension glaucoma with reversed ophthalmic artery flow. [Link]; page 440

  102. 102 Extra risk with moderate use: 34%; heavy use: 74%. Journal of Environ-mental and Community Health Toho University [Link]; page 440

  103. 103 Conn Med. 2000 Feb;64(2):75-8. Palmisano P. Glaucoma and race: a case for screening in Connecticut. [Link]; page 440

  104. 104 Optom Vis Sci. 1999 Aug;76(8):537-43. Harper RA. Glaucoma screen-ing: the importance of combining test data. [Link]; page 440

  105. 105 Lancet. 1995 Jun 24;345(8965):1604-6. Diggory P. Avoiding unsuspected respiratory side-effects of topical timolol with cardioselective or sympath-omimetic agents. Medline abstract, N=80 [Link]; page 440

  106. 106 MRC Ophthalmology questions; Mr CN Chau [Link]; page 441

  107. 107 Dany Najjar, MD. GLAUCOMA made ridiculously simple... [Link]; page 441

  108. 108 Long-term outcomes in asians after acute primary angle closure. Au-thor: Aung T, Friedman DS, Chew PT, Ang LP, Gazzard G, Lai YF, Yip L, Lai H, Quigley H, Seah SK. Journal: Ophthalmology; 2004 Aug ; 111(8):1464-9. PubMed ID: 15288972 [Link]; page 441

  109. 109 Glaucoma [Link]; page 441

  110. 110 Predictive factors of the optic nerve head for development or progres-sion of glaucomatous visual field loss. Author: Jonas JB, Martus P, Horn FK, Jünemann A, Korth M, Budde WM. Journal: Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2004 Aug ; 45(8):2613-8. PubMed ID: 15277484. [Link]; page 441

  111. 111 (From J Parr Introduction to Ophthalmology, OUP.); no link available; page 441

  112. 112 What do people with glaucoma know about their condition? A com-parative cross-sectional incidence and prevalence survey. Journal: Clin Ex-periment Ophthalmol; 2008 Jan 10 ; ():. PubMed ID: 18190599. [Link]; page 441

  113. 113 We thank Mr R Williams FRCS for preparing this topic” >[Link]; page 442

  114. 114 Nutrition and the prevention of cataracts. Author: Fernandez MM, Af-shari NA. Journal: Curr Opin Ophthalmol; 2008 Jan ; 19(1):66-70. PubMed ID: 18090901. [Link]; page 442

  115. 115 Biometry and intraocular lens power calculation. Author: Lee AC, Qazi MA, Pepose JS. Journal: Curr Opin Ophthalmol; 2008 Jan ; 19(1):13-7. Pub-Med ID: 18090891. [Link]; page 443

  116. 116 Image drawn by OUP for OHCS-5 ; no link available; page 443

  117. 117 Image of retinal detatchment courtesy of Bristol Eye Hospital. ; no link available; page 444

  118. 118 Image reproduced by kind permission of Dr Freund. ; no link available; page 444

  119. 119 Retinal detatchment [Link]; page 444

  120. 120 Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2000 Aug;75(8):547-53 (Spanish). Blanco MJ. [Retinitis pigmentosa: results of rhodopsin gene analysis in the Galician population] [Link]; page 444

  121. 121 Ben Glasgow, M.D.. 2005 Macula and Fovea The macula, area centralis, has a diameter of about 5.5 mm and is defined histologically by the pres-ence of more than 1 layer of ganglion cells... [Link]; page 445

  122. 122 Retinal micromovements, the visual line, and Donders’ law. Author: Jampel RS, Shi DX. Journal: Am J Ophthalmol; 2000 Feb ; 129(2):224-34. PubMed ID: 10682976. [Link]; page 445

  123. 123 Count and density of human retinal photoreceptors. Author: Jonas JB, Schneider U, Naumann GO. Journal: Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 1992 ; 230(6):505-10. PubMed ID: 1427131. [Link]; page 445

  124. 124 Gradients of cone differentiation and FGF expression during develop-ment of the foveal depression in macaque retina. Author: Cornish EE, Madi-gan MC, Natoli R, Hales A, Hendrickson AE, Provis JM. Journal: Vis Neurosci; 2005 Jul-Aug ; 22(4):447-59. PubMed ID: 16212702. [Link]; page 445

  125. 125 Image courtesy of OUP image bank 2005 ; no link available; page 445

  126. 126 Image of stage 4 retinal hole: MR QURESH MOHAMED FRCOPHTH ; no link available; page 445

  127. 127 Histology of the Human Eye by Hogan. Alvarado Weddell, W.B. Saud-ers Company publishers, 1971, page 491. [Link]; page 447

  128. 128 [Nomenclature of the macular area] Author: Inomata H, Iwasaki M. Journal: Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi; 1997 Mar ; 101(3):201-8. PubMed ID: 9086737. [Link]; page 447

  129. 129 NICE 2008. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. [Link]; page 447

  130. 130 Type 2 diametes mellitus. 2008. NICE [Link]; page 447

  131. 131 Image of retinopathy before and after the laser, courtesy of Prof Trobe ; no link available; page 447

  132. 132 Image of retinopathy before and after the laser, courtesy of Prof Trobe ; no link available; page 447

  133. 133 Image of Kayser-Fleischer ring courtesy of Jon Miles [Link]; page 448

  134. 134 Characteristics of Untreated AIDS-related Cytomegalovirus Retinitis. II. Findings in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (1997 to 2000). Author: Holland GN, Vaudaux JD, Shiramizu KM, Yu F, Goldenberg DT, Gupta A, Carlson M, Read RW, Novack RD, Kuppermann BD, Southern California HIV/Eye Consortium . Journal: Am J Ophthalmol; 2008 Jan ; 145(1):12-22. PubMed ID: 18154751[Link]; page 448

  135. 135 N Engl J Med. 2002 Apr 11;346(15):1119-26. Martin DF. A controlled trial of valganciclovir as induction therapy for cytomegalovirus retinitis. [Link]; page 448

  136. 136 Ocular and systemic causes of retinopathy in patients without diabetes mellitus--Jayant Venkatramani. BMJ 2004;328:625-629 (13 March) [Link]; page 448

  137. 137 We thank Mr J F Cullen FRCS for permission to reproduce the images; no link available; page 449

  138. 138 We thank Mr J F Cullen FRCS for permission to reproduce the images; no link available; page 449

  139. 139 We thank Mr J F Cullen FRCS for permission to reproduce the images; no link available; page 449

  140. 140 We thank Mr J F Cullen FRCS for permission to reproduce the images; no link available; page 449

  141. 141 We thank Mr J F Cullen FRCS for permission to reproduce the images; no link available; page 449

  142. 142 We thank Mr J F Cullen FRCS for permission to reproduce the images; no link available; page 449

  143. 143 Med J Aust. 2000 Feb 21;172(4):163-6. Laming AC. A targeted, single-dose azithromycin strategy for trachoma. [Link]; page 450

