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date: 22 October 2017

From this page you can access the Internet links found in the Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine 7th Edition, using the menu below. These pages will be updated regularly, however OUP cannot guarantee that all the links will work, as we are not responsible for external content.

Web-based references relating to the number under the disk sign, listed by page header

Chapter 01: Thinking about medicine

Ideals

  1. 1 Standard drawing of Orion constellation [Link]; page 2

  2. 2 Lancet. 1999 Oct 16;354(9187):1320 Lancet. 1999 Oct 16;354(9187):1331 Modification of attitudes to influence survival from breast cancer. Tucker J [Link]; page 2

Asking questions

  1. 3 Open and closed questions. H Goodare [Link]; page 4

What is the mechanism? Finding narrative answers

  1. 4 Medicine, the arts, and the humanities--lancet 3003 362 93--G Bolton [Link]; page 5

Death: Diagnosis and managementNo links

Facing death

  1. 5 D Payne 2000 BMJ ii 658; page 7

  2. 6 R Smith 2000 A good death--An important aim for health services and for us all--The art of living well and dying well are one--Epicurus; [Link]; page 7

  3. 7 BMJ; page 2003;327:1011 Adherence to advance directives in critical care decision making: vignette study--Trevor Thompson [Link]; page 7

Prescribing drugsNo links

Prevention

  1. 8 Health Expect. 2001 Jun;4(2):92-8. Information about screening - is it to achieve high uptake or to ensure informed choice?--Raffle AE [Link]; page 9

  2. 9 BMJ; page 2003;327:703-709 Effects of communicating individual risks in screening programmes: Cochrane systematic review--Edwards A [Link]; page 9

Is this new drug any good?

  1. 10 1994 BMJ ii 597; page 10

  2. 11 M Moher 2000 BMJ i 537 & 1997 NEJM 337 536; page 10

  3. 12 BMJ 2003;327:1005. Cochrane plans to allay fears over industry influence--Ray Moynihan [Link]; page 10

Surviving house jobsNo links

Quality, QALYs and the interpretation of dreams

  1. 13 J Tudor Hart 2000 BMJ 18 & 1971 Lancet i 405; page 12

  2. 13 Trends in Hurricane Impacts in the United States. Roger A. Pielke [Link]; page 12

  3. 14 Milly Song CHINA, NATIONAL, BEIJING, NEWS: Murder On Bus 726? [Link]; page 12

  4. 15 A line Cherry trees in France, along a busy road, was set to be axed as drivers predictably drove into their trunks--but on appeal the trees won, on the grounds of beauty. [No link]; page 12

  5. 16 J Pell 2000 BMJ i 15; page 12

  6. 17 WHO comments on Nice methodologies--2003 [Link]; page 12

  7. 18 Health Technol Assess. 2003;7(3):1 Systematic review and economic evaluation of the effectiveness of infliximab for the treatment of Crohn’s disease. Clark W [Link]; page 12

  8. 18 See S Deventer Gastroenterology 1999 117 761 [@10500056] and M Kamm 2000 Prescriber 11 38[Link]; page 12

  9. 19 Cost Analysis of Primary Total Hip Replacement--O’Shea Kieran [Link]; page 12

  10. 20 Drug offers hope to Alzheimer; page 12

  11. 21 Gerontology -- example of a relative’s comments about going on Memantine [Link]; page 12

The inverse care law and distributive justice

  1. 22 J Tudor Hart 2000 BMJ i 18 & 1971 Lancet i 405 & BMJ 2000;320:15-19 [Link]?; page 12

Psychiatry on medical and surgical wards

  1. 23 Atonement, page 150--‘Ian McEwan’s latest novel is a dark, sleek trap of a book. It lures its readers in with the promise of a morality tale set in an English country manor in 1935. There will be a crime, we learn, and so far the novel’s furnishings are at once cozy and exciting...’ [Link]; page 13

  2. 24 See New Zealand analysis of these questions: BMJ 2003 327 1144 [Link]; page 13

The elderly patient in hospital

  1. 25 S Ebrahim 1998 bmj i 148; page 14

  2. 26 R Doll 1997 bmj ii 1030; page 14

  3. 27 S Ebrahim 1998 bmj i 148; page 14

  4. 28 Royal College Group 1991 J Roy Col Phys 25 197; page 14

  5. 29 After J Grimley Evans 1992 Oxford Textbook of Geriatric Medicine, oup 703; page 14

  6. 30 D Fairweather 1991 J Roy Col Phys 25 105; page 14

  7. 31 The role of chest radiography in the evaluation of the ‘geriatric giants’--JA Puxty [Link]; page 14

  8. 32 Oxybutynin is preferred to tolterodine for overactive bladder [Link]; page 14

  9. 33 e-bm 1999 4 47 and R Bernabei [Link]; page 15

  10. 34 D Black [Link]; page 15

On being busy: Corrigan’s secret doorNo links

Health and medical ethics

  1. 35 As to diseases, make a habit of two things -- to help, or at least to do no harm. written by Hippocrates in Epidemics, Bk. I, Sect. XI (tr. by W.H.S. Jones) [Link]; page 17

Difficult patients(footnote) Crime and Punishment, Dostoevsky --; [Link]; page 18

Problems with Kantian universalizability: [Link]; page 18

Medicine, art and the humanitiesNo links

Chapter 02: Clinical skills

Clinical SkillsNo links

Taking a historyNo links

Functional enquiry

  1. 1 Why graduate medical schools make sense. Horton R. Lancet; 1998 Mar 14; 351(9105):826-8. PubMed ID: 9519976; page [Link]; page 25

  2. 2 A precis of the life of William Osler can be found at: [Link]; page 25

Physcial examination

  1. 3 Clinical observation: Beau’s lines on fingernails after deep saturation dives. Author: Schwartz H. Journal: Undersea Hyperb Med; 2006 Jan-Feb; 33(1):5-10. PubMed ID: 16602251. [Link]; page 27

  2. 4 Case report showed Muehrcke’s nails, not Beau’s lines; page Matthias M“hrenschlager, dermatologist[Link]; page 27

  3. 5 The Nelson’s syndrome... revisited. Journal: Pituitary; 2005 Aug 17; ():. PubMed ID: 16132203. [Link]; page 27

  4. 6 Dupuytren’s contracture: an update of biomolecular aspects and therapeutic perspectives. Journal: J Hand Surg [Br]; 2005 Sep 14; ():. PubMed ID: 16168532. [Link]; page 27

(footnote) A critical appraisal of 98.6 degrees F, the upper limit of the normal body temperature, and other legacies of Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich. Author: Mackowiak PA, Wasserman SS, Levine MM. Journal: JAMA; 1992 Sep 23-30; 268(12):1578-80. PubMed ID: 1302471. [Link]; page 26

(footnote) Temperature measurement: comparison of non-invasive methods used in adult critical care. Author: Farnell S, Maxwell L, Tan S, Rhodes A, Philips B. Journal: J Clin Nurs; 2005 May; 14(5):632-9. PubMed ID: 15840078. [Link]; page 26

The cardiovascular system

  1. 7 Comparison of Automated and Mercury Column Blood Pressure Measurements in Health Care Settings. Journal: J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich); 2000 Mar; 2(2):81-86. PubMed ID: 11416630. [Link]; page 29

The jugular venous pressure

  1. 8 For futher information on the abdominojugular reflux test, see J Weise 2000 Am J Med 109:59-61 or look at the website below [Link]; page 30

(footnote) Hepatojugular reflux; Jeff Aronson BMJ 1999;318:1172 ( 1 May ) [Link]; page 30

  1. 9 Waterhammer pulse [Link]; page 31

The heart soundsNo links

Cardiac murmurs

  1. 10 Prosthetic Heart Valves at www.eMedicine.com: [Link]; page 35

The respiratory systemNo links

Examining the chestNo links

Gastrointestinal history

  1. 11 Niels Thorkild Rovsing; page Danish surgeon, born April 26, 1862, Flensborg; died January 14, 1927, Copenhagen. [Link]; page 41

  2. 12 Assessment of peritonism in appendicitis. Author: Golledge J, Toms AP, Franklin IJ, Scriven MW, Galland RB. Journal: Ann R Coll Surg Engl; 1996 Jan; 78(1):11-4. PubMed ID: 8659965.; page [Link]; page 41

The neurological system

  1. 13 Can doctors predict patients’ abbreviated mental test scores. Author: Burleigh E, Reeves I, McAlpine C, Davie J. Journal: Age Ageing; 2002 Jul; 31(4):303-6. PubMed ID: 12147569. [Link]; page 42

  2. 14 Developed from: Evaluation of a mental test score for assessment of mental impairment in the elderly. [Link]; page 42

  3. 15 Cognitive assessment in elderly patients admitted to hospital: the relationship between the Abbreviated Mental Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Author: Swain DG, O’Brien AG, Nightingale PG. Journal: Clin Rehabil; 1999 Dec; 13(6):503-8. PubMed ID: 10588537. [Link]; page 42

  4. 16 For the Barthel Index see: [Link]; page 42

  5. 17 Carotid artery auscultation--anachronism or useful screening procedure? Author: Magyar MT, Nam EM, Csiba L, Ritter MA, Ringelstein EB, Droste DW. Journal: Neurol Res; 2002 Oct; 24(7):705-8. PubMed ID: 12392209. [Link]; page 43

Cranial nerve examination

  1. 18 Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. Author: Man PY, Turnbull DM, Chinnery PF. Journal: J Med Genet; 2002 Mar; 39(3):162-9. PubMed ID: 11897814. [Link]; page 45

  2. 19 Oculomotor nerve palsy after surgery for upper basilar artery aneurysms. Author: Horikoshi T, Nukui H, Yagishita T, Nishigaya K, Fukasawa I, Sasaki H. Journal: Neurosurgery; 1999 Apr; 44(4):705-10; discussion 710-1. PubMed ID: 10201294. [Link]; page 45

  3. 20 Trochlear nerve palsy following minor head trauma. A sign of structural disorder. Author: Jacobson DM, Warner JJ, Choucair AK, Ptacek LJ. Journal: J Clin Neuroophthalmol; 1988 Dec; 8(4):263-8. PubMed ID: 2977142. [Link]; page 45

  4. 21 Incidence, associations, and evaluation of sixth nerve palsy using a population-based method. Author: Patel SV, Mutyala S, Leske DA, Hodge DO, Holmes JM. Journal: Ophthalmology; 2004 Feb; 111(2):369-75. PubMed ID: 15019392. [Link]; page 45

  5. 22 Twelfth-nerve palsy. Analysis of 100 cases. Author: Keane JR. Journal: Arch Neurol; 1996 Jun; 53(6):561-6. PubMed ID: 8660159. [Link]; page 45

  6. 23 Gradenigo syndrome: a case report and review of a rare complication of otitis media. Author: Sherman SC, Buchanan A. Journal: J Emerg Med; 2004 Oct; 27(3):253-6. PubMed ID: 15388211.[Link]; page 45

  7. 24 Acquired palsy of the oculomotor, trochlear and abducens nerves. Author: Tiffin PA, MacEwen CJ, Craig EA, Clayton G. Journal: Eye; 1996; 10 ( Pt 3)():377-84. PubMed ID: 8796166. [Link]; page 45

Speech and higher mental function

  1. 25 A functional neuroimaging study of the variables that generate category-specific object processing differences. Author: Moore CJ, Price CJ. Journal: Brain; 1999 May; 122 ( Pt 5)():943-62. PubMed ID: 10355678. [Link]; page 47

  2. 26 Gender affects naming latencies for living and nonliving things: implications for familiarity. Author: Laws KR. Journal: Cortex; 1999 Dec; 35(5):729-33. PubMed ID: 10656639. [Link]; page 47

  3. 27 Functional MRI follow-up study of language processes in healthy subjects and during recovery in a case of aphasia. Author: Fernandez B, Cardebat D, Demonet JF, Joseph PA, Mazaux JM, Barat M, Allard M. Journal: Stroke; 2004 Sep; 35(9):2171-6. PubMed ID: 15297629. [Link]; page 47

  4. 28 The association between quantitative measures of dementia and of senile change in the cerebral grey matter of elderly subjects. Blessed G, Tomlinson BE, Roth M. Br J Psychiatry; 1968 Jul; 114(512):797-811. PubMed ID: 5662937 [Link]; page 47

  5. 29 Screening for dementia in primary care: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. [Link]; page 47

  6. 30 Screening for cognitive impairment among older people in black and minority ethnic groups. [Link]; page 47

  7. 31 The authors would like to thank Shum Yong Shun, University of Putra, Malaysia, for tirggering thoughts on the relative appropriateness and accuracy of the different cognitive mental test scoring systems; page [Link]; page 47

  8. 32 Combining cognitive testing and informant report to increase accuracy in screening for dementia.[Link]; page 47

  9. 33 The Mini-Mental State Examination is now subject to copyright owned by PAR. See: [Link]; page 47

(footnote)Alan Bennett Kafka’s Dick; page 47

(footnote) Processing concrete words: fMRI evidence against a specific right-hemisphere involvement. Author: Fiebach CJ, Friederici AD. Journal: Neuropsychologia; 2004; 42(1):62-70. PubMed ID: 14615076. [Link]; page 47

Psychiatric assessment

  1. 34 What’s New? by Katherine Barber, Editor-in-Chief of the Canadian Oxford Dictionary and the Student’s Oxford Canadian Dictionary [Link]; page 49

Method and order for routine examinationNo links

Chapter 03: Signs and symptoms

Chest deformity

  1. 1 Professor Eric W. Fonkalsrud [Link]; page 55

Dizziness

  1. 2 Gerard de Nerval, 1837, translated by Richard Holmes, 1996, in Footsteps [no link]; page 58

Facial pain

  1. 3 Alper BS J Fam Pract 2000 49 255; page [Link]; page 60

Falls

  1. 4 LD Gillespie. 2003 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 4; page 60

Haemoptysis

  1. 5 For a review of critical care management of massive haemotysis, see E Jean-Baptiste 2000 Crit Care Med. 2000 May;28(5):1642-7 [Link]; page 62

Hyperventilation

  1. 6 Patients with acute hyperventilation presenting to an inner-city emergency department. Author: Saisch SG, Wessely S, Gardner WN. Journal: Chest; 1996 Oct; 110(4):952-7. PubMed ID: 8874251. [Link]; page 62

Insomnia

  1. 7 DH Laurence, ‘Sons and Lovers’; page 62

Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) and its causes

  1. 8 Internuclear ophthalmoplegia [Link]; page 65

Oedema

  1. 9 CJ Diskin 1999 BMJ 318:1610 [Link]; page 66

Chapter 04: Cardiovascular medicine

Cardiovascular medicine

  1. 1 Vesalius- and the Anatomy; [Link]; page 78

  2. 2 D Jenkins 1997 bmj ii 1481; page 79

  3. 3 J Britton 2000 bmj i 65 [Link]; page 79

Cardiovascular symptoms(footnote)Bone scintigraphy and costochondritis. Author: Massie JD, Sebes JI, Cowles SJ. Journal: J Thorac Imaging; 1993 Spring; 8(2):137-42. PubMed ID: 8315708. [Link]; page 80

  1. 4 S Capewell 2000 BMJ i 951 & [@10947143] [Link]; page 81

(footnote) [Tietze’s syndrome: importance of differential diagnosis and role of CT] Author: Pulcini A, Drudi FM, Porcelli C, Gagliarducci E, Gallinacci E, Minocchi L, Granai AV, Giacomelli L Journal: G Chir; 1994 Apr; 15(4):171-4. PubMed ID: 8086306. [Link]; page 80

(footnote)Musculoskeletal causes of chest pain. Author: Jensen S. Journal: Aust Fam Physician; 2001 Sep; 30(9):834-9. PubMed ID: 11676310. [Link]; page 80

(footnote)Musculoskeletal chest wall syndromes in patients with noncardiac chest pain: a study of 100 patients. Author: Wise CM, Semble EL, Dalton CB. Journal: Arch Phys Med Rehabil; 1992 Feb; 73(2):147-9. PubMed ID: 1543409. [Link]; page 80

(footnote)Sternal pain [?tenderness]: not always harmless. Hoogendoorn RJ, Brinkman JM, Visser OJ, Paul MA, Wuisman PI. Journal: Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2004 Dec 11; 148(50):2469-74. PubMed ID: 15638192. [Link]; page 80

(footnote)Ultrasonographic assessment of local steroid injection in Tietze’s syndrome. Author: Kamel M, Kotob H. Journal: Br J Rheumatol; 1997 May; 36(5):547-50. PubMed ID: 9189056. [Link]; page 80 4 S Capewell 2000 BMJ i 951 & [@10947143] [Link]; page 81

