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Surgical therapy for heart failure 

Surgical therapy for heart failure
Surgical therapy for heart failure
Core Concepts in Cardiac Surgery

Stephen Westaby


Congestive heart failure affects 23 million people worldwide, and is the final pathway for many diseases that affect the myocardium. Successful intervention in acute coronary syndromes together with improved management of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and dysrhythmia provide an ever-increasing number of advanced heart failure patients spread over a wide age range. In Western countries, coronary artery disease is responsible for about 70% of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and valvular heart disease accounting for 15%. Since 10% of patients older than 65 years suffer systolic left ventricular dysfunction, the numbers with heart failure will double within the next 25 years. For end-stage patients, cardiac transplantation provides the benchmark for increased longevity and symptomatic relief. However, the vast majority of patients are over 65 years of age or are referred with established comorbidity, which precludes transplantation.

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