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Biological Aspects and Clinical Applications of Serum Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer 

Biological Aspects and Clinical Applications of Serum Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer
Chapter:
Biological Aspects and Clinical Applications of Serum Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer
Source:
Ovarian Cancer Immunotherapy
Author(s):

Rouba Ali-Fehmi

and Eman Abdulfatah

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190248208.003.0002

Ovarian cancer, the most aggressive gynecological malignancy, presents at advanced stages with metastatic disease. Diagnosis at an early stage is the most important determinant of survival; however, the majority of patients are asymptomatic at early stages and the current diagnostic tools used in clinics show limited success in early detection and hence the need for new diagnostic biomarkers. With the advance of techniques in genomic and proteomics, numerous biomarkers are emerging which may serve as a platform for early detection of ovarian cancer. These include gene-, protein-, miRNAs, and metabolite- based biomarkers. Examples of gene-based biomarkers include HE4, FLOR1, p16INK4a, BRCA1, BRCA2, MLH1, and MSH2. Protein- based biomarkers include leptin, prolactin, osteopontin, IGF-II, and MIF. This chapter discusses the serum tumor markers (CA-125) in current use for screening, diagnosis and monitoring of ovarian cancer as well as the novel biomarkers that are under investigation and validation.

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