ECG – a methodical approachNo links

ECG-abnormalitiesNo links

ECG – additional points

  1. 5 W Berk 1987 J Emerg Med 5 305; page 86

Exercise ECG testingNo links

Cardiac catheterizationNo links

EchocardiographyNo links

Cardiovascular drugs

  1. 6 (75mg/day) mrc 1998 Lancet 251 233; page 100

  2. 7 Lancet 1997 349 833 & 1994 343 128; page 100

  3. 8 nejm 1997 336 525; page 100

  4. 9 Lancet 1997 349 833 & 1994 343 128; page 100

  5. 10 nejm 1997 336 525; page 100

  6. 11 nejm 1997 336 525; page 100

  7. 12 Effect of Very High-Intensity Statin Therapy on Regression of Coronary Atherosclerosis; page The ASTEROID Trial. Steven E. Nissen [Link]; page 101

Angina pectoris

  1. 13 H Bucher 2000 bmj i 73 & [Link]; page 102

  2. 14 Interventional versus conservative treatment for patients with unstable angina or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction: the British Heart Foundation RITA 3 randomised trial. Randomized Intervention Trial of unstable Angina. Author: Fox KA, Poole-Wilson PA, Henderson RA, Clayton TC, Chamberlain DA, Shaw TR, Wheatley DJ, Pocock SJ, Randomized Intervention Trial of unstable Angina Investigators . Journal: Lancet; 2002 Sep 7; 360(9335):743-51. PubMed ID: 12241831. [Link]; page 102

  3. 15 Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1999 Nov 13;129(45):1679-96. To stent or not to stent. Schalcher C[Link]; page 102

Acute coronary syndrome

  1. 16 M Ebell 2000 Meta-analysis [@10947143]; page 104

  2. 17 K Fox 1999 bmj 1451 [Link]; page 104

Management of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)

  1. 18 1999 Am J Cardiol 1999 84 404[@10468077]; page 106

  2. 19 European Heart Journal (2002) 23, 1809“1840 [Link]; page 106

  3. 20 NICE guideline 47 [Link]; page 106

  4. 21 NICE:TA080 Clopidogrel in the treatment of non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome - Quick reference guide; page [Link]; page 106

  5. 22 NICE Guideline. Prophylaxis for patients who have experienced a myocardial infarction; page 106

  6. 23 DVLA web site [Link]; page 106

Complications of MINo links

ArrythmiasNo links

Narrow complex tachycardias

  1. 24 N Peters 2000 bmj ii 716 [Link]; page 112

Broad complex tachycardia No links

Atrial fibrillation (AF) and flutter

  1. 25 Lancet 2000 355 903; page 116

  2. 26 Serum magnesium in acute myocardial infarction. Relation to arrhythmias. Author: Dyckner T. Journal: Acta Med Scand; 1980; 207(1-2):59-66. PubMed ID: 7368975. [Link]; page 116

  3. 27 Myerson S et al 2005 Emergencies in Cardiology; OUP p 142 [Link]; page 116

  4. 28 N Engl J Med; 2002 Dec 5; 347(23):1825-33 PubMed ID: 12466506; page 116

  5. 29 N Engl J Med; 2002 Dec 5; 347(23):1825-33; page PubMed ID: 12466506; page 116

  6. 30 Warfarin anticoagulation and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Author: Reynolds MW, Fahrbach K, Hauch O, Wygant G, Estok R, Cella C, Nalysnyk L. Journal: Chest; 2004 Dec; 126(6):1938-45. PubMed ID: 15596696. [Link]; page 116

  7. 31 Stanley Nattel &L Opie 2006 Lancet 367 262 [Link]; page 116

  8. 32 Professor Gregory Lip’s list of contraindications to warfarin--Pulse 2006 (jan 19 p

32) http;//www.pulse-i.co.uk; page 116

  1. 33 [Outpatient treatment of recurrent atrial fibrillation with the; page 116

  2. 34 Rate control in atrial fibrillation: looking beyond the average heart rate. Journal: Curr Opin Cardiol; 2006 Mar; 21(2):88-93. PubMed ID: 16470141. [Link]; page 116

  3. 35 FUSTER ET AL., ACC/AHA/ESC GUIDELINES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ATRIAL FIBRILLATION JACC Vol.38, August 2001:1231-65 ACC/AHA/ESC Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation; page [Link]; page 116

  4. 36 Atrial fibrillation: how to approach rate control. Author: Rosenfeld LE. Journal: Curr Cardiol Rep; 2005 Sep; 7(5):391-7. PubMed ID: 16105496. [Link]; page 116

  5. 37 Circumferential pulmonary-vein ablation for chronic atrial fibrillation. Author: Oral H,: N Engl J Med; 2006 Mar 2; 354(9):934-41. PubMed ID: 16510747.; page [Link]; page 117

  6. 38 J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2000 Jan;11(1):90-4. Right atrial flutter isthmus revisited: normal anatomy favors nonuniform anisotropic conduction. Waki K [Link]; page 117

Pacemakers No links

Heart failure-basic concepts

  1. 39 NICE Chronic Heart Failure Guidance [Link]; page 120

  2. 40 NICE clinical guideline 5: Chronic heart failure; page 120

  3. 41 Oxford Textbook of Medicine (OTM) 2833; page 120

  4. 42 Oxford Textbook of Medicine; page (1996) p 2502; page 120

  1. 43 HJ Dargie 1994 bmj i 321; page 120

Heart failure: management

  1. 44 NICE: Chronic Heart Failure 2003; Guideline 5 [Link]; page 122

  2. 45 Lechat Circulation 1998 98 1184 & Lancet 1999 353: 2001; page 122

  3. 46 Cleland 1999 BMJ 1999 318 824; page 122

  4. 47 N Engl J Med; 2004 Nov 11; 351(20):2049-57 [Link]; page 122

  5. 48 S Westaby 2000 Lancet 356 901; page 122

Hypertension

  1. 49 Lancet 2002;360:1903-13; page 124

  2. 50 Nature. 1999 May 20;399(6733):185-6. French geneticists raise worries over use of new genome funds. Butler D. [Link]; page 125

Hypertension-management

  1. 51 Lowering blood pressure to prevent myocardial infarction and stroke: a new preventive strategy; Dr Malcolm Law; 7 June 2006; ReFeR summary [Link]; page 126

  2. 52 JAMA 2002;288:2981-97; page 126

  3. 53 Lancet; 2004 Nov 6-12; 364(9446):1684-9; page; page PubMed ID: 15530629; page 126

  4. 54 Lancet; 2005 Sep 10; 366(9489):907-13; page PubMed ID: 16154017; page 126

  5. 55 Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1999 Oct 30;143(44):2185-90. Hypertensive crisis: definition, pathophysiology and treatment van den Meiracker AH; page [Link]; page 126

Rheumatic fever

  1. 56 G Stollerman 1995 Lancet 346 391; page 128

  2. 57 D Kanabar 1996 Lancet ii 1000; page 128

  3. 58 G Stollerman 1995 Lancet 346 391; page 128

  4. 59 D Kanabar 1996 Lancet ii 1000; page 128

  5. 60 D Albert 1995 Medicine 74 1; page 128

Mitral valve diseaseNo links

Aortic valve disease

  1. 61 C Otto 2000 nejm 343 652 [Link]; page 132

  2. 62 www.txt.co.uk/sum.cfm?1050; page 132

  3. 63 C Otto 2000 nejm 343 652 [Link]; page 132

Right heart valve disease

  1. 64 M Massimo 1998 bmj i 88; page 135

  2. 65 J Murkin 2000 Stroke 31 707 (cns microemboli risk is proportional to the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass); page 135

Infective endocarditis

  1. 66 D Durack Am J Med 1994 96 200; page 136

  2. 67 N Beeching 1994 Infectious Diseases 136 1994 Wolfe; page 136

Diseases of heart muscle

  1. 68 Turk J Pediatr. 1998 Oct-Dec;40(4):613-8. Variable clinical expression of Holt-Oram syndrome in three generations. Ogur G [Link]; page 139

Pericardial diseases

  1. 69 www.txt.co.uk/sum.cfm?1051; page 140

Congenital heart disease No links

Driving and the heart No links

Chapter 05: Chest medicine

Chest medicine

  1. 1 Courtesy of Oxford Textbook of Medicine (OTM) 4/OUP; page 146

Bedside tests in chest medicine

  1. 2 BMJ 1998;317:1213-1216 Assessing and interpreting arterial blood gases and acid-base balance. Adrian J Williams. [Link]; page 149

Further investigations in chest medicine

  1. 3 Importance of adjusting carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) and carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (KCO) for alveolar volume. Author: Johnson DC. Journal: Respir Med; 2000 Jan; 94(1):28-37. PubMed ID: 10714476. [Link]; page 150

  2. 4 After D Flenley 1987 Med Intl 1 (20) 240; page 151

  3. 5 After B Harrison in Thoracic Medicine 1981, ed P Emerson, Butterworths, London; and B Harrison 1971 Thorax 26 579; page 151

Pneumonia

  1. 6 British Thoracic Society Guidelines for the Management of Community Acquired Pneumonia in Adults 2001 GUIDELINES (pdf) Thorax 2001; 56: (suppl IV) [Link]; page 152

  2. 7 BTS Update on the management of community acquired pneumonia in adults 2004 [Link]; page 152

  3. 8 British Thoracic Society Guidelines for the Management of Community Acquired Pneumonia in Adults 2001 GUIDELINES (pdf) Thorax 2001; 56: (suppl IV) [Link]; page 153

9; page BTS Update on the management of community acquired pneumonia in adults 2004 [Link]; page 153

Specific pneumonias

  1. 10 J Sanford 2000 GAT ISBN 0993775-43-1; page 154

  2. 11 D Denning 2000 Lancet 355 1640; page 154

  3. 12 Perspective A New Name (Pneumocystis jiroveci) for Pneumocystis from Humans. James R.; page[Link]; page 154

  4. 13 Drug Ther Bul 1993 31 93; page 154

  5. 14 Avian flu: isolation of drug-resistant H5N1 virus. Author: Le QM, Kiso M, Someya K, Sakai YT, Nguyen TH, Nguyen KH, Pham ND, Ngyen HH, Yamada S, Muramoto Y, Horimoto T, Takada A, Goto H, Suzuki T, Suzuki Y, Kawaoka Y. Journal: Nature; 2005 Oct 20; 437(7062):1108. PubMed ID: 16228009. [Link]; page 155

  6. 15 A child with avian influenza A (H5N1) infection. Author: Chokephaibulkit K, Uiprasertkul M, Puthavathana P, Chearskul P, Auewarakul P, Dowell SF, Vanprapar N. Journal: Pediatr Infect Dis J; 2005 Feb; 24(2):162-6. PubMed ID: 15702046. [Link]; page 155

  7. 16 Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Infection in Humans The Writing Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) Consultation on Human Influenza A/H5. NEJM 2005 Volume 353:1374-1385;[Link]; page 155

  8. 17 [Link]; page 155

  9. 18 Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Infection in Humans The Writing Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) Consultation on Human Influenza A/H5. NEJM 2005 Volume 353:1374-1385; page[Link]; page 155

  10. 19 British Thoracic Society Guidelines on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ( [Link]; page 155

  11. 20 An overview on severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Author: Hui DS. Journal: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis; 2005 Sep; 63(3):149-57. PubMed ID: 16312205. [Link]; page 155

  12. 21 An overview on severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Author: Hui DS. Journal: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis; 2005 Sep; 63(3):149-57. PubMed ID: 16312205. [Link]; page 155Complications of pneumoniaNo links

BronchiestasisNo links

Cystic fibrosis (CF) No links

Funghi and the lung

  1. 22 R Doll 1994 BMJ ii 901, 1976 BMJ ii 1525; page 160

  2. 23 www.txt.co.uk/sum.cfm?1020; page 160

  3. 24 BNF dose of AmpBisome--2006 [Link]; page 160

Lung tumours

  1. 25 NICE Guidance on The Diagnosis and Treatment of Lung Cancer [Link]; page 162

  2. 26 Drug Ther Bul 1997 35 1; page 162

Asthma No links

(footnote)Image of CXR with secondary from cervical cance. Courtesy of Yale Medical School. Permission from Janet E. Jeddry; Web Editor; ITS Web Services [Link]; page 162

Management of chronic asthma

  1. 27 BTS. Thorax 1997 52 S1“S32 and as amended in 2005 (BTS web site) [Link]; page 166

  2. 28 Drug Ther Bul 1997 35 1; page 166

(footnote)BMJ 1997 i 1061 [Link]; page 167

(footnote)EBM 1998 3 24 [no link]; page 167 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

  1. 29 Thorax. 2003 Sep;58(9):745-51. Thorax. 2003 Sep;58(9):739 Nutritional enhancement of exercise performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial. Steiner M [Link]; page 168

  2. 30 Thorax. 2003 Sep;58(9):745-51. Thorax. 2003 Sep;58(9):739 Nutritional enhancement of exercise performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial. Steiner M [Link]; page 168

  3. 31 Thorax. 2003 Sep;58(9):745-51. Thorax. 2003 Sep;58(9):739 Nutritional enhancement of exercise performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial. Steiner M [Link]; page 168

  4. 32 BMJ 2004; 328:486 (28 February), doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7438.486-d Guidelines: Chronic Obstructive Airways Disease: Mucolytics useful for COPD, guidelines say. C White; page [Link]; page 168

  5. 33 British Thoracic Society Guidelines Thorax 2003;58:470; page 169

  6. 34 Drug Ther Bul 2004 18 [NO LINK]; page 169

  7. 35 www.txt.co.uk/full.cfm?1072; page 169

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)36 Rev Esp Anesthesiol Reanim. 2000 Feb;47(2):57“62. The administration of 20 ppm of inhaled nitric oxide produces a faster response than the inhalation of 5 ppm in adult respiratory distress syndrome Diaz-Reganon Valverde G [Link]; page 170

Respiratory failureNo links

Pulmonary embolism

  1. 37 R J O Davies 1997 Thorax 52 416; page 175

Pleural effusion

  1. 38 T Eisen 1995 Lancet 345 1285 NO LINK; page 176

Sarcoidosis No links

Interstitial lung diseaseNo links

Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) No links

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

  1. 39 Eur Respir J. 1994 Apr;7(4):651-6. Mechanisms of increased epithelial lung clearance of DTPA in diffuse fibrosing alveolitis. Labrune S; [Link]; page 182

  2. 40 R Damhuis 1995 Lancet 345 1233; page 182

Industrial dust diseases

  1. 41 E Peppard 2000 NEJM 342 1378 www.nejm.org/content/2000/0342/0019/1378.asp; page 184

Obstructive sleep apnoea

  1. 42 E Peppard 2000 NEJM 342 1378; www.nejm.org/content/2000/0342/0019/1378.asp; page 186

Cor pulmonaeNo links

Chapter 06: Endocrinology

Endocrinology

  1. 1 Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed, supplement [Link]; page 188

  2. 2 eMedicine vitiligo. [Link]; page 188

  3. 3 Link not available.; page 188

  4. 4 Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2003 Mar;59(3):165 The prevention of type 2 diabetes - lifestyle change or pharmacotherapy? A challenge for the 21st century. Simpson RW [Link]; page 189

  5. 5 A Weetman 2003 Autoimmune thyroid disease: propagation and progression Eur J Endo 148 1-9; page 189

  6. 6 S Jabbour 2003 Skin manifestations of endocrine disorders; guide for dermatologists. Jabbour SA. Cutaneous manifestations of endocrine disorders: a guide for dermatologists. Am J Clin Dermatol 2003; 4(5): 315–31; page 189

Diabetes mellitus: classification and diagnosis

  1. 7 E Gale 2003 Lancet 504 Is there really an epidemic of type 2 diabetes? [Link]; page 190

  2. 8 J R Soc Med 2003;96:328-332 2003 The Royal Society of Medicine; Hidden diabetes in the UK: use of capture–recapture methods to estimate total prevalence of diabetes mellitus in an urban population--Geoffrey V Gill MD, Aziz A Ismail PhD, Nicholas J Beeching; [Link]; page 190

  3. 9 Enalapril reduces the incidence of diabetes in patients with chronic heart failure: insight from the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD). Circulation 2003 107 1291 [Link]; page 191

10; Drugs. 2002;62(10):1463 Metabolic and additional vascular effects of thiazolidinediones--Martens F[Link]; page 191

Treatment of diabetes mellitus

  1. 11 NICE 2003 recommendation [Link]; page 192

12; Postgrad Med. 2003 May;Spec No:63 Constructing an algorithm for managing type 2 diabetes. Focus on role of the thiazolidinediones--Wyne K [Link]; page 192

  1. 13 Bookmark not defined. Enalapril reduces the incidence of diabetes in patients with chronic heart failure: insight from the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD). Circulation 2003 107 1291;[Link]; page 192