  144. 144 Trop Med Int Health. 2000 Aug;5(8):515-27. Emerson PM. Review of the evidence base for the ‘F’ and ‘E’ components of the SAFE strategy for trachoma control. [Link]; page 450

  145. 145 BMC Public Health. 2001;1(1):12. Alley WS. Macrofilaricides and on-chocerciasis control, mathematical modelling of the prospects for elimina-tion. [Link]; page 450

  146. 146 ATLS Manual 6e, page 411 ISBN 1-880696-10-X; no link available; page 452

  147. 147 Corneal foreign body courtesy of Bristol Eye Hospital. ; no link avail-able; page 452

  148. 148 Image of Corneal abrasion courtesy of Bristol Eye Hospital ; no link available; page 452

  149. 149 J Fam Pract. 1998 Oct;47(4):264-70. Flynn CA. Should we patch corneal abrasions? A meta-analysis. [Link]; page 452

  150. 150 Eye. 1993;7 ( Pt 3):468-71. Kirkpatrick JN. No eye pad for corneal abra-sion. [Link]; page 452

  151. 151 Med Health R I. 2000 Dec;83(12):395. Perlman EM. Patching the eye improves comfort and healing in patients with corneal abrasions. [Link]; page 452

  152. 152 Ophthalmology. 1996 Jan;103(1):152-6. Seiff SR. Hypertropia and the posterior blowout fracture: Mechanism and management. [Link]; page 453

  153. 153 Prognosis of penetrating eye injuries with posterior segment intraocular foreign body. [Link]; page 453

  154. 154 Prognosis of penetrating eye injuries with posterior segment intraocular foreign body. Author: Szijártó Z, Gaál V, Kovács B, Kuhn F. Journal: Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2008 Jan ; 246(1):161-5. PubMed ID: 17674019. [Link]; page 453

  155. 155 RNIB shop [Link]; page 454

  156. 156 Trends in blind and low vision registrations in Taipei City. Author: Tsai IL, Woung LC, Tsai CY, Kuo LL, Liu SW, Lin S, Wang IJ. Journal: Eur J Oph-thalmol; 2008 Jan-Feb ; 18(1):118-24. PubMed ID: 18203096. [Link]; page 455

  157. 157 Arch Ophthalmol. 1996 Aug;114(8):933-7. Leibowitz HM. Intraocular pressure-raising potential of 1.0% rimexolone in patients responding to cor-ticosteroids. [Link]; page 456

  158. 158 Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 1999 Feb;10(1):29-35. Rowen S. Preoperative and postoperative medications used for cataract surgery. [Link]; page 456

  159. 159 Arch Ophthalmol. 1997 Jul;115(7):847-52. Schuman JS. A 1-year study of brimonidine twice daily in glaucoma and ocular hypertension. A controlled, randomized, multicenter clinical trial. Chronic Brimonidine Study Group. [Link]; page 457

  160. 160 Ophthalmology. 2000 Jan;107(1):112-7. Tomlinson A. Salicylate inhibi-tion of Acanthamoeba attachment to contact lenses: a model to reduce risk of infection. [Link]; page 459

  161. 161 J Psychosom Res. 2000 Jun;48(6):589-91. Wenzel T. Psychiatric disor-ders in patients with blepharospasm - a reactive pattern? [Link]; page 460

  162. 162 Lancet. 2000 Oct 21;356(9239):1413. Hirayama M. Improvement of apraxia of eyelid opening by wearing goggles. [Link]; page 460

  163. 163 Image of vernal keratoconjunctivitis courtesy of Mr Derek M Tole FRCOphth; pemission precured by Specialist reader for all editions ; no link available; page 460

  164. 164 OCULAR ALLERGY. Esen Karamursel Akpek. [Link]; page 460

  165. 165 Topical ciclosporin in the treatment of ocular surface disorders. Au-thor: Tatlipinar S, Akpek EK. Journal: Br J Ophthalmol; 2005 Oct ; 89(10):1363-7. PubMed ID: 16170133. [Link]; page 460

  166. 166 New aspects in drug therapy of ocular allergies] Author: Maichuk IuF. Journal: Vestn Oftalmol; 2000 Sep-Oct ; 116(5):10-4. PubMed ID: 11221368 [Link]; page 461

  167. 167 Intranasal corticosteroids reduce ocular symptoms associated with al-lergic rhinitis. Author: Naclerio R. Journal: Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Feb ; 138(2):129-39. PubMed ID: 18241703. [Link]; page 461

  168. 168 Evolving paradigm in the management of allergic rhinitis-associated ocu-lar symptoms: role of intranasal corticosteroids. Journal: Curr Med Res Opin; 2008 Feb 6 ; ():. PubMed ID: 18257976. [Link]; page 461

  169. 169 A multicenter comparison of the ocular efficacy and safety of diclofenac 0.1% solution with that of ketorolac 0.5% solution in patients with acute seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Author: Tauber J, Raizman MB, Ostrov CS, Laibovitz RA, Abelson MB, Betts JG, Koester JM, Gill D, Schaich L. Journal: J Ocul Pharmacol Ther; 1998 Apr ; 14(2):137-45. PubMed ID: 9572539. [Link]; page 461

  170. 170 Allergic eye disease mechanisms McGILL et al. Br J Ophthalmol.1998; 82: 1203-1214 [Link]; page 461

  171. 171 Evolving paradigm in the management of allergic rhinitis-associated ocu-lar symptoms: role of intranasal corticosteroids. Journal: Curr Med Res Opin; 2008 Feb 6 ; ():. PubMed ID: 18257976. [Link]; page 461

  172. 172 Safety and efficacy of diclofenac sodium 0.1% ophthalmic solution in acute seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Author: Laibovitz RA, Koester J, Scha-ich L, Reaves TA. Journal: J Ocul Pharmacol Ther; 1995 Fall ; 11(3):361-8. PubMed ID: 8590268 [Link]; page 461

  173. 173 Optimal use of topical agents for allergic conjunctivitis. Author: Mösges R, Hassan HA, Wenzel MR. Journal: BioDrugs; 1997 Oct ; 8(4):250-64. PubMed ID: 18020517. [Link]; page 461

  174. 174 Topical levocabastine versus sodium cromoglycate in allergic conjuncti-vitis. Author: Odelram H, Björkstén B, af Klercker T, Rimås M, Kjellman NI, Blychert LO. Journal: Allergy; 1989 Aug ; 44(6):432-6. PubMed ID: 2572181. [Link]; page 461

  175. 175 Clin Exp Allergy. 1992 Oct;22(10):929-32. Leino M. Double-blind group comparative study of 2% nedocromil sodium eye drops with 2% sodium cromoglycate and placebo eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Medline abstract, N=185 [Link]; page 461

  176. 176 Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2000 Mar-Apr;44(2):146-50. Rohatgi J. Phlyctenular eye disease: a reappraisal.[Link]; page 461

  177. 177 The effect of hinge position and depth plate on the rate of recovery of corneal sensation following LASIK. Author: Nassaralla BA, McLeod SD, Bo-teon JE, Nassaralla JJ. Journal: Am J Ophthalmol; 2005 Jan ; 139(1):118-24. PubMed ID: 15652836 [Link]; page 464

