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Urinary Tract Infections 

Urinary Tract Infections
Chapter:
Urinary Tract Infections
Author(s):

Walter C Hellinger

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199827626.003.0026
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date: 14 December 2017

There are several terms important to a discussion of urinary tract infection (UTI). Bacteriuria is bacteria in the urine. Significant bacteriuria is at least 105 bacteria/mL of voided urine. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is bacteria in the urine without symptoms associated with urinary tract infection. Urinary tract infection is bacteriuria (or funguria) and symptoms associated with upper UTI or lower UTI (or both). UTI s are sometimes characterized as asymptomatic or symptomatic, in which case asymptomatic UTI is synonymous with asymptomatic significant bacteriuria.Uncomplicated UTI is infection of a physiologically and anatomically normal urinary tract. Complicated UTI is infection of a physiologically or anatomically abnormal urinary tract. Cystitis is lower UTI typically associated with urinary frequency, dysuria, or urgency. Acute pyelonephritis is upper UTI of recent onset with renal involvement, often associated with fever, chills, flank pain, or nausea. Diagnosis and treatment of specific infections are also reviewed.

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