  2. 14 NICE 2003 recommendation [Link]; page 192

  3. 15 Drug Ther Bul 1994 32 51; page 192

  4. 16 Int J Clin Pract. 2003 Jul-Aug;57(6):535 Nateglinide (Starlix): update on a new antidiabetic agent--Phillips L [Link]; page 192

  5. 17 Drug Ther Bul 2003 41 52; page 192

  6. 18 Ann Pharmacother 2002 Jun;36:1019-27; page 193

  7. 19 Insulin glargine: a new basal insulin. Levien TL, Baker DE, White JR Jr, Campbell RK. [Link]; page 193

  8. 20 Lancet 1998 352 837–53; page 193

  9. 21 Royle P, Waugh N, McAuley L, McIntyre L, Thomas S. Inhaled insulin in diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(3):CD003890. [Link]; page 193Helping people with established diabetes

  10. 22 The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. NEJM 1993 329 977 and UKPDS Lancet 1998 352.; page 194

  11. 23 Link not available.; page 194

  12. 24 Professor Jonathan D. Trobe [Link]; page 195

  13. 25 Professor Jonathan D. Trobe [Link]; page 195

  14. 26 Professor Jonathan D. Trobe [Link]; page 195

Diabetic neuropathy and diabetic foot care

  1. 27 J Wound Care. 2002 May;11(5):170 Hot sand burns on the sole of a patient with diabetes--Gaztelu Valdes V [Link]; page 196

  2. 28 Link not available; page 196

  3. 29 Update on diabetic neuropathy. AAuthors:- Simmons Z, Feldman EL. [Link]; page 196

  4. 30 Results of decompression of peripheral nerves in diabetics: a prospective, blinded study. Authors:- Aszmann OC, Kress KM, Dellon AL. [Link]; page 196

  5. 31 Rapidly evolving diabetic mononeuritis multiplex. Favorable outcome after immunosuppressive treatment]; authors:- Awada A, Dehoux E, al Jumah M, al Ayafi H [Link]; page 196

  6. 32 Diabetic amyotrophy: current concepts. Authors:- Sander HW, Chokroverty S. [Link]; page 196

  7. 33 Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for diabetic amyotrophy. Authors:- Ogawa T, Taguchi T, Tanaka Y, Ikeguchi K, Nakano I. [Link]; page 196

  8. 34 Gastroparesis and its management. Stanciu GO [Link]; page 196

  9. 35 Professor Jonathan D. Trobe [Link]; page 197

(footnote)Metabolic syndrome-a new world-wide definition. A Consensus Statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Author: Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J. Journal: Diabet Med; 2006 May; 23(5):469-80. PubMed ID: 16681555 [Link]; page 197

Hypoglycaemia

  1. 36 High-dose calcium stimulation test in a case of insulinoma masquerading as hysteria. Authors:- Nakamura Y, Doi R, Kohno Y, Shimono D, Kuwamura N, Inoue K, Koshiyama H, Imamura M. [Link]; page 199

Metabolic syndrome-a new world-wide definition. A Consensus Statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Author: Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J. Journal: Diabet Med; 2006 May; 23(5):469-80. PubMed ID: 16681555 [Link]; page 197

  1. 37 Br J Sports Med. 2003 Aug;37(4):356 Insulin as a drug of abuse in body building--Evans P [Link]; page 199

  2. 38 What preoperative assessment is necessary for insulinomas? Calculating the degree of waste: analysis of 29 cases. Authors:- Falconi M, Molinari E, Carbognin G, Zamboni G, Bassi C, Pederzoli P.[Link]; page 199

  3. 39 Pitfalls in the surgical treatment of insulinoma. Authors:- Richards ML, Gauger PG, Thompson NW, Kloos RG, Giordano TJ. [Link]; page 199

Thyroid function tests (TFTs)

  1. 40 Tunbridge WM, Vanderpump MP. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2000; 29: 239-53..; page 201

Thyrotoxicosis

  1. 41 J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Dec;87(12):5435 Thyroid acropachy: report of 40 patients treated at a single institution in a 26-year period--Fatourechi V [Link]; page 203

  2. 42 Autoimmune thyroid disease: propagation and progression. Weetman AP. [Link]; page 203

  3. 43 J Endocrinol Invest. 2002;25(10 Suppl):16 Toxic multinodular goiter in the elderly--Vitti P [Link]; page 203

  4. 44 Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2003 Feb;36(1):35--Multinodular goiter--Day T [Link]; page 203

  5. 45 J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2000;38(3):333 Lithium: thyroid effects and altered renal handling--Oakley P[Link]; page 203

  6. 46 Br Med J. 1976 Feb 14;1(6006):372 Thyrotoxicosis induced by iodine contamination of food--a common unrecognised condition?--Stewart J [Link]; page 203

  7. 47 Thyroid. 1999 Feb;9(2):173 Severe thyrotoxicosis due to hyperfunctioning liver metastasis from follicular carcinoma: treatment with (131)I and interstitial laser ablation--Guglielmi R [Link]; page 203

  8. 48 Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2002 Oct;108(4):979 Reversible thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy--report of three cases Nowak M [Link]; page 203

  9. 49 Eckstein A, et al. Br J Opthalmol. 2003; 87: 773-6; no link available; page 203

Hypothyroidism (myxoedema)50 R Beauwens 1997 Lancet 349 1023; no link available; page 205

  1. 51 A Weetman 1997 bmj i 1175; no link available; page 205

  2. 52 R Lindsay 1997 Lancet 349 413 & 1023; page 206

  3. 53 Drug Ther Bul 1998 36 1 & Lancet 1997 349 413; page 206

  4. 54 Hoogendoorn EH, den Heijer M, van Dijk APJ, Hermus AR. Subclinical hyperthyroidism: to treat or not to treat? Postgrad Med J. 2004; 80: 394-8.; page 206

Parathyroid hormone and hyperparathyroidism

  1. 55 Am Fam Physician. 1998 Apr 15;57(8):1795-802, 1807 Hyperparathyroidism--Allerheiligen D [Link]; page 207

  2. 56 Minerva Med. 1989 Dec;80(12):1327 Primary hyperparathyroidism and peptic ulcer--Gasparoni P[Link]; page 207

  3. 57 Andersson P, Rydberg E, Willenheimer R. Primary hyperparathyroidism and heart disease - a review. European Heart Journal. 2004; 25: 1776-87.; page 207

  4. 58 Cohort study on effec`ts of parathyroid surgery on multiple outcomes...P Vestergaard 2003 BMJ; page 327 530 [Link]; page 207

  5. 59 Bilezikian JP, Silverberg SJ. Asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. 2004; 350: 1746-51.; page 207

  6. 60 Inabnet WB. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring. World J Surg. 2004; 28: 1212-5. [Link]; page 207

  7. 61 Eur J Endocrinol 2003 Apr;148(4):413-21 Recurrence of hyperparathyroidism; a long-term follow-up after surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism. Hedback G [Link]; page 207

  8. 62 STK25 is a candidate gene for pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism. Davids MS, Crawford E, Weremowicz S, Morton CC, Copeland NG, Gilbert DJ, Jenkins NA, Phelan MC, Comb MJ, Melnick MB.[Link]; page 207

  9. 63 Annu Rev Physiol. 2000;62:377 Multiple endocrine neoplasias--Hoff A [Link]; page 208

  10. 64 J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2000 May;13(5):457 A concise genetic and clinical guide to multiple endocrine neoplasias and related syndromes. Stratakis C [Link]; page 208

  11. 65 J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Sep;86(9):4041 Clinical and molecular features of the Carney complex: diagnostic criteria and recommendations for patient evaluation. Stratakis CA, Kirschner LS, Carney J [Link]; page 208

  12. 66; J Intern Med. 2003 Jun;253(6):606 Functional studies of the MEN1 gene--Chandrasekharappa S[Link]; page 208

  13. 67; page P R Health Sci J. 1998 Dec;17(4):309 Clinical profile of 128 subjects operated for primary hyperparathyroidism--Haddock L [Link]; page 208

  14. 68 Eur J Endocrinol. 2001 Aug;145(2):155 Familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism--a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 variant?--Miedlich S [Link]; page 208

  15. 69; page Dermatol Clin. 1995 Jan;13(1):99 Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B (MEN 2B)/MEN 3--Holloway K [Link]; page 208

  16. 70 Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)--an overview and case report--patient with sporadic bilateral pheochromocytoma, hyperparathyroidism and marfanoid habitus--Fassbender W [Link]; page 208

  17. 71 Aust N Z J Ophthalmol. 1995 Nov;23(4):343 Multiple endocrine neoplasia type two B. A case report with light and electron microscopic and immunohistochemical correlation--Koh L [Link]; page 208

  18. 72 Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2001 Sep-Oct;4(5):446 RET(Men2B)-transgene produces sympathoadrenal tumors but does not prevent intestinal aganglionosis in gdnf-/- or gfr alpha-1(-/-) mice--Rajan I [Link]; page 208

  19. 73 Eisenbarth GS, Gottlieb PA. Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes. NEJM. 2004; 350: 2068-79.; page 208Adrenal cortex and Cushing’s syndrome

  20. 74 Etxabe J, Vazquez JA. Morbidity and mortality in Cushing’s disease: An epidemiological approach. Clin Endocrinol. 1994; 40: 479-84.; page 208

  21. 75 Diagnosis and complications of Cushing’s syndrome: a consensus statement. [Link]: J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2003 Dec; 88(12):5593-602. PubMed ID: 14671138. [Link]; page 210

  22. 76 CRH test [Link]

Addison’s disease (adrenal insufficiency)

  1. 77 AACN Clin Issues Crit Care Nurs. 1992 May;3(2):319 Adrenocortical insufficiency: a medical emergency--Lee LM [Link]; page 211

  2. 78 CM Brosnan 1996 bmj i 1085 www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/312/7038/1085; page 211

  3. 79; page Leuk Lymphoma. 1997 Jan;24(3-4):363 Primary adrenal lymphoma associated with adrenal insufficiency: a distinct clinical entity--Pimentel M [Link]; page 211

  4. 80; page Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1991 Jul-Aug;9(4):407 SLE and acute Addisonian crisis due to bilateral adrenal hemorrhage: association with the antiphospholipid syndrome--Lenaerts J [Link]; page 211

  5. 81 Trop Geogr Med. 1988 Jul;40(3):241 Addison’s disease presenting with marked eosinophilia and psychosis--Malu A [Link]; page 211

  6. 82; page Am J Gastroenterol. 1989 Oct;84(10):1302 Gastrointestinal manifestations of Addison’s disease--Tobin M [Link]; page 211

  7. 83 Scand J Gastroenterol. 2003 May;38(5):511 High frequency of coeliac disease among patients with autoimmune adrenocortical failure--Myhre A [Link]; page 211

Hyperaldosteronism

  1. 84 Ann Surg. 1999 Jun;229(6):755 Clinical experience over 48 years with pheochromocytoma--Goldstein R [Link]; page 213

  2. 85 Elder E, et al. The management of benign and malignant pheochromocytoma and abdominal paraganglioma. EJSO 2003; 29: 278-283.; page 213

  3. 86 Ann Surg. 1999 Jun;229(6):755 Clinical experience over 48 years with pheochromocytoma--Goldstein R [Link]; page 213

  4. 87 Mulatero P, Dluhy RG, Giacchetti G, Boscaro M, Veglio F, Stewart PM. Diagnosis of primary aldosteronism: from screening to subtype differentiation.Trends Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Apr; 16(3):114-9.; page 214

Hirsutism, virilism, gynaecomastia and impotence/ED

  1. 88 Minimal time to successful intercourse after sildenafil citrate: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial H. Padma-Nathan [Link]; page 214

  2. 89 C McMahon 2006 BMJ 332 589. Treating erectile dysfunction when PDE% inhibitors fail. [Link]; page 215

  3. 90 W Sponsel 2000 nejm 342 1680 www.nejm.org/content/2000/0342/0022/1680.asp; page 215

91Erectile dysfunction: comparison of efficacy and side effects of the PDE-5 inhibitors sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil--review of the literature. Gresser U [Link]; page 215

  1. 92 H Herrmann 2000 nejm 342 1622 www.nejm.org/content/2000/0342/0022/1622.asp; page 216

Hypopituitarism

  1. 93 Single and combined effects of growth hormone and testosterone administration on measures of body composition, physical performance, mood, sexual function, bone turnover, and muscle gene expression in healthy older men. Brill KT [Link]; page 217

  2. 94 Establishment of reference values for standard dose short synacthen test (250 microgram), low dose short synacthen test (1 microgram) and insulin tolerance test for assessment of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in normal subjects. Gonzalbez J, Villabona C, Ramon J, Navarro MA, Gimenez O, Ricart W, Soler J. [Link]; page 217

  3. 95 Hurley DM, Ho KKY. Pituitary disease in adults. Med J Australia 2004; 180: 419-425.; page 217

  4. 96 2003 NICE [UK] advice From: [Link] To: C:\Program Files\Opera7\Download\TA64_HGHadults_fullguidance.pdf; page 218

  5. 97 Dattani M, Preece M. Growth hormone deficiency and related disorders. Lancet 2004; 363: 1977-87.; page 218

Pituitary tumours

  1. 98 The changing spectrum of TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas: diagnosis and management in 43 patients. Socin HV, Chanson P, Delemer B, Tabarin A, Rohmer V, Mockel J, Stevenaert A, Beckers A.[Link]; page 219

  2. 99 Leg Med (Tokyo). 2001 Sep;3(3):183 Sudden death due to pituitary apoplexy--Bauer M [Link]; page 219

Hyperprolactinaemia

  1. 100 Schlechte JA. Prolactinoma. NEJM 2003; 349: 2035-41.; page 221

Acromegaly

  1. 101 Consensus Statement. Biochemical assessment and long-term monitoring in patients with acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 3099-102.; page 223

  2. 102 Clayton RN, Stewart PM, Shalet SM, Wass JAH. Pituitary surgery for acromegaly. BMJ 1999; 319: 588-9.; page 223

Diabetes insipidus

  1. 103 Korsakoff’s psychosis due to massive beer intake provoked by diabetes insipidus. Author: Farr RW, Blankenship DC, Viti A, Albrink MJ. Journal: South Med J; 1988 May; 81(5):677-8. PubMed ID: 3368823 [Link]; page 225

  2. 104 Organic mood disorder, manic type, associated with hyponatremia: a case report. Author: Baar JM. Journal: Int J Psychiatry Med; 1994; 24(3):223-8. PubMed ID: 7890480. [Link]; page 225

  3. 105 Hyperosmolar nonketotic coma precipitated by lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Author: Azam H, Newton RW, Morris AD, Thompson CJ. Journal: Postgrad Med J; 1998 Jan; 74(867):39-41. PubMed ID: 9538487. [Link]; page 225

  4. 106 Glen J. Weiss: Non-Psychogenic Polydipsia With Hyponatremia: The Internet Journal of Nephrology. 2005; Volume 2, Number 1. [Link]; page 225

(footnote)Glen J. Weiss: Non-Psychogenic Polydipsia With Hyponatremia: The Internet Journal of Nephrology. 2005; Volume 2, Number 1. [Link]; page 225

(footnote)The syndrome of psychosis, intermittent hyponatremia, and polydipsia: evidence for diurnal volume expansion. Author: Vieweg WV, Carey RM, Godleski LS, Tisdelle DA, Pruzinsky T, Yank GR. Journal: Psychiatr Med; 1990; 8(4):135-44. PubMed ID: 2150890. [Link]; page 225

Chapter 07: Gastroenterology

Gastroenterology

  1. 1 Wintering, Sylvia Plath, and Ariel: A Factual Chronology; [Link]; page 227

Healthy, enjoyable eating

  1. 2 Nutr J. 2003 May 8;2(1):2. Epub 2003 Consumption of fruits and vegetables in relation to the risk of developing acute coronary syndromes; the CARDIO2000 case-control study--Panagiotakos D; see also[Link] [Link]; page 228

  2. 3 Dark chocolate boosts antioxidant levels--New Scientist 2003 and Journal reference: Nature (vol 424, p 1013) [Link]; page 228

  3. 4 A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity [Link] .; page 228

  4. 5 A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity. [Link]; page 228

  5. 6 Mortality in vegetarians and non-vegetarians: a collaborative analysis of 8300 deaths among 76,000 men and women in five prospective studies. Author: Key TJ, Fraser GE, Thorogood M, Appleby PN, Beral V, Reeves G, Burr ML, Chang-Claude J, Frentzel-Beyme R, Kuzma JW, Mann J, McPherson K. Journal: Public Health Nutr; 1998 Mar; 1(1):33-41. PubMed ID: 10555529.; page [Link]; page 228