  178. 178 Ten-year Follow-up of Laser In Situ Keratomileusis for High Myopia. Author: Alió JL, Muftuoglu O, Ortiz D, Pérez-Santonja JJ, Artola A, Ayala MJ, Garcia MJ, de Luna GC. Journal: Am J Ophthalmol; 2008 Jan ; 145(1):55-64. PubMed ID: 17996210 [Link]; page 464

  179. 179 Five-Year Outcome of LASIK for Myopia. Journal: Ophthalmology; 2007 Sep 25 ; ():. PubMed ID: 17900692. [Link]; page 464

  180. 180 [Complications after refractive surgery abroad.] Journal: Ophthal-mologe; 2007 Sep 27 ; ():. PubMed ID: 17896110. [Link]; page 464

Web-based references relating to the disc signs in footnotes, organised by page number

  • The use of gabapentin for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Author: Singh D, Kennedy DH. Journal: Clin Ther; 2003 Mar ; 25(3):852-89. PubMed ID: 12852705 [Link]; page 420

  • Brivudin compared with famciclovir in the treatment of herpes zoster: ef-fects in acute disease and chronic pain in immunocompetent patients. A randomized, double-blind, multinational study. Author: Wassilew S. Journal: J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2005 Jan ; 19(1):47-55. PubMed ID: 15649191[Link]; page 420

  • Amblyopia [Link]; page 422

  • Ahmed, H. U. BMJ 2002;324:962 ( 20 April ) A case of mistaken muscles. [Link]; page 422

  • Agonists and synergists [Link]; page 423

  • Neurophysiol Clin. 1999 Jun;29(3):255-62.Neurophysiological evaluation of areflexia in Holmes-Adie syndrome. Martinelli P [Link]; page 424

  • Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 2003;74:150-153 The deep tendon and the abdominal reflexes--J P R Dick [Link]; page 424

  • Chronic cough in the Holmes-Adie syndrome: association in five cases with autonomic dysfunction. Author: Kimber J, Mitchell D, Mathias CJ. Journal: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 1998 Oct ; 65(4):583-6. PubMed ID: 9771793 [Link]; page 424

  • Marcel Proust: Rememberance of Things Past. [Link]; page 426

  • A direct brainstem-amygdala-cortical ‘alarm’ system for subliminal signals of fear. Author: Liddell BJ, Brown KJ, Kemp AH, Barton MJ, Das P, Peduto A, Gordon E, Williams LM. Journal: Neuroimage; 2005 Jan 1 ; 24(1):235-43. PubMed ID: 15588615 [Link]; page 428

  • Cornea. 2000 May;19(3):393-4. Watts P. Tarantula keratouveitis. [Link]; page 430

  • Bacterial keratitis in Christchurch, New Zealand, 1997-;2001. Author: Hall RC, McKellar MJ. Journal: Clin Experiment Ophthalmol; 2004 Oct ; 32(5):478-81. PubMed ID: 15498058 [Link]; page 433

  • Ranibizumab and pegaptanib for the treatment of age-related macular de-generation: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Author: Colquitt JL, Jones J, Tan SC, Takeda A, Clegg AJ, Price A. Journal: Health Technol Assess; 2008 May ; 12(16):1-222. PubMed ID: 18462575. [Link]; page 439

  • Pegaptanib and ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degenera-tion: a systematic review. Author: Takeda AL, Colquitt J, Clegg AJ, Jones J. Journal: Br J Ophthalmol; 2007 Sep ; 91(9):1177-82. PubMed ID: 17475698. [Link]; page 439

  • Revisiting the Importance of Disc Size. Peter E. Libre, MD, Norwalk, Conn. [Link]; page 441

  • eMedine Retinal Detachment, Rhegmatogenous. L Wu 2007. [Link]; page 444

  • Risks of progression of retinopathy and vision loss related to tight blood pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus: UKPDS 69. Author: Matthews DR, Stratton IM, Aldington SJ, Holman RR, Kohner EM, UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group . Journal: Arch Ophthalmol; 2004 Nov ; 122(11):1631-40. PubMed ID: 15534123 [Link]; page 446

  • Medicine (Baltimore). 2000 Sep;79(5):283-92. Gonzalez-Gay MA. Visual manifestations of giant cell arteritis. Trends and clinical spectrum in 161 pa-tients. [Link]; page 448

  • Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2000 Dec;75(12):831-4 (Spanish). Peris Martinez C. [Amaurosis fugax as the early manifestation of orbital schwannoma] [Link]; page 448

  • Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 1999 May;39(5):577-80 (Japanese). Izumi Y. [A case of giant meningioma that induced visual changes similar to those observed in amaurosis fugax in an early stage of disease][Link]; page 448

  • J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1998 Jul;65(1):131-2. Cates CA. Transient monocular visual loss due to uveitis-glaucoma-hyphaema (UGH) syndrome. [Link]; page 448

  • Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd. 1999 Mar;214(3):171-4 (German). Stubiger N. [Churg-Strauss syndrome][Link]; page 448

  • Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1999 Apr;77(2):224-6. McKibbin M. Recurrent amaurosis fugax without haemodynamically significant ipsilateral carotid stenosis. [Link]; page 448

  • Cornea. 2000 May;19(3):393-4. Watts P. Tarantula keratouveitis. [Link]; page 448

  • The Disease Burden of Keratoconus in Patients’ Lives: Comparisons to a Japanese Normative Sample. Journal: Eye Contact Lens; 2008 Jan ; 34(1):13-16. PubMed ID: 18180676. [Link]; page 458

Chapter 06: Primary Care

  1. 1 Iris Murdoch 1993 The Green Night, Penguin [Link]; page 466

  2. 2 RCGP 2007 Roadmap. The Future Direction of General Practice. RCGP 2007 [Link]; page 467

  3. 3 Psychosocial interventions by general practitioners. Author: Huibers MJ, Beurskens AJ, Bleijenberg G, van Schayck CP. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2007 ; (3):CD003494. PubMed ID: 17636726[Link]; page 470

  4. 4 What is Health Promotion? [Link]; page 470

  5. 5 Ivan Illich, who died in 2002 (after being diagnosed with cancer in 1983 and refusing all treatment) issued a powerful challenge to the medical institution in 1974 with his famous polemic Medical Nemesis: The Appropriation of Health. [Link]; page 470

  6. 6 John Stone (b. 1936) A poet, essayist, cardiologist, and lecturer, John Henry Stone--John Stone is a former professor of medicine, associate dean... [Link]; page 470

  7. 7 R Horton, Health as an instument of foreign policy. Lancet 2007 369 806 [Link]; page 471

  8. 8 Do patients value continuity of care in general practice? An investigation using stated preference discrete choice experiments. Author: Turner D, Tarrant C, Windridge K, Bryan S, Boulton M, Freeman G, Baker R. Journal: J Health Serv Res Policy; 2007 Jul ; 12(3):132-7. PubMed ID: 17716414. [Link]; page 471

