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Management of Treatment-Resistant Depression: Somatic Nonpharmacological Therapies 

Management of Treatment-Resistant Depression: Somatic Nonpharmacological Therapies
Management of Treatment-Resistant Depression: Somatic Nonpharmacological Therapies

Paul E. Holtzheimer

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date: 21 November 2018

Somatic, nonpharmacologic therapies are among the oldest available treatments for severe psychiatric illness, though their use diminished with the emergence of psychotropic medications and evidence-based psychotherapies. However, driven by improved models of the neural systems involved in regulating mood, thought, and behavior, interest in nonpharmacologic somatic treatments has again increased. This chapter will review those therapies currently available for treatment-resistant depression (electroconvulsive therapy [ECT], ablative neurosurgery, vagus nerve stimulation [VNS], and transcranial magnetic stimulation [TMS]), as well as those treatments being actively investigated (transcranial direct current stimulation [tDCS], magnetic seizure therapy [MST], direct cortical stimulation [DCS], and deep brain stimulation [DBS]).

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