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Cardiovascular symptoms and physical signs 

Cardiovascular symptoms and physical signs

Chapter:
Cardiovascular symptoms and physical signs
Author(s):

Huw Llewelyn

, Hock Aun Ang

, Keir Lewis

, and Anees Al-Abdullah

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199679867.003.0005
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date: 20 August 2017

Chest pain—alarming and increasing over minutes to hours - Severe lower chest or upper abdominal pain - Sudden breathlessness, onset over seconds - Breathlessness on minimal exertion or orthopnoea or paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea (PND) - Palpitations - Acute breathlessness, wheeze ± cough - Cough and pink frothy sputum - Syncope - Leg pain on walking—intermittent claudication - Leg pain on standing—relieved by lying down - Unilateral calf swelling - Bilateral ankle swelling - Thoughts on interpreting cardiovascular signs - Peripheral cyanosis - Central cyanosis - Tachycardia (e.g. pulse rate >120bpm) - Bradycardia (<60bpm) - Pulse irregular - Pulse volume high - Pulse volume low - Blood pressure high—hypertension - Blood pressure very low - Postural fall in blood pressure - BP/pulse difference between arms - BP/pulse difference between arm and legs - Prominent leg veins ± unilateral leg swelling - Unilateral leg and ankle swelling - Bilateral leg and ankle swelling - Raised jugular venous pressure - Abnormal apex impulse - Extra heart sounds - Diastolic murmur - Mid-systolic murmur - Pansystolic murmur - Murmurs not entirely in systole or diastole

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