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Select Gram-negative Aerobic Bacteria 

Select Gram-negative Aerobic Bacteria
Chapter:
Select Gram-negative Aerobic Bacteria
Author(s):

David R. McNamara

and Franklin R. Cockerill

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199827626.003.0007
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date: 22 September 2018

Gram-negative bacteria may be rod-shaped (bacilli), spherical (cocci), oval, helical, or filamentous. Cytoplasmic membrane is surrounded by a cell wall consisting of a peptidoglycan layer and an outer cell membrane. Gram-negative bacteria are widely distributed in the natural environment. They are commensals with many animals and play a vital role in normal human physiology as intestinal commensals. Gram-negative bacteria are the cause of various human illnesses. The gram-negative bacterial cell wall contains various lipopolysaccharide endotoxins. Endotoxins trigger intense inflammation and the sepsis syndrome during infection. Specific species of gram-negative bacteria such as Neisseria meningitides, Moraxella catarrhalis, Acinetobacter, Vibrio, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Haemophilus influenza are reviewed.

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