  6. 7 Mortality in British vegetarians. Author: Appleby PN, Key TJ, Thorogood M, Burr ML, Mann J. Journal: Public Health Nutr; 2002 Feb; 5(1):29-36. PubMed ID: 12001975.; [Link]; page 228

  7. 8 [Link] Prevalence of obesity in Great Britain. Author: Rennie KL, Jebb SA. Journal: Obes Rev; 2005 Feb; 6(1):11-2. PubMed ID: 15655034.; page 228

  8. 9 Effects of comprehensive lifestyle modification on blood pressure control: main results of the PREMIER clinical trial. [Link]; page 228

  9. 10 Omega 3 fatty acids for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Author: Hooper L, Thompson RL, Harrison RA, Summerbell CD, Moore H, Worthington HV, Durrington PN, Ness AR, Capps NE, Davey Smith G, Riemersma RA, Ebrahim SB. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2004; (4):CD003177. PubMed ID: 15495044. [Link]; page 228

  10. 11 Alcohol consumption, serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, and risk of ischaemic heart disease: six year follow up in the Copenhagen male study. Author: Hein HO, Suadicani P, Gyntelberg F. Journal: BMJ; 1996 Mar 23; 312(7033):736-41. PubMed ID: 8605458. [Link]; page 228

  11. 12 The DASH diet enhances the blood pressure response to losartan in hypertensive patients. Author: Conlin PR, Erlinger TP, Bohannon A, Miller ER, Appel LJ, Svetkey LP, Moore TJ. Journal: Am J Hypertens; 2003 May; 16(5 Pt 1):337-42. PubMed ID: 12745193. [Link]; page 228

13; page US Department of Health and Human Services recommendation [Link]; page 229

14; page Lifelong vegetarianism and risk of breast cancer: a population-based case-control study among South Asian migrant women living in England. Author: Dos Santos Silva I, Mangtani P, McCormack V, Bhakta D, Sevak L, McMichael AJ. Journal: Int J Cancer; 2002 May 10; 99(2):238-44. PubMed ID: 11979439. [Link]; page 229

  1. 15 Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults. Author: Calle EE, Rodriguez C, Walker-Thurmond K, Thun MJ. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2003 Apr 24; 348(17):1625-38. PubMed ID: 12711737. [Link]; page 229

  2. 16 Dieting to reduce body weight for controlling hypertension in adults. Author: Mulrow CD, Chiquette E, Angel L, Cornell J, Summerbell C, Anagnostelis B, Grimm R, Brand MB. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2000; (2):CD000484. PubMed ID: 10796721. [Link]; page 229

  3. 17 Obesity and systemic oxidative stress: clinical correlates of oxidative stress in the Framingham Study. Author: Keaney JF, Larson MG, Vasan RS, Wilson PW, Lipinska I, Corey D, Massaro JM, Sutherland P, Vita JA, Benjamin EJ, Framingham Study . Journal: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol; 2003 Mar 1; 23(3):434-9. PubMed ID: 12615693.; page [Link]; page 229

  4. 18 Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. Author: Shaw K, O’Rourke P, Del Mar C, Kenardy J. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (2):CD003818. PubMed ID: 15846683. [Link]; page 229

  5. 19 Long-term pharmacotherapy for obesity and overweight. Author: Padwal R, Li SK, Lau DC. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2004; (3):CD004094. PubMed ID: 15266516. [Link]; page 229

  6. 20 See ABC of Oral Health. Clinical review series; BMJ; 2000. Eg Swellings and red, white, and pigmented lesions. PubMed ID: 10903660 [Link]; page 230

  7. 21 Oral signs and symptoms in relation to disease activity and site of involvement in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Author: Katz J, Shenkman A, Stavropoulos F, Melzer E. Journal: Oral Dis; 2003 Jan; 9(1):34-40. PubMed ID: 12617256. [Link]; page 230

(footnote) Areca nut use: an independent risk factor for oral cancer. Warnakulasuriya S, Trivedy C, Peters TJ. [Link]; page 230

  1. 22 For an exposition on microstomia see: [Link]; page 231

Dysphagia

  1. 23 Treatment of patients with achalasia with botulinum toxin: a multicenter prospective cohort study. Author: Martk J, Sirok“ M, Plottov“, Bures J, Hep A, Spic“J. Journal: Dis Esophagus; 2003; 16(3):204-9. PubMed ID: 14641310. [Link]; page 232

  2. 24 Gastro-oesophageal reflux: the disease of the millennium--Navaratnam R [Link]; page 232

(footnote) Effect of different swallow time intervals on the nutcracker esophagus. Author: Brito EM, Camacho-Lobato L, Paoletti V, Gideon M, Katz PO, Castell DO. Journal: Am J Gastroenterol; 2003 Jan; 98(1):40-5. PubMed ID: 12526934. [Link]; page 232

(footnote) Effect of sildenafil on oesophageal motor function in healthy subjects and patients with oesophageal motor disorders. Author: Eherer AJ, Schwetz I, Hammer HF, Petnehazy T, Scheidl SJ, Weber K, Krejs GJ. Journal: Gut; 2002 Jun; 50(6):758-64. PubMed ID: 12010875 [Link]; page 232

  1. 25 Comparative study of the antiemetic efficacy of ondansetron, propofol and midazolam in the early postoperative period. Author: Unlugenc H, Guler T, Gunes Y, Isik G. Journal: Eur J Anaesthesiol; 2004 Jan; 21(1):60-5. PubMed ID: 14768925. [Link]; page 233

Dyspepsia (indigestion) and peptic ulcer disease (PUD)26 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(2):CD001961. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(3):CD001961. Initial management strategies for dyspepsia--DelaMney B [Link]; page 234

  1. 27 Merec Bulletin 2006 vol 16 No 3, pages 9-12 [Link]; page 234

  2. 28 Eradication of Helicobacter pylori for non-ulcer dyspepsia. Author: Moayyedi P, Soo S, Deeks J, Delaney B, Harris A, Innes M, Oakes R, Wilson S, Roalfe A, Bennett C, Forman D. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (1):CD002096. PubMed ID: 15674892. [Link]; page 234

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD)

  1. 29; Minor diffuse changes such as erythema, oedema and friability are not included, and the term mucosal break is introduced to encompass the old terms erosion and ulceration. [Link]; page 236

  2. 29 Absence of benefit of eradicating Helicobacter pylori in patients with nonulcer dyspepsia. Talley NJ,[Link]; page 235

  3. 30 Medical treatments for the maintenance therapy of reflux oesophagitis and endoscopic negative reflux disease. Author: Donnellan C, Sharma N, Preston C, Moayyedi P. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (2):CD003245. PubMed ID: 15846653. [Link]; page 236

  4. 31 Surg Endosc. 2003 Jun;17(6):880-5. Epub 2003 Mar 07 Laparoscopic antireflux surgery: disease-related quality of life assessment before and after surgery in GERD patients with and without Barrett’s esophagus--Kamolz T [Link]; page 236

32; page Minor diffuse changes such as erythema, oedema and friability are not included, and the term mucosal break is introduced to encompass the old terms erosion and ulceration. [Link]; page 237Diarrhoea

  1. 33 No link available; page 238

  2. 34 Dis Colon Rectum. 1995 May;38(5):545 Ulcerative colitis: rectal dilations in a patient with refractory diarrhea. Report of a case--Frieri G [Link]; page 238

35; The 13C-Hiolein breath test (98% [U-13C] labelled long chain triglyceride mixture (highly labelled triolein) was evaluated as a non-invasive, non-radioactive test for exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Accuracy and clinical validity were good [Link]; page 238

  1. 36 First-line treatment in acute non-dysenteric diarrhoea: clinical comparison of loperamide oxide, loperamide and placebo. UK Janssen Research Group of General Practitioners. Author: Hughes IW. Journal: Br J Clin Pract; 1995 Jul-Aug; 49(4):181-5. PubMed ID: 7547157. [Link]; page 238

(footnote) Fatal pseudomembranous colitis associated with a variant clostridium difficile strain not detected by toxin A immunoassay. Author: Johnson S, Kent SA, O’Leary KJ, Merrigan MM, Sambol SP, Peterson LR, Gerding DN. Journal: Ann Intern Med; 2001 Sep 18; 135(6):434-8. PubMed ID: 11560456. [Link]; page 239

Constipation

  1. 37 Prof M Kamm 2003 BMJ 327 459 Constipation and its management; page Options go beyond laxatives and include behavioural treatment as well as new drugs [Link]; page 240

  2. 38 Prof M Kamm 2003 BMJ 327 459 Constipation and its management; page Options go beyond laxatives and include behavioural treatment as well as new drugs [Link]; page 240

  3. 39 Nahrung 2002 Apr;46(2):96-9 Sorption of copper, zinc and cobalt by oat and oat products. Gorecka D [Link]; page 240

  4. 40 New and emerging treatment options for chronic constipation. [Link]; page 240

Jaundice (footnote) Myths and misconceptions about chronic constipation. Author: M“ller-Lissner SA, Kamm MA, Scarpignato C, Wald A. Journal: Am J Gastroenterol; 2005 Jan; 100(1):232-42. PubMed ID: 15654804.[Link]; page 240

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  2. 42 Photograph reproduced with kind permission of Ian Herriot [Link]; page 243

  3. 43 No link available

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  7. 47 Prospective validation of the Rockall risk scoring system for upper GI hemorrhage in subgroups of patients with varices and peptic ulcers. Author: Sanders DS, Carter MJ, Goodchap RJ, Cross SS, Gleeson DC, Lobo AJ. Journal: Am J Gastroenterol; 2002 Mar; 97(3):630-5. PubMed ID: 11922558.[Link]; page 245

48; page Endoscopy 2003 Jan;35(1):22 Ulcers and nonvariceal bleeding. Church N [Link]; page 245

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  5. 53 Emergency sclerotherapy versus medical interventions for bleeding oesophageal varices in cirrhotic patients. Author: D’Amico G, Pietrosi G, Tarantino I, Pagliaro L. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2002; (1):CD002233. PubMed ID: 11869632. [Link]; page 246

  6. 54 Combination endoscopic band ligation and sclerotherapy compared with endoscopic band ligation alone for the secondary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal hemorrhage: a meta-analysis. Author: Karsan HA, Morton SC, Shekelle PG, Spiegel BM, Suttorp MJ, Edelstein MA, Gralnek IM. Journal: Dig Dis Sci; 2005 Feb; 50(2):399-406. PubMed ID: 15745108. [Link]; page 246

  7. 55 Terlipressin for acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage. Author: Ioannou G, Doust J, Rockey DC. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2003; (1):CD002147. PubMed ID: 12535432. [Link]; page 246

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(footnote) Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Author: Ochs A. Journal: Dig Dis; 2005; 23(1):56-64. PubMed ID: 15920326. [Link]; page 246

  1. 57 Does cooling Sengstaken-Blakemore tubes aid insertion? An evidence based approach. Author: Dearden JC, Hellawell GO, Pilling J, Besherdas K, Van Someren N. Journal: Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2004 Nov; 16(11):1229-32. PubMed ID: 15489586 [Link]; page 247Endoscopy and biopsy

  2. 58 M Norman Ann Clin Biochem 1997 34 230; page 248

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Liver failure

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  2. 62 Acetylcysteine treatment for non-acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure. Author: Sklar GE, Subramaniam M. Journal: Ann Pharmacother; 2004 Mar; 38(3):498-500. PubMed ID: 14742832. [Link]; page 250

  3. 63 Effects of prolonged oral nutritional support in malnourished cirrhotic patients: results of a pilot study. Author: Cunha L, Happi Nono M, Guibert AL, Nidegger D, Beau P, Beauchant M. Journal: Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2004 Jan; 28(1):36-9. PubMed ID: 15041808. [Link]; page 250

  4. 64 Seizures in alcohol-dependent patients: epidemiology, pathophysiology and management. Author: Hillbom M, Pieninkeroinen I, Leone M. Journal: CNS Drugs; 2003; 17(14):1013-30. PubMed ID: 14594442. [Link]; page 250

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  7. 67 Beyond hepatorenal syndrome: glomerulonephritis in patients with liver disease. Author: Lhotta K. Journal: Semin Nephrol; 2002 Jul; 22(4):302-8. PubMed ID: 12118395. [Link]; page 251

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  1. 68 Nail images [Link]; page 252

  2. 69 No link available; page 252

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  4. 71 [Early diagnosis and improved survival with screening for hepatocellular carcinoma] Author: Youk CM, Choi MS, Paik SW, Ahn BH, Lee JH, Koh KC, Yoo BC, Rhee JC. Journal: Taehan Kan Hakhoe Chi; 2003 Jun; 9(2):116-23. PubMed ID: 12824751. [Link]; page 252

  5. 72 No link available; page 252

  6. 73 Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with hepatic cirrhosis: evaluation of a treatment protocol at specialized units. Author: Dinis-Ribeiro M, Cortez-Pinto H, Marinho R, Valente A, Raimundo M, Salgado MJ, Ramalho F, Alexandrino P, Carneiro-de-Moura M. Journal: Rev Esp Enferm Dig; 2002 Aug; 94(8):473-81. PubMed ID: 12486852. [Link]; page 252

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  8. 75 The authors would like to thank Kang Yong Chiang, Singapore, Harish Menon, UK, and Shum Yong Shun, Malaysia, for pointing out the correction to the albumin values from the last edition. [Link]; page 253

  9. 76 Beyond hepatorenal syndrome: glomerulonephritis in patients with liver disease. [Link]; page 253

(footnote) Simple blood tests can predict compensated liver cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Author: Luo JC, Hwang SJ, Chang FY, Chu CW, Lai CR, Wang YJ, Lee PC, Tsay SH, Lee SD. Journal: Hepatogastroenterology; 2002 Mar-Apr; 49(44):478-81. PubMed ID: 11995477. [Link]; page 253Hereditary haemachromotosis (HH)

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  5. 81 No link available

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  8. 84 [Successful treatment using iron depletion phlebotomy combined with recombinant erythropoietin after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome complicated by secondary hemochromatosis] Author: Shinjo K, Takeshita A, Naito K, Ohnishi K, Hirabayashi N, Ohno R. Journal: Rinsho Ketsueki; 2001 Jul; 42(7):571-4. PubMed ID: 11524849. [Link]; page 254

(footnote) Hepatic iron overload: direct HFE (HLA-H) mutation analysis vs quantitative iron assays for the diagnosis of hereditary hemochromatosis. Author: Press RD, Flora K, Gross C, Rabkin JM, Corless CL. Journal: Am J Clin Pathol; 1998 May; 109(5):577-84. PubMed ID: 9576576. [Link]; page 254

(footnote) [Link]; page 254

(footnote) Utility of hepatic iron index in American patients with hereditary hemochromatosis: a multicenter study. Author: Kowdley KV, Trainer TD, Saltzman JR, Pedrosa M, Krawitt EL, Knox TA, Susskind K, Pratt D, Bonkovsky HL, Grace ND, Kaplan MM. Journal: Gastroenterology; 1997 Oct; 113(4):1270-7. PubMed ID: 9322522. [Link]; page 254

  1. 85 No link available

  2. 86 Milestones in transplantation [Link]; page 255

87; page Int J Colorectal Dis. 2002 Nov;17(6):402 Improvement in irritable bowel syndrome following ano-rectal surgery--Palmer BV [Link]; page 255

  1. 88 Graft-versus-host disease following living donor liver transplantation. Author: Soejima Y, Shimada M, Suehiro T, Hiroshige S, Gondo H, Takami A, Yasue S, Maehara Y. Journal: Liver Transpl; 2004 Mar; 10(3):460-4. PubMed ID: 15004778. [Link]; page 255

  2. 89 Pretransplant renal dysfunction predicts poorer outcome in liver transplantation. Author: Lafayette RA, Par”, Schmid CH, King AJ, Rohrer RJ, Nasraway SA. Journal: Clin Nephrol; 1997 Sep; 48(3):159-64. PubMed ID: 9342487. [Link]; page 255

(footnote) Impact of MELD on short-term and long-term outcome following liver transplantation: a European perspective. Author: Nagler E, Vlierberghe HV, Colle I, Troisi R, Hemptinne B. Journal: Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2005 Aug; 17(8):849-56. PubMed ID: 16003135. [Link]; page 255

Alpha

1- antitrypsin deficiency

  1. 90 No link available

  2. 91 Predictors of mortality in alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. Author: Dawkins PA, Dowson LJ, Guest PJ, Stockley RA. Journal: Thorax; 2003 Dec; 58(12):1020-6. PubMed ID: 14645964. [Link]; page 256

  3. 92 Factors associated with advanced liver disease in adults with alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. Author: Bowlus CL, Willner I, Zern MA, Reuben A, Chen P, Holladay B, Xie L, Woolson RF, Strange C. Journal: Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2005 Apr; 3(4):390-6. PubMed ID: 15822045. [Link]; page 256