  9. 9 European definition of General Practice/Family Medicine. Academic review and analysis - The core competencies [Link]; page 471

  10. 10 UK DoH Nov 2004 [Link]; page 472

  11. 11 UK government statistics [Link]; page 472

  12. 12 BMJ. 2002 Jun 8;324(7350):1347-8. Pencheon D. Intermediate care. [Link]; page 472

  13. 13 Health Serv J. 2002 May 9;112(5804):22-4. Robinson J. Bed-blocking. Discharge of the late brigade.[Link]; page 472

  14. 14 Bronagh Walsh; BMJ 2005;330:699 (26 March), doi:10.1136/bmj.38397.633588.8F (published 9 March 2005. Economic evaluation of nurse led intermediate care versus standard care for post-acute medical patients: cost minimisation analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial. [Link]; page 472

  15. 15 Developing intermediate care provided by general practitioners with a special interest: the economic perspective. Author: Kernick DP. Journal: Br J Gen Pract; 2003 Jul ; 53(492):553-6. PubMed ID: 14694670. [Link]; page 472

  16. 16 Preferences for aspects of a dermatology consultation.Author: Coast J, Salisbury C, de Berker D, Noble A, Horrocks S, Peters TJ, Flynn TN.Journal: Br J Dermatol; 2006 Aug ; 155(2):387-92. PubMed ID: 16882179. [Link]; page 472

  17. 17 Reducing antibiotic prescriptions for acute cough by motivating GPs to change their attitudes to communication and empowering patients: a cluster-randomized intervention study. Author: Altiner A, Brockmann S, Sielk M, Wilm S, Wegscheider K, Abholz HH. Journal: J Antimicrob Chemother; 2007 Sep ; 60(3):638-44. PubMed ID: 17626023 [Link]; page 473

  18. 18 J Am Soc Nephrol. 1998 Dec;9(12 Suppl):S141-4. Latham CE. Is there data to support the concept that educated, empowered patients have better outcomes? [Link]; page 473

  19. 19 Respir Care. 1994 May;39(5):566-79; discussion 579-83. Make B. Collaborative self-management strategies for patients with respiratory disease. [Link]; page 473

  20. 20 Med Inform (Lond). 1996 Oct-Dec;21(4):297-316. Albisser AM. Diabetes intervention in the information age. [Link]; page 473

  21. 21 Br J Community Nurs. 2002 Feb;7(2):90-3. Picton C. Maintaining and developing competencies in nurse prescribing. [Link]; page 474

  22. 22 BMJ. 2002 Apr 6;324(7341):819-23. Horrocks S. Systematic review of whether nurse practitioners working in primary care can provide equivalent care to doctors. [Link]; page 474

  23. 23 BMJ. 2000 Apr 15;320(7241):1043-8. Kinnersley P. Randomised controlled trial of nurse practitioner versus general practitioner care for patients requesting “same day” consultations in primary care. [Link]; page 474

  24. 24 E Wilkinson 2005 Matrons plan ‘will not cust admissions’ [Link]; page 474

  25. 25 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(1):CD001025. Bower P. Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of counselling in primary care. [Link]; page 474

  26. 26 Do patients value continuity of care in general practice? An investigation using stated preference discrete choice experiments. Author: Turner D, Tarrant C, Windridge K, Bryan S, Boulton M, Freeman G, Baker R. Journal: J Health Serv Res Policy; 2007 Jul ; 12(3):132-7. PubMed ID: 17716414. [Link]; page 475

  27. 27 Kings Fund. 2008. Under One Roof. Will polyclinics deliver integrated care? [Link]; page 475

Fugelli P. The general practitioner and the spirits of time. in: M Lakhani (ed). A Celebration of General Practice. Abingdon: Radcliffe Medical Press, 2003, p. 173–86. ; no link available; page 475

  1. 29 BMJ 2002;325:687. Patients’ perceptions of entitlement to time in general practice consultations for depression: qualitative study [Link]; page 476

  2. 30 BBC: consultation times in UK primary care and the new GP contract. [Link]; page 476

  3. 31 [Link]; page 476

  4. 32 K Taylor 2007; National Audit Office. BMA News May 19 2007; page 7 ; no link available; page 476

  5. 33 The effect of interventions to alter the consultation length of family physicians: a systematic review. Author: Wilson A, Childs S. Journal: Br J Gen Pract; 2006 Nov ; 56(532):876-82. PubMed ID: 17132356. [Link]; page 476

  6. 34 Changes in patients’ attitudes towards the management of minor ailments.Author: Cardol M, Schellevis FG, Spreeuwenberg P, van de Lisdonk EH.Journal: Br J Gen Pract; 2005 Jul ; 55(516):516-21. PubMed ID: 16004736. [Link]; page 476

  7. 35 Council tax valuation band of patient residence and clinical contacts in a general practice.Author: Beale N, Taylor G, Straker-Cook D, Peart C, Gwynne M.Journal: Br J Gen Pract; 2005 Jan ; 55(510):32-6. PubMed ID: 15667763. [Link]; page 476

  8. 36 Factors influencing the frequency of visits by hypertensive patients to primary care physicians in Winnipeg. Author: Roos NP, Carrière KC, Friesen D. Journal: CMAJ; 1998 Oct 6 ; 159(7):777-83. PubMed ID: 9805023 [Link]; page 476

  9. 37 The effect of interventions to alter the consultation length of family physicians: a systematic review. Author: Wilson A, Childs S. Journal: Br J Gen Pract; 2006 Nov ; 56(532):876-82. PubMed ID: 17132356. [Link]; page 476

  10. 38 Evolving general practice consultation in Britain: issues of length and context [Link]; page 476

  11. 39 The effect of interventions to alter the consultation length of family physicians: a systematic review. Author: Wilson A, Childs S. Journal: Br J Gen Pract; 2006 Nov ; 56(532):876-82. PubMed ID: 17132356. [Link]; page 476

  12. 40 Telephone consultations to manage requests for same-day appointments: a randomised controlled trial in two practices. Author: McKinstry B, Walker J, Campbell C, Heaney D, Wyke S. Journal: Br J Gen Pract; 2002 Apr ; 52(477):306-10. PubMed ID: 11942448 [Link]; page 477

  13. 41 Safety of telephone triage in general practitioner cooperatives: do triage nurses correctly estimate urgency? Author: Giesen P, Ferwerda R, Tijssen R, Mokkink H, Drijver R, van den Bosch W, Grol R. Journal: Qual Saf Health Care; 2007 Jun ; 16(3):181-4. PubMed ID: 17545343. [Link]; page 477

  14. 42 Computer-supported telephone nurse triage: an evaluation of medical quality and costs. Author: Marklund B, Ström M, Månsson J, Borgquist L, Baigi A, Fridlund B. Journal: J Nurs Manag; 2007 Mar ; 15(2):180-7. PubMed ID: 17352701 [Link]; page 477

