Neurobiology of Addictions

Neurobiology of Addictions

Alan C. Swann, F. Gerard Moeller, and Marijn Lijffijt

Print publication date: Apr 2016

ISBN: 9780199367894

Publisher: Oxford University Press

Abstract

This book addresses (1) candidate mechanisms across addictive behaviors, including impulsivity (Chapters 1–5); reward sensitivity (Chapter 2); behavioral sensitization and cross-sensitization to addictive, stressful, or endogenous illness-related stimuli (Chapters 1, 5–8, 13); and genetics (Chapter 11). Addictions frequently combine with other psychiatric disorders; each increases severity of the other (Chapters 1, 7, 13). Genetic or epigenetic mechanisms underlying addictive processes may overlap with those involved in predisposing illnesses (Chapters 5, 11, 13). Addressed are (2) resilience to addictions despite substance use (Chapters 1, 3–5, 7, 13); (3) clinical contexts of addictive behavior, including nicotine (Chapter 3, early onset), opiates (Chapter 4; resilience and impulsivity), alcohol (Chapter 5; stimulant-like effects), stimulants (Chapter 9), marijuana and cannabinoids (Chapter 10; endocannabinoid systems strategic role in motivation and reward), nonpharmacological addictions (Chapter 8; sexual addictions), and interactions between addictions and other recurrent/progressive brain diseases (Chapters 1, 13). Topics include (4) strategies for addiction prevention and treatment, including targets related to impulsivity (Chapters 1, 2, 4, 5), decision-making (Chapter 2), sensitization (Chapters 1, 13), and prevention (Chapters 5, 13); nonpharmacological treatments for impulsivity (Chapters 2, 4), decision-making (Chapter 2), and sensitization prevention (Chapter 13), pharmacogenetics (Chapter 11), and study design and analysis strategies that account for complex neurobehavioral interactions underlying addiction treatment (Chapter 12). Chapter 13 integrates addictive and other psychiatric diseases, especially regarding progression and sensitization, in a clinically oriented manner. Understanding the basic neurobehavioral mechanisms and sources of resilience against them will lead to more effective prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.