(footnote) Tailored pharmacokinetic dosing allows self-administration and reduces the cost of IV augmentation therapy with human alpha(1)-antitrypsin. Author: Piitulainen E, Bernsp” E, Bj“rkman S, Berntorp E. Journal: Eur J Clin Pharmacol; 2003 Jun; 59(2):151-6. PubMed ID: 12728289. [Link]; page 256

  1. 93 [Wilson’s disease: a clinical case is presented with neuropsychiatric dominant form and probable physiopathology interpretation with magnetic resonance of the brain] Author: Casta“eda-Reyna MA, Ubilluz R, Avalos C, Escalante D. Journal: Rev Neurol; 2002 Apr 16-30; 34(8):745-50. PubMed ID: 12080495. [Link]; page 257

  2. 94 Prognostic factors in patients presenting with severe neurological forms of Wilson’s disease. Author: Prashanth LK, Taly AB, Sinha S, Ravishankar S, Arunodaya GR, Vasudev MK, Swamy HS. Journal: QJM; 2005 Aug; 98(8):557-63. PubMed ID: 16006499. [Link]; page 257

Primary billary cirrhosis (PBC)

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  2. 96 No link available; page 258

  3. 97 Sclerosing cholangitis. Author: MacFaul GR, Chapman RW. Journal: Curr Opin Gastroenterol; 2004 May; 20(3):275-80. PubMed ID: 15703653. [Link]; page 258

  4. 98 Bile acids for primary sclerosing cholangitis. Author: Chen W, Gluud C. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2003; (2):CD003626. PubMed ID: 12804480. [Link]; page 259

  5. 99 No link available; page 259

(footnote) PSC-IBD: a unique form of inflammatory bowel disease associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Author: Loftus EV, Harewood GC, Loftus CG, Tremaine WJ, Harmsen WS, Zinsmeister AR, Jewell DA, Sandborn WJ. Journal: Gut; 2005 Jan; 54(1):91-6. PubMed ID: 15591511. [Link]; page 259

(footnote) The hepatitic/cholestatic; page 259

Autoimmune hepatitis

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  2. 101 Treatment of autoimmune hepatitis. Author: Czaja AJ. Journal: Semin Liver Dis; 2002 Nov; 22(4):365-78. PubMed ID: 12447708. [Link]; page 260

  3. 102 Review article: immunopathogenetic and therapeutic aspects of autoimmune hepatitis. Author: Medina J, GarcBuey L, Moreno-Otero R. Journal: Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2003 Jan; 17(1):1-16. PubMed ID: 12492728. [Link]; page 260

  4. 103 Autoimmune hepatitis: effect of symptoms and cirrhosis on natural history and outcome. Author: Feld JJ, Dinh H, Arenovich T, Marcus VA, Wanless IR, Heathcote EJ. Journal: Hepatology; 2005 Jul; 42(1):53-62. PubMed ID: 15954109. [Link]; page 260

(footnote) Autoimmune Hepatitis: Revised Scoring System (1999) [Link]; page 260

(footnote) Possible pathomechanism of autoimmune hepatitis. Author: Prandota J. Journal: Am J Ther; 2003 Jan-Feb; 10(1):51-7. PubMed ID: 12522521. [Link]; page 260

  1. 104 Smooth muscle antibodies and type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. Author: Muratori P, Muratori L, Agostinelli D, Pappas G, Veronesi L, Granito A, Cassani F, Terlizzi P, Lenzi M, Bianchi FB. Journal: Autoimmunity; 2002 Dec; 35(8):497-500. PubMed ID: 12765475. [Link]; page 261Liver tumours

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  4. 107 Local/regional and systemic treatments of hepatocellular carcinoma. Author: Beaugrand M, N’kontchou G, Seror O, Ganne N, Trinchet JC. Journal: Semin Liver Dis; 2005; 25(2):201-11. PubMed ID: 15918148. [Link]; page 262

  5. 108 Synergistic interaction between aflatoxin B

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  8. 110 No link available; page 262

  9. 111 Liver fluke infection and cholangiocarcinoma: model of endogenous nitric oxide and extragastric nitrosation in human carcinogenesis. Author: Haswell-Elkins MR, Satarug S, Tsuda M, Mairiang E, Esumi H, Sithithaworn P, Mairiang P, Saitoh M, Yongvanit P, Elkins DB. Journal: Mutat Res; 1994 Mar 1; 305(2):241-52. PubMed ID: 7510035. Abstract [Link]; page 262

  10. 112 Diagnosis and surgical treatment of primary hepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Author: Han SL, Zhu GB, Yao JG, Lan SH, Shao YF. Journal: Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Mar-Apr; 52(62):348-51. PubMed ID: 15816432. [Link]; page 262

  11. 113 Outcome after resection of central cholangiocarcinoma: preliminary experience with 46 patients in a single center. Author: Wahab MA, Sultan A, Elgwalby N, Fathy O, Abo zied M, Aboelenen A, Fouad A, Abd alla T, Kandel T, Elshobary M, Elfiky A, el Ebidby G, Gad el Hak NG, Ezzat F. Journal: Hepatogastroenterology; 2003 Mar-Apr; 50(50):337-41. PubMed ID: 12749216. Abstract [Link]; page 262

(footnote) Hepatitis B viremia is associated with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic carriers. Author: Tang B, Kruger WD, Chen G, Shen F, Lin WY, Mboup S, London WT, Evans AA. Journal: J Med Virol; 2004 Jan; 72(1):35-40. PubMed ID: 14635008. [Link]; page 262

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  1. 116 Venous thromboembolism in inflammatory bowel disease. Author: Solem CA, Loftus EV, Tremaine WJ, Sandborn WJ. Journal: Am J Gastroenterol; 2004 Jan; 99(1):97-101. PubMed ID: 14687149. [Link]; page 264

117No link available; page 264

  1. 118 Cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer surveillance in ulcerative colitis. Author: Inadomi JM. Journal: Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl; 2003; (237):17-21. PubMed ID: 12797675. [Link]; page 264

  2. 118 Strategies for detecting colon cancer and/or dysplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Author: Mpofu C, Watson AJ, Rhodes JM. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2004; (2):CD000279. PubMed ID: 15106148. [Link]; page 264

  3. 119 No link available; page 264

(footnote) Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli infection in T

  1. 84 cell monolayers induces increased neutrophil transepithelial migration, which in turn promotes cytokine-dependent upregulation of decay-accelerating factor (CD55), the receptor for Afa/Dr adhesins. Author: B“s F, Brest P, Hofman V, Guignot J, Kansau I, Rossi B, Servin A, Hofman P. Journal: Infect Immun; 2003 Apr; 71(4):1774-83. PubMed ID: 12654791. [Link]; page 264

[Link]; page 265

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  2. 122 The diagnosis and treatment of pouchitis in inflammatory bowel disease. Author: Cheifetz A, Itzkowitz S. Journal: J Clin Gastroenterol; 2004 May-Jun; 38(5 Suppl):S44-50. PubMed ID: 15115932.[Link]; page 265

  3. 123 Cyclosporine A for induction of remission in severe ulcerative colitis. Author: Shibolet O, Regushevskaya E, Brezis M, Soares-Weiser K. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (1):CD004277. PubMed ID: 15674937. [Link]; page 265

  4. 124 Infliximab as rescue therapy in severe to moderately severe ulcerative colitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Author: J“erot G, Hertervig E, Friis-Liby I, Blomquist L, Karl”P, Gr“” C, Vilien M, Str“m M, Danielsson A, Verbaan H, Hellstr“m PM, Magnuson A, Curman B. Journal: Gastroenterology; 2005 Jun; 128(7):1805-11. PubMed ID: 15940615. [Link]; page 265

  5. 125 Transdermal nicotine for induction of remission in ulcerative colitis. Author: McGrath J, McDonald JW, Macdonald JK. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2004; (4):CD004722. PubMed ID: 15495126. [Link]; page 265

  6. 126 No link available; page 265

127; page Oral 5-aminosalicylic acid for induction of remission in ulcerative colitis. Author: Sutherland L, MacDonald JK. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2003; (3):CD000543. PubMed ID: 12917894.[Link]; page 265

  1. 128 Pathology of indeterminate colitis. Author: Odze RD. Journal: J Clin Gastroenterol; 2004 May-Jun; 38(5 Suppl):S36-40. PubMed ID: 15115930. [Link]; page 265

(footnote) Budesonide versus prednisolone retention enemas in active distal ulcerative colitis. Author: L“fberg R, Ostergaard Thomsen O, Langholz E, Schi“ler R, Danielsson A, Suhr O, Graffner H, P”man L, Matzen P, M“ller-Petersen JF. Journal: Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 1994 Dec; 8(6):623-9. PubMed ID: 7696452. [Link]; page 264

Crohn’s disease

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(footnote) Biocompatibility of micro- and nano-particles in the colon. Part II. Author: Gatti AM. Journal: Biomaterials; 2004 Feb; 25(3):385-92. PubMed ID: 14585686. [Link]; page 266

(footnote) Card

  1. 15 gene overexpression in mononuclear and epithelial cells of the inflamed Crohn’s disease colon. Author: Berrebi D, Maudinas R, Hugot JP, Chamaillard M, Chareyre F, De Lagausie P, Yang C, Desreumaux P, Giovannini M, C“rd JP, Zouali H, Emilie D, Peuchmaur M. Journal: Gut; 2003 Jun; 52(6):840-6. PubMed ID: 12740340. [Link]; page 266

(footnote) Crohn BB, Ginzburg L and Oppenheimer GD; Regional Ileitis: A Pathologic and Clinical Entity. JAMA 1932 (Oct 15) 99:1323-1329. [Link]; page 266

(footnote) Integrating theories of the etiology of Crohn’s disease. On the etiology of Crohn’s disease: questioning the hypotheses. Author: Chamberlin WM, Naser SA. Journal: Med Sci Monit; 2006 Feb; 12:RA27-33. PubMed ID: 16449960. [Link]; page 266

  1. 130 Azathioprine for maintaining remission of Crohn’s disease. Author: Pearson DC, May GR, Fick G, Sutherland LR. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2000; (2):CD000067. PubMed ID: 10796482.[Link]; page 267

  2. 131 Oral 5-aminosalicylic acid for maintenance of medically-induced remission in Crohn’s Disease. Author: Akobeng AK, Gardener E. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (1):CD003715. PubMed ID: 15674913. [Link]; page 267

  3. 132 Enteral nutritional therapy for inducing remission of Crohn’s disease. Author: Zachos M, Tondeur M, Griffiths AM. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2001; (3):CD000542. PubMed ID: 11686966.[Link]; page 267

  4. 133 Methotrexate for induction of remission in refractory Crohn’s disease. Author: Alfadhli AA, McDonald JW, Feagan BG. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (1):CD003459. PubMed ID: 15674908.[Link]; page 267

  5. 134 Management of the short bowel syndrome after extensive small bowel resection. Author: Keller J, Panter H, Layer P. Journal: Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol; 2004 Oct; 18(5):977-92. PubMed ID: 15494290. [Link]; page 267

  6. 135 Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibody for induction of remission in Crohn’s disease. Author: Akobeng AK, Zachos M. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2004; (1):CD003574. PubMed ID: 14974022. [Link]; page 267

  7. 136 Infliximab maintenance therapy for fistulizing Crohn’s disease. Author: Sands BE, Anderson FH, Bernstein CN, Chey WY, Feagan BG, Fedorak RN, Kamm MA, Korzenik JR, Lashner BA, Onken JE, Rachmilewitz D, Rutgeerts P, Wild G, Wolf DC, Marsters PA, Travers SB, Blank MA, van Deventer SJ. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2004 Feb 26; 350(9):876-85. PubMed ID: 14985485. [Link]; page 267

137; page Efficacy and safety of retreatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody (infliximab) to maintain remission in Crohn’s disease. Author: Rutgeerts P, D’Haens G, Targan S, Vasiliauskas E, Hanauer SB, Present DH, Mayer L, Van Hogezand RA, Braakman T, DeWoody KL, Schaible TF, Van Deventer SJ. Journal: Gastroenterology; 1999 Oct; 117(4):761-9. PubMed ID: 10500056. [Link]; page 267

  1. 138 Health Technol Assess. 2003;7(3):1 Systematic review and economic evaluation of the effectiveness of infliximab for the treatment of Crohn’s disease. Clark W [Link]; page 267

  2. 139 No link available; page 267Irritable bowel syndrome; Carcinoma of the pancreas

  3. 140 The official website for the Rome II criteria. [Link]; page 268

  4. 141 Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: image quality, ductal morphology, and value of additional T2- and T1-weighted sequences for the assessment of suspected pancreatic cancer. Author: H“inen EL, Ricke J, Amthauer H, R“ttgen R, B“hmig M, Langrehr J, Pech M, Denecke T, Rosewicz S, Felix R. Journal: Acta Radiol; 2005 Apr; 46(2):117-25. PubMed ID: 15902884. [Link]; page 268

(footnote) The roles of endoscopic ultrasonography in the diagnosis of pancreatic tumors. Author: Maguchi H. Journal: J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2004; 11(1):1-3. PubMed ID: 15747027. [Link]; page 268

  1. 142 Giardia lamblia infections become clinically evident by eliciting symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Author: D’Anchino M, Orlando D, De Feudis L. Journal: J Infect; 2002 Oct; 45(3):169-72. PubMed ID: 12387773. [Link]; page 269

  2. 143 Bulking agents, antispasmodic and antidepressant medication for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Author: Quartero AO, Meineche-Schmidt V, Muris J, Rubin G, de Wit N. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (2):CD003460. PubMed ID: 15846668. [Link]; page 269

  3. 144 No link available; page 269

  4. 145 Alosetron 1mg/12h PO; page [Link]; page 269

  5. 146 Efficacy of alosetron in irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Author: Cremonini F, Delgado-Aros S, Camilleri M. Journal: Neurogastroenterol Motil; 2003 Feb; 15(1):79-86. PubMed ID: 12588472. [Link]; page 269

(footnote) Gut-focused hypnotherapy normalizes disordered rectal sensitivity in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Author: Lea R, Houghton LA, Calvert EL, Larder S, Gonsalkorale WM, Whelan V, Randles J, Cooper P, Cruickshanks P, Miller V, Whorwell PJ. Journal: Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2003 Mar 1; 17(5):635-42. PubMed ID: 12641511. [Link]; page 269

Nutritional disorders

  1. 147 Int J Dermatol 1998 Aug;37(8):599 The; page 270

Carcinoid tumours

  1. 148 Carcinoid tumour. Author: McStay MK, Caplin ME. Journal: Minerva Med; 2002 Oct; 93(5):389-401. PubMed ID: 12410171. [Link]; page 270

  2. 149 Neuropsychological investigation into the carcinoid syndrome. Author: Russo S, Nielen MM, Boon JC, Kema IP, Willemse PH, de Vries EG, Korf J, den Boer JA. Journal: Psychopharmacology (Berl); 2003 Jul; 168(3):324-8. PubMed ID: 12695876. [Link]; page 270

150; page Interest of Chromogranin A for diagnosis and follow-up of endocrine tumours. Author: Nehar D, Lombard-Bohas C, Olivieri S, Claustrat B, Chayvialle JA, Penes MC, Sassolas G, Borson-Chazot F. Journal: Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2004 May; 60(5):644-52. PubMed ID: 15104570. [Link]; page 270

  1. 151 Current diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal carcinoids in a series of 101 patients: the significance of serum chromogranin-A, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and somatostatin analogues. Author: Nikou GC, Lygidakis NJ, Toubanakis C, Pavlatos S, Tseleni-Balafouta S, Giannatou E, Mallas E, Safioleas M. Journal: Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 May-Jun; 52(63):731-41. PubMed ID: 15966194.[Link]; page 270

  2. 152 A study of cyproheptadine in the treatment of metastatic carcinoid tumor and the malignant carcinoid syndrome. Author: Moertel CG, Kvols LK, Rubin J. Journal: Cancer; 1991 Jan 1; 67(1):33-6. PubMed ID: 1985720. [Link]; page 270

  3. 153 Combination therapy with octreotide and alpha-interferon: effect on tumor growth in metastatic endocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumors. Author: Frank M, Klose KJ, Wied M, Ishaque N, Schade-Brittinger C, Arnold R. Journal: Am J Gastroenterol; 1999 May; 94(5):1381-7. PubMed ID: 10235222.[Link]; page 270

  4. 154 Carcinoid tumour. Author: McStay MK, Caplin ME. Journal: Minerva Med; 2002 Oct; 93(5):389-401. PubMed ID: 12410171. [Link]; page 270

