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Appendix 

Appendix
Source:
Drugs in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care (5 ed.)

Drug comparison tables

For drug comparison tables, please see Tables A1.1, A1.2, and A1.3.

Table A1.1 Physicochemical properties of inhalational anaesthetic agents

Agent

MW

BP (°C)

SVP (kPa)

MAC

Blood:gas partition coefficient

Oil:gas partition coefficient

Isoflurane

184.5

48.5

32

1.15

1.4

97

Enflurane

184.5

56.5

23.3

1.68

1.91

98

Sevoflurane

200

58.6

22.7

1.4–3.3

0.63–0.69

47–54

Desflurane

168

22.8

88.5

5.17–10.65

0.45

19

Halothane

197.4

50.2

32

0.75

2.5

224

Nitrous oxide

44

−88.5

5500

105

0.47

1.4

Xenon

131.293

−108.1

5800

60 ± 5

0.115

1.9

BP, boiling point; MAC, minimal alveolar concentration; MW, molecular weight; SVP, saturation vapour pressure.

Table A1.2 Comparison table of intravenous anaesthetic agents

Agent

pKa

pH

Protein binding (%)

Volume of distribution (l/kg)

Half-life

Propofol

11

7–8.5

98

4

9.3–69.3 minutes

Thiopental

7.6

10.8

65–86

1.96

3.4–22 hours

Ketamine

7.5

3.5–5.5

20–50

3

2.5 hours

Etomidate

4.2

8.1

76.5

4.5

1–4.7 hours

Table A1.3 Comparison table of local anaesthetic agents

Agent

pKa

% unionized at pH 7.4

Protein binding (%)

Toxic dose (mg/kg)

Onset (minutes)

Duration

Lidocaine

7.7

25%

64–70

3 (7 with adrenaline)

2–20

Variable

Bupivacaine

8.1

15%

95

2

10–20

5–16 hours

Prilocaine

7.7–7.9

33%

55

6

1–2

0.5–1 hours

Ropivacaine

8.1

15%

94

3

10–30

8–13 hours

Chloroprocaine

8.96

N/A

N/A

N/A

3–5

80–100 minutes

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