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Sjögren’s syndrome—management 

Sjögren’s syndrome—management
Chapter:
Sjögren’s syndrome—management
Author(s):

Wan-Fai Ng

, Arjan Vissink

, Elke Theander

, and Francisco Figueiredo

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199642489.003.0128_update_002

Update:

Guidance on the application of the standardized outcome assessment tools (ESSDAI and ESSPRI) for primary SS

Updated on 24 May 2018. The previous version of this content can be found here.
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date: 19 February 2019

Management of Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) encompasses confirmation of diagnosis, disease assessment, and treatment of glandular and systemic manifestations including special situations such as pregnancy and SS-related lymphoma. The American European Consensus Group (AECG) classification criteria 2002 are the current gold standard for the diagnosis of SS. Salivary gland sialometry, sialochemistry, and ultrasound and tear osmolarity may be useful adjuncts. Recently, preliminary classification criteria of the American College of Rheumatology have been introduced as an alternative to the AECG criteria. Symptoms of SS are non-specific and must be actively explored. When assessing patients with SS, it is important to consider not only objective parameters such as abnormalities in blood tests and changes in tear and salivary flow, but also patient-reported outcome measures and impact on quality of life. Current management of patients with SS is hampered by the lack of evidence-based strategies. The symptoms experienced by patients with SS are often not fully appreciated by clinicians, which may contribute to the suboptimal management of the condition. Management of fatigue remains a major challenge and a holistic, multidisciplinary approach is recommended. Factors that may contribute to fatigue should be fully addressed. Recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of SS have informed more targeted therapeutic strategies with some promising data. Optimal management of SS requires expertise from different disciplines. Combined clinics with rheumatology, oral medicine, and ophthalmology input will improve care and communications as well as reduce the number of clinic visits for patients and healthcare-related cost. Effective link between pSS specialists, dentists, opticians, and general practitioners will facilitate early diagnosis and reduce risk of long-term disability of SS.

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