(footnote) James Lind and Scurvy: a Revaluation [Link]; page 270 155 A case of biliary carcinoid presenting with pancreatitis and obstructive jaundice. Author: Juturi JV, Maghfoor I, Doll DC, Evans ML. Journal: Am J Gastroenterol; 2000 Oct; 95(10):2973-4. PubMed ID: 11051379. [Link]; page 271

Gastrointestinal malabsorption

  1. 156 Tropical sprue after travel to Tanzania. Author: Peetermans WE, Vonck A. Journal: J Travel Med; 2000 Jan; 7(1):33-4. PubMed ID: 10689238. [Link]; page 272

  2. 157 No link available; page 272

Coeliac disease

  1. 158 Effect of an oats-containing gluten-free diet on symptoms and quality of life in coeliac disease. A randomized study. Author: Per“o M, Kaukinen K, Mustalahti K, Vuolteenaho N, M” M, Laippala P, Collin P. Journal: Scand J Gastroenterol; 2004 Jan; 39(1):27-31. PubMed ID: 14992558. [Link]; page 272

Chronic pancreatis

  1. 159 Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency: accuracy and clinical value of the uniformly labelled 13C-Hiolein breath test. Author: Lembcke B, Braden B, Caspary WF. Journal: Gut; 1996 Nov; 39(5):668-74. PubMed ID: 9026480. [Link]; page 272

Alcoholism

  1. 160 The value of the CAGE in screening for alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence in general clinical populations: a diagnostic meta-analysis. Author: Aertgeerts B, Buntinx F, Kester A. Journal: J Clin Epidemiol; 2004 Jan; 57(1):30-9. PubMed ID: 15019008. [Link]; page 274

  2. 161 No link available; page 274

  3. 162 Attributable risk of injury associated with alcohol use: cross-national data from the emergency room collaborative alcohol analysis project. Author: Cherpitel CJ, Ye Y, Bond J. Journal: Am J Public Health; 2005 Feb; 95(2):266-72. PubMed ID: 15671463. [Link]; page 274

  4. 163 Acamprosate appears to decrease alcohol intake in weaned alcoholics. Author: Lhuintre JP, Moore N, Tran G, Steru L, Langrenon S, Daoust M, Parot P, Ladure P, Libert C, Boismare F. Journal: Alcohol Alcohol; 1990; 25(6):613-22. PubMed ID: 2085344. [Link]; page 274

  5. 164 No link available; page 274

  6. 165 For more information on alcohol screening tests see: [Link]; page 275

  7. 166 Brief screening instruments for alcoholism. Cherpitel CJ. Alcohol Health Res World; 1997; 21(4):348-51. PubMed ID: 15706747 [Link]; page 275

Chapter 08: Renal Medicine

Renal medicine

  1. 1 Identification, management and referral of adults with chronic kidney disease: concise guidelines[Link]; page 277

Urine

  1. 2 SIGN paper number 17 [Link]; page 278

  2. 3 BMJ 2000 Asymptomatic haematuria [Link]; page 278

Images of renal histology

  1. 4 Transplantation. 2000 Jun 27;69(12):2663-5 Acute rejection presenting as nephrotic syndrome--Ahmad I [Link]; page 281

Urinary tract infection

  1. 5 Andrews SJ, Brooks PT, Hanbury DC, King CM, Prendergast CM, Boustead GB, McNicholas TA. Ultrasonography and abdominal radiography versus intravenous urography in investigation of urinary tract infection in men: prospective incident cohort study. BMJ. 2002; 324(7335): 454-6. [Link]; page 282

  2. 6 Jepson RG, Mihaljevic L, Craig J. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(2):CD001321. [Link]; page 282

  3. 7 Fihn SD. Clinical practice. Acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women. N Engl J Med. 2003; 349: 259-66. [Link]; page 282

  4. 8 Deville WL, Yzermans JC, van Duijn NP, Bezemer PD, van der Windt DA, Bouter LM. The urine dipstick test useful to rule out infections. A meta-analysis of the accuracy. BMC Urol. 2004; 4: 4. [Link]; page 283

  5. 9 Richards D, Toop L, Chambers S, Fletcher L. Response to antibiotics of women with symptoms of urinary tract infection but negative dipstick urine test results: double blind randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2005; 331(7509): 143. [Link]; page 283

Renal calculi (nephrolithiasis)

  1. 10 Holdgate A, Pollock T. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) versus opioids for acute renal colic. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Apr 18; (2): CD004137. [Link]; page 284

  2. 11 Robyn Webber, David Tolley, James Lingeman. Kidney Stones. Clinical Evidence April 2005.; page[Link]; page 284

  3. 12 Uibu T, Oksa P, Auvinen A, Honkanen E, Metsarinne K, Saha H, Uitti J, Roto P. Asbestos exposure as a risk factor for retroperitoneal fibrosis. Lancet 2004; 363(9419): 1422-6. [Link]; page 285

[Description of a case of Cacchi Ricci disease associated with hyperparathyroidism in the setting of multiple endocrine disease] Author: Diouf B, Dia D, Ka MM, Diouf R, Dangou JM, Badiane M, Ka EF, Moreira Diop T. Journal: Dakar Med; 1999; 44(2):229-31. PubMed ID: 11957291 [Link]; page 285

Urinary tract obstruction

  1. 13; Warnatz K, Keskin AG, Uhl M, Scholz C, Katzenwadel A, Vaith P, Peter HH, Walker UA. Immunosuppressive treatment of chronic periaortitis: a retrospective study of 20 patients with chronic periaortitis and a review of the literature. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005; 64(6): 828-33. [Link]; page 286

  2. 13 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 287

Gromerulonephritis (GN)

  1. 14 Nakao N, Yoshimura A, Morita H, Takada M, Kayano T, Ideura T. Combination treatment of angiotensin-II receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor in non-diabetic renal disease (COOPERATE): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 361:117-24. [Link]; page 288

  2. 15 Roccatello D, Baldovino S, Rossi D, Mansouri M, Naretto C, Gennaro M, Cavallo R, Alpa M, Costanzo P, Giachino O, Mazzucco G, Sena LM. Long-term effects of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody treatment of cryoglobulinaemic glomerulonephritis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2004; 19(12): 3054-61. [Link]; page 289

The nephritic syndrome

  1. 16 Nakao N, Yoshimura A, Morita H, Takada M, Kayano T, Ideura T. Combination treatment of angiotensin-II receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor in non-diabetic renal disease (COOPERATE): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 361:117-24. [Link]

  2. 17 Bakris GL, Williams M, Dworkin L, Elliott WJ, Epstein M, Toto R, Tuttle K, Douglas J, Hsueh W, Sowers J. Preserving renal function in adults with hypertension and diabetes: a consensus approach. National Kidney Foundation Hypertension and Diabetes Executive Committees Working Group. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000; 36(3): 646-61. [Link]; page 290

Acute renal failure (ARF) diagnosisNo links

Chronic renal failure (CRF)18 G Navis 1997 Lancet 349 1852; page 294

  1. 19 Bakris GL, Williams M, Dworkin L, Elliott WJ, Epstein M, Toto R, Tuttle K, Douglas J, Hsueh W, Sowers J. Preserving renal function in adults with hypertension and diabetes: a consensus approach. National Kidney Foundation Hypertension and Diabetes Executive Committees Working Group. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000; 36(3): 646-61. [Link]; page 294

Cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney failure: the role of VDR activators. Author: Wu-Wong JR, Tian J, Nakane M, Ma J, Fey TA, Kroeger P, Fryer RM, Reinhart GA. Journal: Curr Opin Investig Drugs; 2006 Mar; 7(3):206-13. PubMed ID: 16555680 [Link]; page 294

Once-weekly intravenous paricalcitol in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients. Author: Staniforth ME, Cheng SC, Coyne DW. Journal: Clin Nephrol; 2005 Jun; 63(6):454-60. PubMed ID: 15960147 [Link]; page 294 20; J Intern Med. 2003 Mar;253(3):335 Extrapolation of reciprocal creatinine plot is not reliable in predicting the onset of dialysis in patients with progressive renal insufficiency--Szeto C [Link]; page 295

  1. 21 Combination treatment of angiotensin-II receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor in non-diabetic renal disease (COOPERATE): a randomised controlled trial. Author: Nakao N, Yoshimura A, Morita H, Takada M, Kayano T, Ideura T. Journal: Lancet; 2003 Jan 11; 361(9352):117-24. PubMed ID: 12531578. [Link]; page 295Renal replacement therapy

  2. 22 European Best Practice Guidelines Expert Group on Hemodialysis, European Renal Association. Section I. Measurement of renal function, when to refer and when to start dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2002;17 Suppl 7: 7-15. [Link]; page 296

  3. 23 Jaar BG, Coresh J, Plantinga LC, Fink NE, Klag MJ, Levey AS, Levin NW, Sadler JH, Kliger A, Powe NR. Comparing the risk for death with peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis in a national cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease. Ann Intern Med. 2005; 143: 174-83.; page [Link]; page 296

  4. 24 N Engl J Med. 1986 Jan 2;314(1):14 Stopping long-term dialysis. An empirical study of withdrawal of life-supporting treatment--Neu S [Link]; page 296

  5. 25 Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1990 Aug 11;134(32):1549 Voluntary discontinuation of dialysis treatment by chronic dialysis patients--van Nieuwkerk C [Link]; page 296

  6. 26 ASAIO J. 1994 Jul-Sep;40(3):M798-802. End of life issues in ESRD. A study of three decision variables that affect patient attitudes. Rutecki G [Link]; page 296

  7. 27 Webster AC, Playford EG, Higgins G, Chapman JR, Craig J. Interleukin 2 receptor antagonists for kidney transplant recipients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(1):CD003897. [Link]; page 297

Interstitial nephritides and nephrotoxins

  1. 28 Rev Med Chil. 2002 Jun;130(6):677-80. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome and Streptococcus pneumoniae--Reynolds E [Link]; page 300

Renal vascular disease

  1. 29 [MEDLINE@10756368]; page 300

  2. 30 [MEDLINE@10602896]; page 300

  3. 31 [MEDLINE@10467278]; page 300

32; page Clin Ther 2002 Nov;24(11):1741-56; discussion 1719 Pharmacologic management of diabetic nephropathy. Vivian EM [Link]; page 301

  1. 33 N Engl J Med 2003 Jan 30;348(5):383 Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. Gaede P Steno Diabetes Center [Link]; page 301

  2. 34 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 301

  3. 35 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 303

Inherited kidney diseases

  1. 36 Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2003 Apr;3(2):215-33. von Hippel-Lindau disease: recent advances and therapeutic perspectives--Richard S [Link]; page 304

  2. 37 Lancet 1997 349 1770; page 304

  3. 38 Dr Petty’s 2002 lectures [Link]; page 305

  4. 39 PKD foundation [Link]; page 305

Renal manifestations of systemic disease

  1. 40 J Lenzer 2003 BMJ ii 167 and [Link]. See also [Link] [Link]; page 307

Chapter 09: Haematology

Haematology

  1. 1 Image from the Song of Los by william Blake [Link]; page 308

  2. 2 Image of spherocyte permission from; page Bessis M: Blood Smears Reinterpreted, Springer-Verlag, 1977, p. 97 [Link]; page 308

  3. 3 Professor Krzysztof Lewandowski [Link]; page 309, 313

Anaemia

  1. 4 Hill SR, Carless PA, Henry DA, Carson JL, Hebert PC, McClelland DB, Henderson KM. Transfusion thresholds and other strategies for guiding allogeneic red blood cell transfusion. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(2):CD002042. Review. [Link]; page 310

Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) (footnote) Yates JM, Logan EC, Stewart RM. Iron deficiency anaemia in general practice: clinical outcomes over three years and factors influencing diagnostic investigations. Postgrad Med J. 2004; 80: 405-10. [Link]; page 312

(footnote) Hardwick RH, Armstrong CP. Synchronous upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy is an effective method of investigating iron-deficiency anaemia. Br J Surg 1997; 84: 1725-8. [Link]; page 312

  1. 5 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 313

6; [Link]; page 313

  1. 7 Professor Krzysztof Lewandowski [Link]; page 313

  2. 8 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 313

  3. 9 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 313

The peripheral blood film

  1. 10 [Link]; page 315

  2. 11 Professor Barbara Bain [Link]; page 315

  3. 12 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 315

  4. 13 Dr. Nivaldo Medeiros [Link]; page 315

  5. 14 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 315

  6. 15 Image of Pappenheimer body Courtesy of the Crookston collection [Link]; page 315

  7. 16 Professor Krzysztof Lewandowski [Link]; page 315

17; page [Link]; page 315

  1. 18 Professor Barbara Bain [Link]; page 315

  2. 19 Wadsworth Centre, case presentation, commentary to slide number 138 [Link]; page 317

  3. 20 Image of cabot ring, courtesy of the Crookston Collection [Link]; page 317

The differential white cell count

  1. 21 B Bain 1999 nejm 1999 341 1141 and 1060; page 317

  2. 22 J Leone 2000 nejm 342 442 and 1061 The Spry definition of eosinophilia: counts of 0.55 ” 109 to 1.5 “ 109/L need follow-up’; counts of 1.5 “ 109 to 10 “ 109/L need investigation soon’, and counts of > 10 ” 109/L need urgent assessment’”including cardiac. [Link]?; page 317

(footnote) Bain BJ. Relationship between idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, eosinophilic leukemia, and systemic mastocytosis. Am J Hematol. 2004; 77: 82-5. [Link]; page 316

  1. 23 [Link]; page 317

  2. 24 [Link]; page 317

  3. 25 [Link]; page 317

  4. 26 [Link]; page 317

  5. 27 [Link]; page 317

Macrocytic anaemia

  1. 28 Davey Smith G, Ebrahim S. Folate supplementation and cardiovascular disease. Lancet 2005; 366: 1679-1681. [Link]; page 318

29; page Lewis SJ, Ebrahim S, Davey Smith G. Meta-analysis of MTHFR 677C->T polymorphism and coronary heart disease: does totality of evidence support causal role for homocysteine and preventive potential of folate? BMJ. 2005; 331 (7524): 1053. [Link]; page 318

  1. 30 Professor Barbara Bain [Link]; page 319B12 deficiency and pernicious anaemia

  2. 31 No link available; page 321

An approach to haemolytic anaemiaNo links

Causes of haemolytic anaemia

  1. 32 D Weatherall & A Provan 2000 Lancet 355 1169; page 324

  2. 33 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 325

  3. 34 Professor Barbara Bain [Link]; page 325

  4. 35 Professor Barbara Bain [Link]; page 325

  5. 36 Professor Barbara Bain [Link]; page 325

  6. 37 Professor Barbara Bain [Link]; page 325

  7. 38 Professor Barbara Bain [Link]; page 325

  8. 39 Professor Barbara Bain [Link]; page 325

Sickle-cell anaemia

  1. 40 Adams RJ, McKie VC, Hsu L, et al. Prevention of a first stroke by transfusions in children with sickle cell anemia and abnormal results on transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. N Engl J Med 1998; 339:5-11. [Link]; page 326

  2. 41 PS Bellett 1996 e-bm 1 76; page 326

  3. 42 J Williams nejm 1993 329 472+501; page 326

(footnote) Charache S, Terrin ML, Moore RD, et al. Effect of hydroxyurea on frequency of painful crises in sickle cell anemia. N Engl J Med 1995; 332: 1317-1322. [Link]; page 326

(footnote) Steinberg MH, Barton F, Castro O, et al. Effect of hydroxyurea on mortality and morbidity in adult sickle cell anemia. JAMA 2003; 289: 1645-1651. [Link]; page 326

  1. 43 Vichinsky EP, Neumayr LD, Earles AN et al.; page N Engl J Med; 2000 Jun 22; 342(25):1855-65. PubMed ID: 10861320.

