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Making the diagnostic process evidence-based 

Making the diagnostic process evidence-based
Chapter:
Making the diagnostic process evidence-based
Author(s):

Huw Llewelyn

, Hock Aun Ang

, Keir Lewis

, and Anees Al-Abdullah

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199679867.003.0013
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date: 18 October 2017

Evidence-based diagnosis and decisions - Grappling with probabilities - Picturing probabilities - Bayes’ and other rules - Reasoning by elimination - A worked example - Using very low frequencies or probability densities - Evidence for a finding’s role in reasoning by elimination - Differential likelihood ratios make use of ‘complementing’ differentiation - Things that affect ‘differential’ and ‘overall’ likelihood ratios - Findings that lead to a ‘common cause’ - Statistical independence versus statistical dependence - Reasoning with numerical test results - Reasoning by elimination to arrive at ‘stratified’ diagnostic criteria - Analysing clinical trials to ‘stratify’ diagnostic and treatment criteria - How to improve treatments by better selection or ‘stratification’ of patients - Studies to establish treatment indication and diagnostic cut-off points - Estimating the probability of replication with reasoning by elimination - Reasoning with hypotheses - Proof for the reasoning by probable elimination theorem

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