  15. 43 Randomized-controlled trial of a telephone and mail intervention for alcohol use disorders: three-month drinking outcomes. Author: Brown RL, Saunders LA, Bobula JA, Mundt MP, Koch PE. Journal: Alcohol Clin Exp Res; 2007 Aug ; 31(8):1372-9. PubMed ID: 17550366 [Link]; page 477

  16. 44 Mobile Phone-Based Remote Patient Monitoring System for Management of Hypertension in Diabetic Patients.Journal: Am J Hypertens; 2007 Sep ; 20(9):942-948. PubMed ID: 17765133. [Link]; page 477

  17. 45 Axone. 1996 Mar;17(3):60-5. Rohs G. Progressive supranuclear palsy: managing the disabilities and providing nursing support. [Link]; page 477

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  19. 47 P Tate 2000 Practit 244 904; no link available; page 478

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  86. 217 Soc Sci Med. 2002 Jan;54(2):255-66. Allen P. A socio-legal and economic analysis of contracting in the NHS internal market using a case study of contracting for district nursing. [Link]; page 524

  87. 218 Understanding variation for clinical governance: an illustration using the diagnosis and treatment of sore throat. Author: Marshall T, Mohammed MA, Lim HT. Journal: Br J Gen Pract; 2002 Apr ; 52(477):277-83. PubMed ID: 11942443. [Link]; page 525

  88. 219 A qualitative study of referral to community mental health teams in the UK: exploring the rhetoric and the reality. Journal: BMC Health Serv Res; 2007 Jul 25 ; 7(1):117. PubMed ID: 17651489. [Link]; page 525

  89. 220 Variations in cardiac interventions: doctors’ practices and views. Author: Bowling A, Harries C, Forrest D, Harvey N. Journal: Fam Pract; 2006 Aug ; 23(4):427-36. PubMed ID: 16611650. [Link]; page 525

  90. 221 A systematic review of the effect of primary care-based service innovations on quality and patterns of referral to specialist secondary care. Author: Faulkner A, Mills N, Bainton D, Baxter K, Kinnersley P, Peters TJ, Sharp D.Journal: Br J Gen Pract; 2003 Nov ; 53(496):878-84. PubMed ID: 14702909. [Link]; page 525

  91. 222 Example of PCO budgeting [Link]; page 525

  92. 223 Interventions to improve outpatient referrals from primary care to secondary care. Author: Grimshaw JM, Winkens RA, Shirran L, Cunningham C, Mayhew A, Thomas R, Fraser C. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005 ; (3):CD005471. PubMed ID: 16034981. [Link]; page 525

  93. 224 Interventions to improve outpatient referrals from primary care to secondary care. Author: Grimshaw JM, Winkens RA, Shirran L, Cunningham C, Mayhew A, Thomas R, Fraser C. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005 ; (3):CD005471. PubMed ID: 16034981. [Link]; page 525

  94. 225 DVLA Drivers Medical Group [Link]; page 526

  95. 226 DVLA Drivers Medical Group [Link]; page 527

  96. 227 [Link]; page 527

  97. 228 Cardiol Rev. 2002 Jan-Feb;10(1):15-23. Lim PO. Vascular mechanisms of sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, including blood pressure responses to exercise. [Link]; page 527

  98. 229 J Heart Lung Transplant. 2000 Dec;19(12):1209-18. King ML. The hemodynamic effects of isotonic exercise using hand-held weights in patients with heart failure. [Link]; page 527

  99. 230 The chronic fatigue syndrome--an update. Author: Wyller VB. Journal: Acta Neurol Scand Suppl; 2007 ; 187():7-14. PubMed ID: 17419822 [Link]; page 528

  100. 231 Link no longer available; page 528

  101. 232 Incidence, prognosis, and risk factors for fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents: a prospective community study. Author: Rimes KA, Goodman R, Hotopf M, Wessely S, Meltzer H, Chalder T. Journal: Pediatrics; 2007 Mar ; 119(3):e603-9. PubMed ID: 17332180. [Link]; page 528

  102. 233 The chronic fatigue syndrome--an update. Author: Wyller VB. Journal: Acta Neurol Scand Suppl; 2007 ; 187():7-14. PubMed ID: 17419822. [Link]; page 528

  103. 234 The 47 patients with CFS had higher numbers of apoptotic neutrophils, lower numbers of viable neutrophils, increased annexin V binding, and increased expression of the death receptor, tumour necrosis factor receptor-I, on their neutrophils than did the 34 healthy controls. Patients with CFS also had raised concentrations of active TGFbeta1 (p < 0.005). [Link]; page 528

  104. 235 Scand J Work Environ Health. 1997;23 Suppl 3:17-34. Wessely S. Chronic fatigue syndrome: a 20th century illness? [Link]; page 528

  105. 236 Interventions for the treatment, management and rehabilitation of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: an updated systematic review. Author: Chambers D, Bagnall AM, Hempel S, Forbes C. Journal: J R Soc Med; 2006 Oct ; 99(10):506-20. PubMed ID: 17021301. [Link]; page 528

  106. 237 BMJ. 2000 Jan 29;320(7230):292-6. Reid S. Chronic fatigue syndrome. [Link]; page 528

  107. 238 Subjective quality of life in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Author: Rakib A, White PD, Pinching AJ, Hedge B, Newbery N, Fakhoury WK, Priebe S. Journal: Qual Life Res; 2005 Feb ; 14(1):11-9. PubMed ID: 15789937. [Link]; page 528

  108. 239 Interventions for the treatment, management and rehabilitation of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: an updated systematic review. Author: Chambers D, Bagnall AM, Hempel S, Forbes C. Journal: J R Soc Med; 2006 Oct ; 99(10):506-20. PubMed ID: 17021301. [Link]; page 528

  109. 240 Does methylphenidate reduce the symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome? Author: Blockmans D, Persoons P, Van Houdenhove B, Bobbaers H. Journal: Am J Med; 2006 Feb ; 119(2):167.e23-30. PubMed ID: 16443425 [Link]; page 528

  110. 241 Comparison of oral nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) versus conventional therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome. Author: Santaella ML, Font I, Disdier OM.Journal: P R Health Sci J; 2004 Jun ; 23(2):89-93. PubMed ID: 15377055. [Link]; page 528

  111. 242 Investigating the active ingredients of cognitive behaviour therapy and counselling for patients with chronic fatigue in primary care: Developing a new process measure to assess treatment fidelity and predict outcome. Author: Godfrey E, Chalder T, Ridsdale L, Seed P, Ogden J. Journal: Br J Clin Psychol; 2007 Sep ; 46(Pt 3):253-72. PubMed ID: 17697477. [Link]; page 528

  112. 243 British Medical Journal. 2006, 333: 1261-1264: Lean. M, Gruer. L, Alberti. G, Sattar. N. ABC of Obesity 12, Obesity – Can we turn the tide? [Link]; page 530

  113. 244 British Medical Journal. 2006, 333: 1207-1210: Reilly. J, Wilson. D, ABC of Obesity 11, Childhood obesity. [Link]; page 530