[Link]; page 327

  1. 44 Vichinsky EP, Neumayr LD, Earles AN, et al. Causes and outcomes of the acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 1855-1865. [Link]; page 327

45; page Gill 1998 bmj 317 761; page 327

  1. 46 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 327

  2. 47 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 327

Thalassaemia(footnote) [Link]; page 327

  1. 48 Rund D, Rachmilewitz E.Beta-thalassemia.N Engl J Med 2005; 353(11): 1135-46.; [Link]; page 328

  2. 50 One genetic cause of thrombocytopenia is autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (alps) with splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy + other autoimmune features, mentioned here because of its interesting pathogenesis related to faulty apoptosis (programmed cell death of lymphocytes activated via routine infections) due to mutation of the gene known as Fas’. Apoptosis is essential immunological function, and is regulated by the Fas/Apo-1 receptor (Blood 1997 89 1341).; page 328

  3. 51 Dr. Erwin van den Enden [Link]; page 329

  4. 52 Image of skull x ray in Thalassaemia Major; courtesy of the crookston collection [Link]; page 329

Bleeding disorders

  1. 53 (NB this was mistakenly numbered “49” in the book); page Image of haematoma in leg -- mild haemophilia -- after an IM injection;; page [Link]; page 331

An approach to bleedingNo links

Anticoagulants

  1. 54 No link available; page 334

  2. 55 No link available; page 335

  3. 56 No link available; page 335

Leukemia and the house officer

  1. 57 Bernard GR, Vincent JL, Laterre PF, et al. Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis. N Engl J Med. 2001; 344: 699-709. [Link]; page 336

  2. 58 Image of DIC/purpura fulminans courtesy of the Crookston Collection [Link]; page 337Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL)

  3. 59 Dickinson HO. The causes of childhood leukaemia. BMJ 2005; 330:1279-80. [Link]; page 338

  4. 60 D Hoelzer 1993 nejm 329 1343; page 338

  5. 61 A Leonard 2000 bmj ii 433 [Link]; page 338

  6. 62 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 339

  7. 63 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 339

  8. 64 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 339

  9. 65 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 339

  10. 66 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 341

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)

  1. 67 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 341

  2. 68 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 341

  3. 69 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 341

  4. 70 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 343

  5. 71 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 343

Hodgkin’s lymphoma

  1. 72 Lennard AL, Jackson GH. Stem cell transplantation. BMJ 2000; 321: 433-7. [Link]; page 344

(footnote) Lymphographic demonstration of cyclic changes in lymph node size during Pel-Epstein fever. Author: Scanlon GT, Castellino RA, Rudders R. Journal: Cancer; 1975 Dec; 36(6):2026-8. PubMed ID: 1203860. [Link]; page 344 73 No link available; page 345

  1. 74 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 345

  2. 75 Image of Reed-Sternberg cell, courtesy of the crookston collection [Link]; page 345

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

  1. 76 Dr Tom D Thacher [Link]; page 347

  2. 77 Professor Barbara Bain [Link]; page 347

  3. 78 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 347

Pancytopenia, and bone marrow failureNo links

The myeloproliferative disordersNo links

  1. 79 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 351

  2. 80 Dr. Nivaldo Medeiros [Link]; page 351

  3. 81 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 351

Myeloma

  1. 82 Palumbo A 2006 Lancet 367 825. Oral melphalan and prednisolone chemotherapy plus thalidomide compared with melphaln and prednisolone alone in elderly patients with multiple myeloma: randomised controlled trial. [Link]; page 352

  2. 83 UK myeloma forum and the Nordic myeloma study group:guidelines on the diagnosis and management of multiple myeloma 2005. [Link]; page 353

  3. 84 Professor Chrisitne Lawrence [Link]; page 353

  4. 85 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 353

  5. 86 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 353

ParaproteinaemiaNo links

Amyloidosis

  1. 87 British Committee for Standards in Haematology guidelines. Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Management of AL Amyloidosis. Br J Haematology 2004; 125: 681-700. [Link]; page 354

  2. 88 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 355

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

  1. 89 Working Party of British Committee for Standards in Haematology 1996 bmj i 430; page 356

Thrombophilia

  1. 90; British Committee for Standards in Haematology. Investigation and management of heritable thrombophilia. British Journal of Haematology 2001; 114(3), 512-528 [Link]; page 358

Immunosuppresive drugs

  1. 91 No link available; page 361

Chapter 10: Infectious diseases

Infectious diseases

  1. 1 Nature 2005 [issue devoted to climate change: Nov 17 2005 [Link]; page 362, 430

  2. 2 Link not available; page 362

  3. 3 AJ McMichael 2006 Lancet 367 859. Climate change and human health: present and future risks[Link]; page 362

  4. 4 Elinor Moore 2006; HIV is changing the face of tropic medicine. BMJ 2006 333 1280 [Link]; page 363

  5. 5 Elinor Moore 2006; HIV is changing the face of tropic medicine. BMJ 2006 333 1280 [Link]; page 363

The classification of pathogens

  1. 6 Gene expression in Eukaryotes [Link]; page 364

  2. 7 Types of bacteria: after Izabela Kurkiewicz; page [Link]; page 364, 430

  3. 8 Don Chamberlain. Woodrow Wilson Biology Institute.1995 Viruses and host evolution [Link]; page 364

  4. 9 Kingdom protozoa and its 18 phyla. T Cavalier-Smith [Link]; page 364

  5. 10 Glossary of terms [Link]; page 364

  6. 11 Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995 Mar 28;92(7):2421-3 Of archae and eo: what’s in a name? [Link]; page 364

  7. 12 Distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars among female prostitutes and non-prostitutes in Thailand, and non-prostitutes in Japan during the mid-90s. Author: Yamazaki T, Hagiwara T, Kishimoto T, Sasaki N, Takahashi S, Ishihara O, Wangroongsarb P, Kusum M, Sirivongrangsan P. Journal: Jpn J Infect Dis; 2005 Aug; 58(4):211-3. PubMed ID: 16116252. [Link]; page 365

  8. 13 Chlamydiae: Yechiel Becker [Link]; page 365

  9. 14 Image of oral herpes (HSV1) from ormi/oup image bank [no link]; page 366

  10. 15 Enterovirus meningitis in Brazil, 1998-2003. Journal: J Med Virol; 2006 Jan; 78(1):98-104. PubMed ID: 16299728. [Link]; page 366

  11. 16 Link not available; page 366

  12. 17 Medical Advis. Service for (uk) Travellers Abroad (020 7631 4408) provides detailed written travel advice for ~“5. Also try Healthline (0839337729), the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (0151 708 9393), and the Royal Geographical Society Expedition Advisory Centre, 1 Kensington Gore, London sw

  13. 7 2ar; see also doh 1995 Health Information for Overseas Travel. [Link]; page 367

  14. 18 R Dawood Travellers’ Health, oup; page 367

  15. 19 Cefepime: A Cost-Effective Alternative to Ceftazidime in Adult Patients; Cephalosporins in bone marrow transplant [Link]; page 368

  16. 20 Fourth generation cephalosporins in the antimicrobial chemotherapy of surgical infections. Author: Giamarellou H. Journal: J Chemother; 1999 Dec; 11(6):486-93. PubMed ID: 10678790. [Link]; page 368

  17. 21 Link not available; page 368

  18. 22 Susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from patients with lower respiratory infectious diseases to antibiotics (2003); H Goto et al [Link]; page 368

  19. 23 Link not available; page 368

  20. 24 Antibiotic resistance in outpatient urinary isolates: final results from the North American Urinary Tract Infection Collaborative Alliance (NAUTICA). Author: Zhanel GG, Hisanaga TL, Laing NM, DeCorby MR, Nichol KA, Palatnik LP, Johnson J, Noreddin A, Harding GK, Nicolle LE, Hoban DJ, NAUTICA Group . Journal: Int J Antimicrob Agents; 2005 Nov; 26(5):380-8. PubMed ID: 16243229. [Link]; page 368

  21. 25 [Resistance of catheter-associated urinary tract infections to antibacterials] Author: Verhaz A, Skrbic R, Rakita-Music M. Journal: Vojnosanit Pregl; 2005 Mar; 62(3):181-7. PubMed ID: 15790045. [Link]; page 368

  22. 26 Link not available; page 368

  23. 27 Link not available; page 368

  24. 28 Comparison of antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates from Shanghai and Hong Kong. Author: Ling TK, Ying CM, Lee CC, Liu ZK. Journal: Med Princ Pract; 2005 Sep-Oct; 14(5):338-41. PubMed ID: 16103700. [Link]; page 368

(footnote) Vincent A. Fischetti Ph.D.Biography of Rebecca Craighill Lancefield (1895-1981) [Link]; page 365Antibiotics: cephalosporins

  1. 29 H Giamarellou 1999 J Chemother 11 486 [@10678790]; see also BNF 2000 ii 258; page 369

  2. 30 Changes in antibiotic resistance of the most common Gram-negative bacteria isolated in intensive care units. Author: Makedou KG, Tsiakiri EP, Bisiklis AG, Chatzidimitriou M, Halvantzis AA, Ntoutsou K, Alexiou-Daniel S. Journal: J Hosp Infect; 2005 Jul; 60(3):245-8. PubMed ID: 15890431. [Link]; page 369

  3. 31 An evidence-based evaluation of important aspects of empirical antibiotic therapy in febrile neutropenic patients. Author: Glasmacher A, von Lilienfeld-Toal M, Schulte S, Hahn C, Schmidt-Wolf IG, Prentice A. Journal: Clin Microbiol Infect; 2005 Oct; 11 Suppl 5():17-23. PubMed ID: 16138815. [Link]; page 369

  4. 32 Biliary tract infections: a guide to drug treatment. Author: Westphal JF, Brogard JM. Journal: Drugs; 1999 Jan; 57(1):81-91. PubMed ID: 9951953 [Link]; page 369

Antibiotics: others

  1. 33 Link not available; page 371

Blind Rx for presumed septicaemia, pneumonia, etc

34; The reliability of the microscopic diagnosis of malaria in the field and in the laboratory. Author: Collier JA, Longmore JM. Journal: Ann Trop Med Parasitol; 1983 Apr; 77(2):113-7. PubMed ID: 6192774.[Link]; page 373

  1. 35 Sensitivity of 93.3%, specificity 98.3%, a positive predictive value of 95.6%, and a negative predictive value of 97.4%“I Cropley 2000 BMJ ii 484 [Link]; page 373

  2. 36 Link not available; page 373

Drug abuse and infectious diseases

  1. 37; page Link not available; page 375

Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO)38 G Flaubert 1913 Dictionary of Received Ideas; page 376

  1. 39 P Chandrasekar 1994 Arch Int Med 154 841; page 376

  2. 40 P Chandrasekar 1994 Arch Int Med 154 841; page 376

  3. 41 Rickettsial infections and fever, Vientiane, Laos. Author: Phongmany S, White NJ, Journal: Emerg Infect Dis; 2006 Feb; 12(2):256-62. PubMed ID: 16494751 [Link]; page 376

  4. 42 J Drenth 2000 bmj i 1091 [Link]; page 376

  5. 43 Fever and thromboembolic disease in acute spinal cord injury. Author: Weingarden SI, Weingarden DS, Belen J. Journal: Paraplegia; 1988 Feb; 26(1):35-42. PubMed ID: 3353124 [Link]; page 376

  6. 44 Multicentric Castleman’s disease associated with glomerular microangiopathy and MPGN-like lesion: does vascular endothelial cell-derived growth factor play causative or protective roles in renal injury? Author: Seida A, Wada J, Morita Y, Baba M, Eguchi J, Nishimoto N, Okino T, Ichimura K, Yoshino T, Makino H. Journal: Am J Kidney Dis; 2004 Jan; 43(1):E3-9. PubMed ID: 14712466 [Link]; page 376

  7. 45 Case 3-1998” A 31-Year-Old Woman with a Pleural Effusion, Ascites, and Persistent Fever Spikes Ellen E. Sheets [Link]; page 376

  8. 46 Visceral leishmaniasis. Author: Stefaniak J, Paul M, Kacprzak E, Skoryna-Karcz B. Journal: Przegl Epidemiol; 2003; 57(2):341-8. PubMed ID: 12910604. [Link]; page 376

  9. 47 Legionnaires’ disease with severe hypoxemia and saddleback fever. Author: Shankar PS, Anderson CL, Scott JH. Journal: Postgrad Med; 1981 Apr; 69(4):87-92. PubMed ID: 7010336. [Link]; page 376

  10. 48 H Horowitz 1998 Lancet 351 650; page 376

  11. 49 [Clinical-therapeutic considerations in a case of miliary tuberculosis in an indonesian girl] Author: Ajassa C, Angelici AM, Rendina E, Trinchieri V, Berardelli G, Bellagamba R, Catania N, Falciano M, Mascellino MT, Causo T. Journal: Riv Eur Sci Med Farmacol; 1993 May-Aug; 15(3-4):175-80. PubMed ID: 7761666. [Link]; page 376

  12. 50 Image of Roth spots courtesy of Prof J Trobe [Link]; page 376

  13. 51 Jeffrey Dukes 2003. Burning buried sunshine; human consumption of ancient solar energy. [Link]; page 377

  14. 52 Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response (2003) Board on Global Health (BGH), Institute of Medicine (IOM) pages 60, 79 and 83 [Link]; page 377

  15. 53 World sees an explosion in new infectious diseases By SETH BORENSTEIN Knight Ridder Newspapers [Link]; page 377

  16. 54 J Clin Virol 2003 Apr;26(3):265 Nipah virus outbreak in Malaysia. Chua KB [Link]; page 377

  17. 55; Origin and evolution of viruses: Escaped DNA/RNA sequences as evolutionary accelerators and natural biological weapons. Journal: Med Hypotheses; 2005 Aug 2; ():. PubMed ID: 16084025. [Link]; page 377

Diagnosing the tropical traveller

  1. 56 F Castelli 1993 Tr Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 87 394; page 378

  2. 57; page [Changing patterns of communicable diseases in Korea] Author: Lim HS. Journal: J Prev Med Pub Health; 2005 May; 38(2):117-24. PubMed ID: 16315747 [Link]; page 378

  3. 58 Baillieres Clin Rheumatol 1995 Feb;9(1):145 Viral infections: alpha-viral arthropathy. McGill P [Link]; page 378

  4. 59 J Clin Microbiol 2002 Jul;40(7):2323 Rapid detection and quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg viruses, Lassa virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Drosten C [Link]; page 378

  5. 60 DI Simpson 1995 Lancet 345 1252; page 378

  6. 61 Illness after International Travel; page Edward T. Ryan, M.D., Mary E. Wilson, M.D., and Kevin C. Kain, M.D. NEJM 2002 [Link]; page 379

  7. 62 Image of Isospora belli courtesy of Donald Duszynski [personal communication: 20-09-2005]; page 379

  8. 63 Unsopulated I belli: acknowledgent: Prof S Upton, by kind permission [Link]; page 379

  9. 64 Duszynski, D.W., W.D. Wilson, S.J. Upton, and N.D. Levine. 1999. Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in the Primates and the Scandentia. International Journal of Primatology 20 (5): 761-797. [no medline link]; page 379Gastroenteritis65 J Bartlett. The New Clostridium difficile “What Does It Mean? NEJM 2005 editorial [Link]; page 380

  10. 66 Human behaviour and the epidemiology of parasitic zoonoses. Author: Macpherson CN. Journal: Int J Parasitol; 2005 Oct; 35(11-12):1319-31. PubMed ID: 16102769. [Link]; page 380

67; A possible role of crows in the spread of diarrhoeal diseases in Aden. Author: al-Sallami S. Journal: J Egypt Public Health Assoc; 1991; 66(3-4):441-9. PubMed ID: 1791416. [Link]; page 380

  1. 68 [Norovirus infections in Germany] Author: Koch J, Schneider T, Stark K, Schreier E. Journal: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz; 2006 Mar; 49(3):296-309. PubMed ID: 16463050. [Link]; page 380

(footnote) Effect of nitazoxanide in diarrhea and enteritis caused by Cryptosporidium species. Author: Rossignol JF, Kabil SM, el-Gohary Y, Younis AM. Journal: Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2006 Mar; 4(3):320-4. PubMed ID: 16527695. [Link]; page 380

Immunization

  1. 69 J Med Virol. 2001 Dec;65(4):644-8. Amendola A. Influenza vaccination of HIV-1-positive and HIV-1-negative former intravenous drug users. [Link]; page 381

  2. 70 doh 2000; Communication ph6.3; page 382

Malaria

  1. 71 Antiprotozoal Agents By Prof. A.H. Chishti [Link]; page 382

  2. 72 Antiprotozoal Agents By Prof. A.H. Chishti [Link]; page 382

  3. 73 H Gilles 1991 Management of Severe & Complicated Malaria, WHO; page 382

  4. 74 N White 1993 Tr Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 87 436 & 1996 335 800; page 382

  5. 75 N Phu 1995 Tr R Soc Trop M Hy 89 200 We thank Professor Nick White for his help with this page; p564, and Cerebral Malaria, p808; page 382

  6. 76 Plasmodium ovale [no permission yet from CDC’s Division of Parasitic Diseases (DPD) dpdx@cdc.gov [Coatney GR, Collins WE, Warren M, Contacos The Primate Malarias. Bethesda: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare; 1971.]; page [Link]; page 383

  7. 77 Image of vivax gametocyte supplied by author [JML]; Field’s stain [author’s technique] x 1000 The reliability of the microscopic diagnosis of malaria in the field and in the laboratory. Author: Collier JA, Longmore JM. Journal: Ann Trop Med Parasitol; 1983 Apr; 77(2):113-7. PubMed ID: 6192774.; page 383

