Page of


A Field Manual for Palliative Care in Humanitarian Crises

Tables, figures and box are indicated by t, f and b following the page number

For the benefit of digital users, indexed terms that span two pages (e.g., 52–53) may, on occasion, appear on only one of those pages.

acknowledgment, [link]
acute radiation syndrome (ARS), [link]
Aeromonas hydrophila, [link]
agitation, escalating, [link]b, [link]
alternative medicine, [link]
amputation, traumatic, [link]
analgesics. See also [link]
adjuvant medications and interventions, [link][link]
basic, [link], [link]
anesthesia, regional, [link]
anorexia and cachexia
management of, [link]
pharmacological, [link]
overview, [link]
anthrax, [link]
anticholinergics, [link]
anticonvulsants, [link]
antiemetics, [link]
antihistamines, [link]
antisecretory agents, [link]
anxiety, acute
diagnosis, [link]
management of, [link]
behavioral and psychosocial interventions, [link]
pharmacological treatments, [link]
overview, [link]
anxiety disorders, signs and symptoms of, [link]
Ask-Tell-Ask method, [link][link]
autonomy, [link]
of healthcare providers, [link]

bacterial infections. See also [link]
superimposed, [link]
belonging, affirming, [link]
beneficence, [link]
bereavement. See [link]
beriberi, [link]
bisacodyl, [link]
bleeding, [link], [link][link]
vaginal, [link]
breathlessness. See [link]
burial practices, [link]
safety in, [link]
Buruli ulcers, [link]
burnout, [link]
burns, [link]

cachexia. See [link]
cancer. See [link]; [link]
cardiomyopathies, [link]
symptom management in
general principles of, [link]
nonpharmacological, [link]
pharmacological, [link]
chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ), [link]
children. See [link]; [link]
chlorpromazine, [link]b, [link]t
Chromobacterium violaceum, [link]
chronic kidney disease (CKD), [link]
symptom management in
general principles of, [link]
nonpharmacological, [link]
pharmacological, [link]
cirrhosis, [link]
defined, [link]
management of complications of, [link]
symptom management in, [link]
general principles of, [link]
cluster system/cluster approach, [link]
community health workers (CHW), [link]
complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), [link]
confusion, [link]. See also [link]
connection, affirming, [link]
causes of, [link]
management of, [link]
pharmacological, [link]
overview, [link][link]
constipation algorithm, [link]b
contact and engagement (psychological first aid), [link]
convulsions. See [link]
encouraging adaptive, [link]
providing information on, [link]
counseling checklist for family caregivers, [link]b
counseling family members of dying patients, [link], [link]
cultural differences in physical examinations, [link]
cultural humility applied to unconscious beliefs and biases, [link]
culturally effective palliative care, areas of concern for, [link]
cultural perspectives on suffering, [link]
cultural relativism, [link]
cultural views of diagnosis and medications, [link]
culture and ethics, [link]

ensuring a good, [link]
healthcare providers and, [link]
recognizing when death is imminent, [link]
witnessing mortality and morbidity, [link][link]
brief, [link]
team, [link], [link]
decision-making, [link]
dehydration, [link]
background, [link]
diagnosis, [link]
infections underlying, [link]
management of, [link]
behavioral interventions, [link]
identifying and treating underlying causes, [link][link]
medications, [link]
physical restraints and pharmacological, [link]
delirium algorithm, PCHC, [link]t
dementia, [link]
symptom management in
general principles of, [link]
nonpharmacological, [link]
depression, signs and symptoms of, [link]
dexamethasone, [link], [link]
causes, [link]
defined, [link]
management, [link]
diazepam, [link]b, [link]t, [link], [link]
diphenhydramine, [link]b, [link]
disappearance of loved ones and uncertainty, [link]
disorientation, [link]. See also [link]
double effect, [link]
drug intoxication, withdrawal, and overdose, [link]
dying. See also [link]
dying children. See also [link]
the actively dying child, [link]
management of pain, dyspnea, and agitation in, [link]b
dying patients, care of, [link], [link]. See also [link]; [link]; specific topics
after-death care, [link]
communication, [link][link]
confusion, disorientation, and delirium, [link]
decreased oral intake, [link]
family meeting tips, [link]
incontinence and urinary retention, [link][link]
memory making, [link][link]
respiration pattern changes, [link]
respiratory secretions, [link]b, [link]
seizures and convulsions, [link]
special situations, [link][link]
symptom management in the last hours and day, [link]
weakness and fatigue, [link]
dyspnea, [link]
defined, [link]
education, [link][link]
escalating, [link]b, [link]
measurement of, [link]
treatment of, [link][link], [link]t, [link]b
pharmaceutical interventions, [link], [link]t
steps and considerations in the, [link][link]
dyspnea algorithm, PCHC, [link]t

