Show Summary Details
Page of

Cardiovascular symptoms and physical signs 

Cardiovascular symptoms and physical signs
Cardiovascular symptoms and physical signs

Huw Llewelyn

, Hock Aun Ang

, Keir Lewis

, and Anees Al-Abdullah

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2015. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy).

date: 24 October 2017

Chest pain—alarming and increasing over minutes to hours - Severe lower chest or upper abdominal pain - Sudden breathlessness, onset over seconds - Breathlessness on minimal exertion or orthopnoea or paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea (PND) - Palpitations - Acute breathlessness, wheeze ± cough - Cough and pink frothy sputum - Syncope - Leg pain on walking—intermittent claudication - Leg pain on standing—relieved by lying down - Unilateral calf swelling - Bilateral ankle swelling - Thoughts on interpreting cardiovascular signs - Peripheral cyanosis - Central cyanosis - Tachycardia (e.g. pulse rate >120bpm) - Bradycardia (<60bpm) - Pulse irregular - Pulse volume high - Pulse volume low - Blood pressure high—hypertension - Blood pressure very low - Postural fall in blood pressure - BP/pulse difference between arms - BP/pulse difference between arm and legs - Prominent leg veins ± unilateral leg swelling - Unilateral leg and ankle swelling - Bilateral leg and ankle swelling - Raised jugular venous pressure - Abnormal apex impulse - Extra heart sounds - Diastolic murmur - Mid-systolic murmur - Pansystolic murmur - Murmurs not entirely in systole or diastole

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.