  114. 245 British Medical Journal. 2006, 333: 1060-1063: Lawlor. D.A, Lean. M, Sattar. N, ABC of Obesity 8, Obesity and vascular disease. [Link]; page 530

  115. 246 Am J Cardiol 1977 March; 39(3):452-8. Rabkin. S.W, Mathewson. F.A, Relation of body weight to develop-ment of ischemic heart disease in a cohort of young North American men after a 26 year observation period: the Manitoba Study; no link available; page 530

  116. 247 British Medical Journal. 2006, 333: 1261-1264: Lean. M, Gruer. L, Alberti. G, Sattar. N. ABC of Obesity 12, Obesity – Can we turn the tide? [Link]; page 530

  117. 248 The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 89(6):2583–2589 BRAY. G.A. Medical Consequences of Obesity [Link]; page 530

  118. 250 9- British Medical Journal. 2006, 333: 640-642: Haslam. D, Sattar. N, Lean. M. ABC of Obesity 1, Obesity – time to wake up [Link]; page 530

  119. 251 7- The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 89(6):2583–2589 BRAY. G.A. Medical Consequences of Obesity [Link]; page 530

  120. 252 27- British Medical Journal. 2006, 333: 1109-1111: McMillan. D.C, Sattar. N, Lean. M, McArdle. C.S. ABC of Obesity 9, Obesity and cancer. [Link]; page 530

  121. 253 28- British Medical Journal. 2006, 333: 1159-1162: Ramsay. J.E, Greer. I, Sattar. N. ABC of Obesity 10, Obesity and reproduction. [Link]; page 530

  122. 254 Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2006, 22:626–631 Baynes. K.R.C, Dhillo. W.S, Bloom. S.R. Regulation of food intake by gastrointestinal hormones [Link]; page 530

  123. 255 Link no longer available; page 530

  124. 256 Nature clinical practice ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM. 2007. Vol3 (10) page 705-712. WIEDMER ET AL. Ghrelin, obesity and diabetes. [Link]; page 530

  125. 257 The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 89(6):2583–2589 BRAY. G.A. Medical Consequences of Obesity [Link]; page 530

  126. 258 Handbook of obesity: etiology and pathophysiology, 2nd Ed 2004. New York: Marcel Dekker; 655–669. Pinkney JH, Kepelman PG. Endocrine determinants of obesity. In: Bray GA, Bouchard C, Eds; no link available; page 530

  127. 259 14- Am J Cardiol 1999 April 15; 83(8):1242-7. Karason K, Molgaard H, Wikstrand J, Sjostrom L. Heart rate variability in obesity and the effect of weight loss [Link]; page 530

  128. 260 [Link]; page 530

  129. 261 British Medical Journal. 2006, 333: 695-698: Han. T.S, Sattar. N, Lean. M. ABC of Obesity 2, Assessment of obesity and its clinical implications. [Link]; page 530

  130. 262 Obesity reviews (2007) 8 (Suppl. 1), 137–144 Wilding. J.P.H Treatment strategies for obesity. [Link]; page 530

  131. 263 British Medical Journal. 2006, 333: 740-743: Avenell. A, Sattar. N, Lean. M. ABC of Obesity 3, Management: Part I – Behaviour change, diet, and activity. [Link]; page 530

  132. 264 NICE. Dec/2006: Obesity guidance on the prevention, identification, assessment and management of over-weight and obesity in adults and children [Link]; page 530

  133. 265 NIH publication no. 00-4048 October 2000. The practical guide: identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Bethesda, Md.: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, North American Association for the Study of Obesity, 2000. 23- New England Journal of Medicine. 2002. 346(8): 591-602: Yanovski S.A, Yanovski J.A. Obesity. [Link]; page 530

  134. 266 British Medical Journal. 2006, 333: 740-743: Avenell. A, Sattar. N, Lean. M. ABC of Obesity 3, Management: Part I – Behaviour change, diet, and activity. [Link]; page 530

  135. 267 New England Journal of Medicine. 2002. 346(8): 591-602: Yanovski S.A, Yanovski J.A. Obesity.[Link]; page 530

  136. 268 British Medical Journal. 2006, 333: 1261-1264: Lean. M, Gruer. L, Alberti. G, Sattar. N. ABC of Obesity 12, Obesity – Can we turn the tide? [Link]; page 531

  137. 269 30- British Medical Journal. 2006, 333: 959-962: Lean. M, Lara. J, Hill. J.O. ABC of Obesity 6, Strategies for preventing obesity. [Link]; page 531

  138. 270 Eckel R 2008. Nonsurgical management of Obesity in Adults. NEJM 358 1941 [Link]; page 531

  139. 271 British Medical Journal. 2006, 333: 794-797: Lean. M, Finer. N. ABC of Obesity 4, Management: Part II – Drugs. [Link]; page 531

  140. 272 NICE. Dec/2006: Obesity guidance on the prevention, identification, assessment and management of over-weight and obesity in adults and children [Link]; page 531

  141. 273 British Medical Journal. 2006, 333: 794-797: Lean. M, Finer. N. ABC of Obesity 4, Management: Part II – Drugs. [Link]; page 531

  142. 274 New England Journal of Medicine. 2008. 358(18): 1941-1950: Eckle. R.H. Nonsurgical management of obesity in adults. [Link]; page 531

  143. 275 British Medical Journal. 2007, 335: 1194-1199: Rucker. D. et al. Long term pharmacotherapy for obesity and overweight: updated meta-analysis. [Link]; page 531

  144. 276 New England Journal of Medicine. 2008. 358(18): 1941-1950: Eckle. R.H. Nonsurgical management of obesity in adults. [Link]; page 531

  145. 277 British Medical Journal. 2006, 333: 794-797: Lean. M, Finer. N. ABC of Obesity 4, Management: Part II – Drugs. [Link]; page 531

  146. 278 British Medical Journal. 2006, 333: 740-743: Avenell. A, Sattar. N, Lean. M. ABC of Obesity 3, Management: Part I – Behaviour change, diet, and activity. [Link]; page 531

  147. 279 NICE 2007. Obesity--rimonabant [Link]; page 531

  148. 280 Rimonabant new drug application withdrawn in the US. June 29, 2007. [Link]; page 531

  149. 281 Long-term benefits of rimonabant announced in two-year study Date Published 10/11/2004 [Link]; page 531

  150. 282 New England Journal of Medicine. 2008. 358(18): 1941-1950: Eckle. R.H. Nonsurgical management of obesity in adults. [Link]; page 531

  151. 283 British Medical Journal. 2006, 333: 794-797: Lean. M, Finer. N. ABC of Obesity 4, Management: Part II – Drugs. [Link]; page 531

  152. 284 New England Journal of Medicine. 2008. 358(18): 1941-1950: Eckle. R.H. Nonsurgical management of obesity in adults. [Link]; page 531

  153. 285 NICE. Dec/2006: Obesity guidance on the prevention, identification, assessment and management of over-weight and obesity in adults and children [Link]; page 531

  154. 286- British Medical Journal. 2006, 333: 900-903: Kral. J.G. ABC of Obesity 5, Management: Part III – Surgery. [Link]; page 531