earthquakes, [link]t, [link]
decreased oral intake, [link]
impaired, [link]
Ebola, [link]t, [link]
edema, [link]
electrolyte abnormalities, [link]
emergency medical teams (EMTs), [link], [link]t, [link]
emotion, responding to, [link]
emotional care (family caregivers), [link]
emotional response other an event, acknowledging, [link]
end-of-life care. See [link]; [link]
end-of-life rituals and burial practices, [link]
engagement (psychological first aid), [link]
epidemics of life-threatening infections, [link][link]
equipment in palliative care, essential, [link]
erythromycin, [link]
essential medicines, [link]. See also specific topics
access to, in humanitarian crises, [link]
dosage guidelines, [link]b
in palliative care, [link]
Essential Medicines List (EML), [link]
ethics of medical intervention during emergencies, [link]. See also [link]; [link]
key ethical approaches, [link]
ethnic violence, [link][link]
existential suffering, [link]

Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC) scale, [link], [link]t, [link]b
Face Pain Scale–Revised (FPS-R), [link]f
family caregivers, counseling checklist for, [link]b
family meetings, tangible tasks for, [link]t
family members of dying patients
communicating end-of-life information to, [link]b, [link]b
counseling, [link], [link]
family meeting tips, [link]
fatigue, [link]
filariasis, [link]
firearm trauma, [link]
floods, [link]
floodwater infections, [link][link]
fluids, discontinuing, [link]
fractures, open, [link]
frostbite, [link]
funerary practices, safety in, [link]
fungating tumors, [link]

gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction, [link]
gastrointestinal (GI) symptom management, [link]. See also specific symptoms
pharmacological management, [link]
gastroparesis, [link]
genocide, [link]t
grief (and bereavement), [link]. See also [link]
signs and symptoms, [link]
special circumstances of, [link]
gunshot wounds. See [link]

haloperidol, [link], [link], [link]t, [link]
health, right to, [link]
healthcare, access to, [link]
healthcare providers, [link]. See also specific topics
basic needs, [link]
psychological syndromes in, [link][link]
safety, [link], [link]
unique stressors for, [link][link]
heart failure, [link]
hematemesis, [link]
hemoptysis, brisk, [link]
herpes zoster. See [link]
home-based palliative care, [link][link]
humanitarian crises. See also specific topics
defined, [link]
humanitarian principles, [link]
humanity, principle of, [link]
hyoscine hydrobromide, [link]b
hypnosis, [link]

impartiality, principle of, [link]
incontinence, [link][link]
independence, principle of, [link]
infections, [link]
causing delirium, [link]
floodwater, [link][link]
influenza pandemic, [link]t
gathering, [link]
providing, [link]b, [link]b, [link]
integrative treatment modalities, [link]
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), [link]
international humanitarian law (IHL), [link]
definition, [link]
remedies for violations of, [link]
international human rights law, [link]
definition, [link][link]
isolation of healthcare providers, [link]

justice, [link]

Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), [link]
kidney failure, [link]. See also [link]
kwashiorkor, [link]

lactulose, [link]
laws. See also [link]
applicable in humanitarian emergencies, [link][link]
laxatives, [link], [link]b, [link]b. See also [link]
liver failure, [link]
localization, [link]
defined, [link]
local systems, working with, [link]
lorazepam, [link], [link]t, [link]b, [link], [link]
loss. See also [link]
healthcare providers and, [link]
lupus, [link]

maggot removal, [link]
malignancies, [link]. See also [link]
malignant bowel obstruction (MBO)
management of, [link]
pharmacological, [link]
overview, [link]
malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC), [link][link]
malnutrition, [link]. See also [link]
marasmus, [link]
medication, essential. See [link]
melena, [link]
memory making, [link][link]
metoclopramide, [link]b
midazolam, [link]b, [link], [link]
mind–body techniques, [link]
mindful practices, short, [link]
moral distress, [link]
moral experiences, [link]
Mucormycosis, [link]
mycetoma, [link]

National Disaster Management Office (NDMO), [link]
natural hazards, [link][link]. See also specific hazards
nausea and vomiting, [link][link]
causes, [link]
management of, [link]
pharmacological, [link]
nausea and vomiting algorithm, [link]b
neurological causes of delirium, [link]
neutrality, principle of, [link]
non-abandonment, [link]
nonmaleficence, [link]
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), [link]
nonverbal communication, [link]
nuclear detonation, [link]
Numerical Rating Scale (NRS-11), [link]f
nutrition. See also [link]
discontinuing, [link]

octreotide, [link]b, [link]
ondansetron, [link]
organizations, a call to arms for, [link]
osmotic agents, [link]. See also [link]

