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Treatment-Resistant Bipolar Disorder 

Treatment-Resistant Bipolar Disorder
Treatment-Resistant Bipolar Disorder

Mark A. Frye

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date: 12 November 2018

Despite therapeutic advances in the bipolar pharmacopoeia, treatment resistance broadly defined as inefficacy and/or poor tolerability contributing to nonadherence continues to be a substantial clinical problem. Recent research has focused on developing operationalized criteria to quantify illness staging and drug treatment resistance. Novel treatments beyond conventional lithium, mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, and antidepressant such as antiglutamatergic, antipurinergic, and dopaminergic compounds as well as developing neuromodulation treatments hold promise for resistant bipolar disorder.

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