  155. 287 British Medical Journal. 2006, 333: 900-903: Kral. J.G. ABC of Obesity 5, Management: Part III – Surgery. [Link]; page 531

  156. 288 JAMA. 2000 Aug 23-30;284(8):1021-7. Levinson W. A study of patient clues and physician responses in primary care and surgical settings. Medline abstract, N=116 [Link]; page 532

  157. 289 Med J Aust. 1992 Dec 7-21;157(11-12):764-8. Cox K. What doctors need to know. A note on professional performance. [Link]; page 533

Web-based references relating to the disc signs in footnotes, organised by page number

  • Joshua Freeman. Towards a definition of holism. Freeman J. Br J Gen Pract; 2005 Feb ; 55(511):154-5. PubMed ID: 15720949 [Link]; page 471

  • Existentialism [Link]; page 471

  • Consultation rates from the general practice research database. Author: Rowlands S, Moser K. Journal: Br J Gen Pract; 2002 Aug ; 52(481):658-60. PubMed ID: 12171226 [Link]; page 476

  • Lancet April 2003; 361: 1149-1158 [Link]; page 482

  • HPS; Title: Effects of cholesterol-lowering with simvastatin on stroke and other major vascular events in 20536 people with cerebrovascular disease or other high-risk conditions. Author: Collins R, Armitage J, Parish S, Sleight P, Peto R, Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group .Journal: Lancet; 2004 Mar 6 ; 363(9411):757-67. PubMed ID: 15016485 [Link]; page 482

  • Protecting the heart: a practical review of the statin studies. Author: Ong HT. Journal: MedGenMed; 2002 Dec 10 ; 4(4):1. PubMed ID: 12817199. [Link]; page 482

  • Primary prevention of acute coronary events with lovastatin in men and women with average cholesterol levels: results of AFCAPS/TexCAPS. Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study. Author: Downs JR, Clearfield M, Weis S, Whitney E, Shapiro DR, Beere PA, Langendorfer A, Stein EA, Kruyer W, Gotto AM. Journal: JAMA; 1998 May 27 ; 279(20):1615-22. PubMed ID: 9613910. [Link]; page 482

  • Population-based multidimensional assessment of older people in UK general practice: a cluster-randomised factorial trial. Author: Fletcher AE, Price GM, Ng ES, Stirling SL, Bulpitt CJ, Breeze E, Nunes M, Jones DA, Latif A, Fasey NM, Vickers MR, Tulloch AJ. Journal: Lancet; 2004 Nov 6 ; 364(9446):1667-77. PubMed ID: 15530627 [Link]; page 486

  • BMJ 2005;330(7493):707 (26 March), doi:10.1136/bmj.38342.665417.8F. Cost effectiveness of nurse led secondary prevention clinics for coronary heart disease in primary care: follow up of a randomised controlled trial. James P Raftery [Link]; page 488

  • C Heneghan 2007 Hypertension Guidelin recommendations in general practice. Brit J Gen Pract 2007 948 [Link]; page 490

  • M Proust SCG [Link]; page 498

  • Measuring patient satisfaction for QoF. Hankins F 2007. Brit J Gen Bract 57 737; no link available; page 510

  • R Grol 2007. Measuring performance quality in General Practice. 2007 Brit J Gen Prac 57 691; no link available; page 510

  • Sageman S.Journal: J Am Acad Psychoanal Dyn Psychiatry; 2004 Spring ; 32(1):125-41 [Link]; page 520

  • Food Standards Agency 2007 Report [Link]; page 523

  • Pacing [Link]; page 528

  • The orexigenic hormone ghrelin defends against depressive symptoms of chronic stress. Author: Lutter M, Sakata I, Osborne-Lawrence S, Rovinsky SA, Anderson JG, Jung S, Birnbaum S, Yanagisawa M, Elmquist JK, Nestler EJ, Zigman JM. Journal: Nat Neurosci; 2008 Jul ; 11(7):752-3. PubMed ID: 18552842. [Link]; page 530

  • Ghrelin enhances the nocturnal secretion of cortisol and growth hormone in young females without influencing sleep. Author: Kluge M, Schüssler P, Zuber V, Kleyer S, Yassouridis A, Dresler M, Uhr M, Steiger A. Journal: Psychoneuroendocrinology; 2007 Sep-Nov ; 32(8-10):1079-85. PubMed ID: 17945435. [Link]; page 530

Chapter 07: ENT

  1. 1 Daphne Manoussaki 2006. New Math Model Finds That The Cochlea’s Spiral Shape Enhances Low Frequencies [Link]; page 534

  2. 2 Valerie Vaughan 2005. The Fibonacci Numbers: Connections within the Mathematics and Calendrical Systems of Ancient Mesoamerica [Link]; page 534

  3. 3 Fibonacci Numbers: A Measure of Beauty. Harun Yahya. [Link]; page 534

  4. 4 DaphneManoussaki 2008. The influence of cochlea shape on low-frequency hearing. PNAS. 105 16[Link]; page 534

  5. 5 Figures 2 and 3 © OUP; no link available; page 535

  6. 6 Feeling the real world: limbic response to music depends on related con-tent. Author: Eldar E, Ganor O, Admon R, Bleich A, Hendler T. Journal: Cereb Cortex; 2007 Dec ; 17(12):2828-40. PubMed ID: 17395609. [Link]; page 535

  7. 7 The prevalence of ear, nose and throat problems in the community: re-sults from a national cross-sectional postal survey in Scotland. Author: Hannaford PC, Simpson JA, Bisset AF, Davis A, McKerrow W, Mills R. Jour-nal: Fam Pract; 2005 Jun ; 22(3):227-33. PubMed ID: 15772117. [Link]; page 536

  8. 8 Prevalence of nasal polyposis in France: a cross-sectional, case-control study. Author: Klossek JM, Neukirch F, Pribil C, Jankowski R, Serrano E, Chanal I, El Hasnaoui A. Journal: Allergy; 2005 Feb ; 60(2):233-7. PubMed ID: 15647046 [Link]; page 536

  9. 9 Clinical role of free-field voice tests in children. Author: Dempster JH, Mackenzie K. Journal: Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci; 1992 Feb ; 17(1):54-6. PubMed ID: 1555319. [Link]; page 537

  10. 10 Image of cords courtesy of James Thomas MD [Link]; page 537

  11. 11 eMedicine Benign ear tumours. Chondrodermatitis. [Link]; page 538

  12. 12 Medtronics [Link]; page 538

  13. 13 Effective treatment of chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis using a conservative approach. Moncrieff M, Sassoon EM. Journal: Br J Dermatol; 2004 May ; 150(5):892-4. PubMed ID: 15149500[Link]; page 538

  14. 14 Chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis. Author: Zuber TJ, Jackson E. Journal: Arch Fam Med; 1999 Sep-Oct ; 8(5):445-7. PubMed ID: 10500520 [Link]; page 538