pain, [link]t, [link][link]
escalating, [link]b, [link]
procedural, [link]
pain assessment, [link]
multidimensional observational rating scales, [link]
self-assessment, [link], [link]f
pain management algorithm, [link]
pain treatment, [link][link], [link], [link]b. See also [link]; [link]
integrative treatment modalities, [link]
palliative care, [link]. See also specific topics
obstacles to provision of, [link]
palliative care integration
foundations for, [link]
elements comprising a foundation, [link]
integration into long-term humanitarian emergencies, [link]
pediatric medication dosing, [link]
pediatric needs, special, [link]. See also [link]
chronic illness, [link][link]
communication, [link][link]
approaches to communicating with children, [link]
guidelines for preferred communication styles and concepts of death, [link]
symptom management, [link][link]
pellagra, [link]
pericardial effusions (PCE), [link]
pleural effusion, [link]
pneumothorax, [link]
political conflict, [link][link]
polyethylene glycol-3350 (PEG-3350), [link]
post-traumatic growth, integrating, [link]
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), signs and symptoms of, [link]
principlist approach, [link]
prochlorperazine, [link]
prognosis, discussing, [link]
promethazine, [link]b
providers. See [link]
pruritus, [link]
psychological first aid (PFA), [link][link]
core actions of, [link][link]
psychological suffering, [link]t
psychosocial responses in humanitarian crises, [link][link]
psychosocial terrain of palliative care in humanitarian crises, mapping the, [link][link]

radiation, [link]
referral, [link]
relationships, affirming, [link]
relaxation therapy, [link]
resilience, [link]
resiliency practices in the field for providers, [link]f, [link]
respect for persons, [link]
respiration pattern changes, [link]
respiratory secretions
in dying patients, [link]b, [link]
medications for, [link]
resuscitation, unsuccessful, [link]

safety and comfort (psychological first aid), [link]
safety of healthcare providers, [link], [link]
scabies, crusted, [link]
scopolamine, [link]b
scurvy, [link]
sedative-hypnotics, [link]
seizures (and convulsions), [link], [link]
management of, [link]
acute treatment, [link]
pediatric treatment considerations, [link]
prophylactic, [link]
self-compassion, [link]
senna, [link]
shock, [link]
Simplified Concrete Ordinal Scale (S-COS), [link]f
Simplified Faces Pain Scale (S-FPS), [link]f
skin care, general, [link][link]
skin conditions, chronic, [link]
skin diseases, noninfectious, [link][link]
sleep, impaired, [link]
snake bites, [link]
social suffering, [link]t
social supports, connection with, [link]
solidarity, [link]
special needs, [link]. See also [link]
Sphere Standards, [link][link]
SPIKES protocol, [link], [link]t
spiritual care, [link], [link][link]
spiritual responses in humanitarian crises, [link][link]
spiritual suffering, [link]t
spiritual terrain of palliative care in humanitarian crises, mapping the, [link][link]
stabilization, emotional, [link], [link]
staff who provide end-of-life care. See also [link]
supporting, [link]
starvation, [link]
Stevens–Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis, [link]
storms, major, [link]
stress, physical, [link]
stress resilience and recovery, protective factors in, [link]
subcutaneous administration of medication, [link][link]
medications that can be administered by subcutaneous injection, [link]b
suffering. See also [link]; [link]
challenges in measuring and reducing, [link]
cultural perspectives on, [link]
palliative care responses to, [link]t
types of, [link]t, [link]
vicarious trauma through recognizing, [link]
superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome (SVCS), [link]
symptoms and forms of distress caused by humanitarian emergencies, [link], [link]t
syphilis, [link]

team-related stressors, [link]
practices in the field for, [link][link]
practices when out of the humanitarian crisis setting, [link]
“tell me more” (communication tool), [link]
tetanus, [link]
torture and cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment
ICCPR prohibition of, [link]
toxic epidermal necrolysis, [link]
causing delirium, [link]
defined, [link]
vicarious, [link]
trauma-informed care, [link][link]
trench foot, [link]
triage, [link][link]
principles related to triage process, [link][link]
recommended triage categories in humanitarian emergencies and crises, [link]t
tsunamis, [link]
tuberculosis (TB), cutaneous, [link]
tumors. See also [link]; [link]
fungating, [link]

uncertainty, disappearance of loved ones and, [link]
understanding, facilitating, [link]
urinary retention and incontinence, [link][link]

vaginal bleeding, [link]
varicella-zoster virus, [link]
ventilator withdrawal
after, [link]
management before, [link]
process of, [link]
Vibro vulnificans, [link]
vicarious trauma, [link]
virtue ethics approach, [link]
Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), [link]f
vitamin B1 deficiency, [link]
vitamin B3 deficiency, [link]
vitamin B12 deficiency, [link]
vitamin C deficiency, [link]
vomiting. See [link]
vulnerability, modeling, [link]

weakness, [link]
“wounded healer,” [link][link]
bleeding, [link]
exposure-related, [link][link]
high-risk, [link]

zinc deficiency, [link]
zoster, [link]
Copyright © 2021. All rights reserved.