  15. 15 Interventions for acute auricular haematoma. Author: Jones SE, Mahen-dran S. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2004 ; (2):CD004166. PubMed ID: 15106240 [Link]; page 538

  16. 16 Rethinking auricular trauma. Author: Ghanem T, Rasamny JK, Park SS. Journal: Laryngoscope; 2005 Jul ; 115(7):1251-5. PubMed ID: 15995516. [Link]; page 538

  17. 17 Ear drops for the removal of ear wax. Author: Burton MJ, Dorée CJ. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2003 ; (3):CD004400. PubMed ID: 12918014 [Link]; page 538

  18. 18 The effectiveness of topical preparations for the treatment of earwax: a systematic review. Author: Hand C, Harvey I. Journal: Br J Gen Pract; 2004 Nov ; 54(508):862-7. PubMed ID: 15527615 [Link]; page 538

  19. 19 Water as a fast acting wax softening agent before ear syringing. Author: Pavlidis C, Pickering JA. Journal: Aust Fam Physician; 2005 Apr ; 34(4):303-4. PubMed ID: 15861762 [Link]; page 538

  20. 20 Trends of ear syringing at Ibadan, Nigeria. Author: Ogunleye AO, Awobem AA. Journal: Afr J Med Med Sci; 2004 Mar ; 33(1):35-7. PubMed ID: 15490792 [Link]; page 538

  21. 21 Aural foreign bodies. Author: Mishra A, Shukla GK, Bhatia N. Journal: Indian J Pediatr; 2000 Apr ; 67(4):267-9. PubMed ID: 10878867. [Link]; page 538

  22. 21 Trends of ear syringing at Ibadan, Nigeria. Author: Ogunleye AO, Awobem AA. Journal: Afr J Med Med Sci; 2004 Mar ; 33(1):35-7. PubMed ID: 15490792 [Link]; page 538

  23. 22 Image kindly supplied by Michael Saunders, FRCS; no link available; page 539

  24. 23 Image kindly supplied by Michael Saunders, FRCS” >[Link]; page 539

  25. 24 Image kindly supplied by Michael Saunders, FRCS; no link available; page 539

  26. 25 Image kindly supplied by Michael Saunders, FRCS; no link available; page 539

  27. 26 Image kindly supplied by Michael Saunders, FRCS; no link available; page 539

  28. 27 Image kindly supplied by Michael Saunders, FRCS; no link available; page 539

  29. 28 Image kindly supplied by Michael Saunders, FRCS; no link available; page 539

  30. 29 Image kindly supplied by Michael Saunders, FRCS; no link available; page 539

  31. 30 Image of traumatic perforation of drum courtesy of Mr Rory Herdman ; no link available; page 539

  32. 31 Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 1989 Dec;14(6):535-7. Clinical masking with tragal rubbing and the Barany noise-box. Swan IR [Link]; page 540

  33. 32 Randomised controlled trial of the Lidcombe programme of early stut-tering intervention. Author: Jones M, Onslow M, Packman A, Williams S, Ormond T, Schwarz I, Gebski V. Journal: BMJ; 2005 Sep 24 ; 331(7518):659. PubMed ID: 16096286. [Link]; page 541

  34. 33 Figure 1a kindly supplied by Jane Jones of the Oxford Radcliffe Hospitals ENT Department; no link available; page 541

  35. 34 Figure 1b kindly supplied by Jane Jones of the Oxford Radcliffe Hospitals ENT Department; no link available; page 541

  36. 35 Figure 1c kindly supplied by Jane Jones of the Oxford Radcliffe Hospitals ENT Department; no link available; page 541

  37. 36 Clinical evidence [Link]; page 542

  38. 37 [Link]; page 542

  39. 38 The prevention of the ear barotrauma by positive pressure on naso-pharynx. Author: Wu J, Zheng Z, Wang X, Mao H, Cheng P. Journal: Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Oct ; 20(19):878-9. PubMed ID: 17168113. [Link]; page 542

  40. 39 From bite to mind: TMD--a personal and literature review. Author: Molin C. Journal: Int J Prosthodont; 1999 May-Jun ; 12(3):279-88. PubMed ID: 10635197. [Link]; page 542

  41. 39 The efficacy of acupuncture in the treatment of temporomandibular joint myofascial pain: a randomised controlled trial. Author: Smith P, Mosscrop D, Davies S, Sloan P, Al-Ani Z. Journal: J Dent; 2007 Mar ; 35(3):259-67. PubMed ID: 17095133. [Link]; page 542

  42. 40 Mood spectrum in patients with different painful temporomandibular disorders. Author: Manfredini D, di Poggio AB, Romagnoli M, Dell’Osso L, Bosco M. Journal: Cranio; 2004 Jul ; 22(3):234-40. PubMed ID: 15293779. [Link]; page 542

  43. 41 Temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome: a close association with systemic joint laxity (the hypermobile joint syndrome) Author: Buck-ingham RB, Braun T, Harinstein DA, Oral K, Bauman D, Bartynski W, Killian PJ, Bidula LP. Journal: Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol; 1991 Nov ; 72(5):514-9. PubMed ID: 1745506. [Link]; page 542

  44. 42 Topical versus systemic diclofenac in the treatment of temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction symptoms. [Link]; page 542

  45. 43 Treatment outcome of appliance therapy in temporomandibular disor-der patients with myofascial pain after 6 and 12 months. Author: Ekberg E, Nilner M. Journal: Acta Odontol Scand; 2004 Dec ; 62(6):343-9. PubMed ID: 15848979 [Link]; page 542

  46. 44 A meta-analysis of EMG biofeedback treatment of temporomandibular disorders. Author: Crider AB, Glaros AG. Journal: J Orofac Pain; 1999 Win-ter ; 13(1):29-37. PubMed ID: 10425966. [Link]; page 542

  47. 45 The efficacy of acupuncture in the treatment of temporomandibular joint myofascial pain: a randomised controlled trial. Author: Smith P, Mosscrop D, Davies S, Sloan P, Al-Ani Z. Journal: J Dent; 2007 Mar ; 35(3):259-67. PubMed ID: 17095133. [Link]; page 542

  48. 46 External Ear, Malignant External Otitis [Link]; page 543

  49. 47 [Malignant external otitis] Author: Tisch M, Maier H. Journal: Laryngorhinootologie; 2006 Oct ; 85(10):763-9; quiz 770-3. PubMed ID: 17031764. [Link]; page 543

  50. 48 Image of aural wick in otitis externa kindly supplied by Mr Rory Herd-man, FRCS. ; no link available; page 543

  51. 49 Mastoidectomy packs: Xeroform or BIPP? Author: Chevretton EB, McRae RD, Booth JB. Journal: J Laryngol Otol; 1991 Nov ; 105(11):916-7. PubMed ID: 1842220. [Link]; page 543

  52. 50 Short course antibiotics for acute otitis media Kozyrskyj AL, Hildes-Ripstein GE, Longstaffe SEA, Wincott JL, Sitar DS, Klassen TP, Moffatt MEK [Link]; page 544

  53. 51 Antibiotics for otitis m