  8. 78 Image of Schner’s dots courtesy of Prof S Upton, Kansas University [Link]; page 383

  9. 79 Plasmodium malariae ring form by kind permission of Prof S Upton [Link]; page 383

  10. 80 Falciparum Gametocytes--by kind permission of Prof S Upton Kansas University [Link]; page 383

  11. 81 Image of Ronald Ross by kind permission of Prof S Upton of Kanas University [Link]; page 383

Malaria: treatment and prophylaxis

  1. 82 150mg chloroquine base = 250mg chloroquine phosphate (po) = 200mg chloroquine sulfate (iv).; page 384

  2. 83 Get expert help: tel 0151 7089393; page 384

  3. 84 Artemether-lumefantrine (six-dose regimen) for treating uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Author: Omari AA, Gamble C, Garner P. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (4):CD005564. PubMed ID: 16235412. [Link]; page 384

  4. 85 Introducing FACT Project Two Fixed-Dose Combination Therapies Artesunate/ Amodiaquine and Artesunate/Mefloquine [Link]; page 384

  5. 86 rtemether-lumefantrine (six-dose regimen) for treating uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Author: Omari A, Gamble C, Garner P, Omari A. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (4):CD005564. PubMed ID: 16235412. [Link]; page 384

  6. 87 NJ White 2006 Lancet 367 2075 [Link]; page 384

  7. 88 Atovaquone-proguanil for treating uncomplicated malaria. Author: Osei-Akoto A, Orton L, Owusu-Ofori S, Osei-Akoto A. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (4):CD004529. PubMed ID: 16235366. [Link]; page 384

  8. 89 P Duffy 2005 Lancet 366 1908 & Ronan Jambou 2005 Lancet 366 1960 [Link]; page 384

  9. 90 150mg chloroquine base = 250mg chloroquine phosphate (po) = 200mg chloroquine sulfate (iv).; page 384

  10. 91 phls 1997 Com Dis Rep Rev 7:R 137 & JB Lell 1998 Lancet 351 709; page 384

  11. 92 Link not available; page 384

  12. 93 Link not available; page 385

  13. 94 Link not available; page 385

  14. 95 1 J Sandford 2000 Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy, 91 & 96 isbn 0-933775-43-1; page 385

(footnote) Artesunate vs quinine for treatment of severe falciparum malaria: a randomized trial. N White Lancet 2005 366 717. Nickw@tropmedres.ac htt://www.thelancet.com; page 385Tuberculosis (TB)96 Predictors of incident tuberculosis among HIV-1-infected women in Tanzania. Author: Venkatesh PA, Bosch RJ, McIntosh K, Mugusi F, Msamanga G, Fawzi WW. Journal: Int J Tuberc Lung Dis; 2005 Oct; 9(10):1105-11. PubMed ID: 16229221. [Link]; page 386

  1. 97 Proportion of tuberculosis transmission that takes place in households in a high-incidence area. Author: Verver S, Warren RM, Munch Z, Richardson M, van der Spuy GD, Borgdorff MW, Behr MA, Beyers N, van Helden PD. Journal: Lancet; 2004 Jan 17; 363(9404):212-4. PubMed ID: 14738796.[Link]; page 386

  2. 98 The Lancet 2005; 365:1206-1209. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)74788-7 Can DOTS control multidrug-resistant tuberculosis? Marcos A Espinal [Link]; page 386

  3. 99 British Thoracic Society Guidelines on Chemotherapy and Management of TB in the UK 1998 Thorax 53:536-548; page 387

  4. 100 For an excellent review of prophylaxis against TB and other diseases in HIV patients, see JA Kovacs 2000 NEJM 342: 1416; page 387

  5. 101 British Thoracic Society Guidelines on Chemotherapy and Management of TB in the UK 1998 Thorax 53:536-548; page 387

  6. 102 Comparison of diagnostic criteria of tuberculous meningitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected children. Author: van der Weert EM, Hartgers NM, Schaaf HS, Eley BS, Pitcher RD, Wieselthaler NA, Laubscher R, Donald PR, Schoeman JF. Journal: Pediatr Infect Dis J; 2006 Jan; 25(1):65-9. PubMed ID: 16395106. [Link]; page 387

  7. 103 Tuberculous meningitis with multiple intracranial tuberculomas mimicking neurocysticercosis clinical and radiological findings. Author: Oncul O, Baylan O, Mutlu H, Cavuslu S, Doganci L. Journal: Jpn J Infect Dis; 2005 Dec; 58(6):387-9. PubMed ID: 16377875. [Link]; page 387

  8. 104 [ISONIAZID INDUCED NEUROPATHY: CONSIDER PREVENTION.] Journal: Rev Mal Respir; 2005 Nov 22; ():. PubMed ID: 16444133. [Link]; page 387

  9. 105 Effect of antituberculosis drug resistance on response to treatment and outcome in adults with tuberculous meningitis. Author: Thwaites GE, Lan NT, Dung NH, Quy HT, Oanh do TT, Thoa NT, Hien NQ, Thuc NT, Hai NN, Bang ND, Lan NN, Duc NH, Tuan VN, Hiep CH, Chau TT, Mai PP, Dung NT, Stepniewska K, White NJ, Hien TT, Farrar JJ. Journal: J Infect Dis; 2005 Jul 1; 192(1):79-88. PubMed ID: 15942897. [Link]; page 387

  10. 106 NEJM 351 1741 2004 & GAT Sanford 2006 p 88 [Link]; page 387

  11. 107 Clinical and radiological features of symptomatic central nervous system tuberculomas. Author: Unal A, Sutlas PN. Journal: Eur J Neurol; 2005 Oct; 12(10):797-804. PubMed ID: 16190918. [Link]; page 387

  12. 108 Management of intracranial pressure in tuberculous meningitis. Author: Murthy JM. Journal: Neurocrit Care; 2005; 2(3):306-12. PubMed ID: 16159082. [Link]; page 387

  13. 109 Link not available; page 387

  14. 110 Factors influencing the presentation and outcome of tuberculous meningitis in childhood. Author: Faella FS, Pagliano P, Attanasio V, Rossi M, Rescigno C, Scarano F, Conte M, Fusco U. Journal: In Vivo; 2006 Jan-Feb; 20(1):187-91. PubMed ID: 16433051. [Link]; page 387

  15. 111 See GAT Sanford 2006 page 137 www.sanfordguide.com; page 387

Herpes virus infection

  1. 112 Purpura fulminans in a child as a complication of chickenpox infection. Author: Campanelli A, Kaya G, Ozsahin AH, La Scala G, Jacquier C, Stauffer M, Boehlen F, de Moerloose P, Saurat JH. Journal: Dermatology; 2004; 208(3):262-4. PubMed ID: 15118384. [Link]; page 388

  2. 113 [Complications of chickenpox] Author: Arredondo JL, Mendoza E, Hern“ez M, Calder“n E. Journal: Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex; 1978 Jan-Feb; 35(1):177-7. PubMed ID: 619925. Abstract: [Link]; page 388

Infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever)

  1. 114 [Acute cerebellar ataxia associated with infectious mononucleosis--a case report and review of the literature] Author: Yabuki S, Kazahaya Y, Ikeda K. Journal: No To Shinkei; 1983 Apr; 35(4):337-42. PubMed ID: 6307327. [Link]; page 389

  2. 115 Bilateral facial nerve palsy associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection with a review of the literature. Author: Terada K, Niizuma T, Kosaka Y, Inoue M, Ogita S, Kataoka N. Journal: Scand J Infect Dis; 2004; 36(1):75-7. PubMed ID: 15000569. [Link]; page 389

  3. 116 Predictions and associations of fatigue syndromes and mood disorders that occur after infectious mononucleosis Peter D White,; page Janice M Thomas,; page Hillar O Kangro,; page William D A Bruce-Jones,; page et al. The Lancet. London: Dec 8, 2001.Vol.358, Iss. 9297;; page 1946 [Link]; page 389

  4. 117 A case of severe chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection with T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Author: Cho HS, Kim IS, Park HC, Ahn MJ, Lee YY, Park CK. Journal: Korean J Intern Med; 2004 Jun; 19(2):124-7. PubMed ID: 15366645 [Link]; page 389

  5. 118 Link not available; page 389

  6. 119 Fatal hepatitis during Epstein-Barr virus reactivation. Author: Cacopardo B, Nunnari G, Mughini MT, Tosto S, Benanti F, Nigro L. Journal: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci; 2003 Jul-Aug; 7(4):107-9. PubMed ID: 15068233. [Link]; page 389

  7. 120 Chronic interstitial lung disease with lung fibrosis in a girl: uncommon sequelae of Epstein-Barr virus infection. Author: Ankermann T, Claviez A, Wagner HJ, Krams M, Riedel F. Journal: Pediatr Pulmonol; 2003 Mar; 35(3):234-8. PubMed ID: 12567394. [Link]; page 389

  8. 121 Image of atypical lymphocytes in EBV infection, courtesy of Axel Schneider [Link]; page 389

  9. 122 Link not available; page 389

  10. 123 Gavin Spickett ID consulatant at Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle, Pulse 2005 vol 65 [sept 3] no 34, p51 [Link]; page 389

  11. 124; page Lancet. 1982 Feb 20;1(8269):455. Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting as infectious mononucleosis with a false positive monospot test. Hendry BM, Longmore JM. [Link]; page 389

  12. 125 Link not available; page 389

  13. 126 Epstein-Barr viral load assessment in immunocompetent patients with fulminant infectious mononucleosis. Author: van Laar JA, Buysse CM, Vossen AC, Hj“arsson B, van Den Berg B, van Lom K, Deinum J. Journal: Arch Intern Med; 2002 Apr 8; 162(7):837-9. PubMed ID: 11926861 [Link]; page 389

  14. 127 Severe thrombocytopenia as a complication of acute Epstein-Barr virus infection. Author: Likic R, Kuzmanic D. Journal: Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2004 Jan 31; 116(1-2):47-50. PubMed ID: 15030124.[Link]; page 389

  15. 128 Epstein-Barr virus-associated familial Hodgkin lymphoma: paediatric onset in three of five siblings. Author: Kamper PM, Kjeldsen E, Clausen N, Bendix K, Hamilton-Dutoit S, d’Amore F. Journal: Br J Haematol; 2005 Jun; 129(5):615-7. PubMed ID: 15916683 [Link]; page 389

  16. 129 [Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphomas in patients with inflammatory bowel disease] Author: Juffermans NP, Jager A, Kersten MJ, van Oers MH, Hommes DW. Journal: Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2005 Aug 13; 149(33):1859-63. PubMed ID: 16128185 [Link]; page 389

  17. 129 Link not available; page 389

  18. 130 Unusual evolution of an Epstein-Barr virus-associated leiomyosarcoma occurring after liver transplantation. Author: Brichard B, Smets F, Sokal E, Clapuyt P, Vermylen C, Cornu G, Rahier J, Otte JB. Journal: Pediatr Transplant; 2001 Oct; 5(5):365-9. PubMed ID: 11560757 [Link]; page 389

  19. 131 Glomerulonephritis in a patient with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. Author: Kano K, Yamada Y, Sato Y, Arisaka O, Ono Y, Ueda Y. Journal: Pediatr Nephrol; 2005 Jan; 20(1):89-92. PubMed ID: 15503175. [Link]; page 389

  20. 132 Virological and immunological characteristics of a 19-year-old Japanese female with fatal outcome with Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome. Author: Sato S, Kawashima H, Oshiro H, Hasegawa D, Kashiwagi Y, Takekuma K, Hoshika A. Journal: J Clin Virol; 2004 Nov; 31(3):235-8. PubMed ID: 15465418. [Link]; page 389

  21. 133 EBV associated hemophagocytic syndrome accompanied by central pontine myelinolysis. Author: Uehara E, Tasaka T, Matsuhashi Y, Fujita M, Tamura T, Kuwajima M, Nagai M, Ishida T. Journal: Leuk Lymphoma; 2002 Oct; 43(10):2047-50. PubMed ID: 12481907. [Link]; page 389Influenza; the common cold

  22. 134 J Millar 2000 bmj ii 736 [Link]; page 390

  23. 135 J Millar 2000 bmj ii 736 [Link]; page 390

  24. 136 Bonten M 2006 bMJ 332 248 Antibiotics in pandemic flu &: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitalized adults and children without known risk factors. Author: Gorak EJ, Yamada SM, Brown JD. Journal: Clin Infect Dis; 1999 Oct; 29(4):797-800. PubMed ID: 10589891[Link]; page 390

  25. 137 Manufacturer’s data (2000) & mist 1998 Lancet 352 1877; page 390

  26. 138 FDA considers Tamiflu safety in children. 18 November 2005; page [Link]; page 390

  27. 139 Jefferson T 2006; Antivirals for Influenza in healthy adults: systemic review. [Link]; page 390

  28. 140 Flu vaccination fact-sheet UK department of health 2005 [Link]; page 390

  29. 141 T Jefferson 2005 Efficacy and effectiveness of influenza vaccines in elderly people: a systematic review. Lancet 2005 366 1165 [Link]; page 390

  30. 142 Algorith for prescribing Oseltamivir for prophylaxis against influenza. DoH Feb 2006 after Emma Richardson at RT PCT [Link]; page 390

  31. 143 Effect of treatment with zinc gluconate or zinc acetate on experimental and natural colds. Author: Turner RB, Cetnarowski WE. Journal: Clin Infect Dis; 2000 Nov; 31(5):1202-8. PubMed ID: 11073753[Link]; page 390

  32. 144; Zinc gluconate lozenges for treating the common cold. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Author: Mossad SB, Macknin ML, Medendorp SV, Mason P. Journal: Ann Intern Med; 1996 Jul 15; 125(2):81-8. PubMed ID: 8678384 [Link]; page 390

  33. 145 KIEV, Dec 3 (Reuters); page [Link]; page 391

  34. 146 Use of masks by health-workers in flu pandemics: WHO; Nov 2005. [Link]; page 391

  35. 147 Image of influenza virus redrawn from Murphy, B.R. and Webster, R.G. (1996) Orthomyxoviruses. In: Fields Virology (Ed. B. N. Fields, K., D.M., Howley, P.M.) Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia. 1353-1445.[Link]; page 391

Toxoplasmosis; Cytomegalovirus (CMV)148 Antigenaemia and antibody response to Toxoplasma gondii in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Author: Malla N, Sengupta C, Dubey ML, Sud A, Dutta U. Journal: Br J Biomed Sci; 2005; 62(1):19-23. PubMed ID: 15816207 [Link]; page 392

  1. 149; page [Congenital toxoplasmosis: possibilities for laboratory diagnosis] Author: Cerm“v”, Pr“l P, Ryskov”. Journal: Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol; 2005 Apr; 54(2):75-7. PubMed ID: 16050546 [Link]; page 392

  2. 150 GATSanford 2000 page 90; page 392

  3. 151 GAT Sanford 2000 page 90; page 392

  4. 152 D Lowance nejm 1999 340 1462 [@10320384]; page 392

  5. 153 Image of toxoplama lifecycle redrawn from Fernando Monroy [Link]; page 393

  6. 154 J Flegr 1996 J Parasitology 113:49 [Link]; page 393

  7. 155 RE Holliman 1997 35:105 [Link]; page 393

  8. 156 Image of toxoplasma retinitis courtesy of Prof J Trobe [Link]; page 393

  9. 157 Image of CMV retinitis courtesy of Prof J Trobe [Link]; page 393

  10. 158 Image of congenital toxoplasmosis courtesy of Prof J Trobe [Link]; page 393

Viral hepatitis

  1. 159 ME Mailliard 2003 NEJM 348:848-850 [Link]?; page 394

  2. 160 H Yang 2002 NEJM 347:168-174 [Link]?; page 394

  3. 161 The HPA says 200,00 infections in England & Wales. Prof William Rosenberg says 466,000--but could be as high as 1 million. See Doctor 2006 4 April p 13 [no link]; page 394

  4. 162 E Jaeckel 2001 NEJM 345:1452; page [Link]?; page 394

  5. 163 MW Fried 2002 NEJM 347:975 [Link]?; page 394

  6. 164 Chronic hepatitis C in patients with HIV/AIDS: a new challenge in antiviral therapy. Journal: J Antimicrob Chemother; 2005 Nov 24; ():. PubMed ID: 16308419. [Link]; page 395Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)165 Relentless rise of Aids as HIV infections top 40m; Sam Lister [Link]; page 396

  7. 166 The incidence of new HIV infections in the UK was 4400 in 2001; this figure will rise as more infections are reported. See the full breakdown in the report link below:www.phls.org.uk/topics_az/hiv_and_sti/publications/hiv_annual_2002.pdf; page 396

  8. 167 HIV transmission among men who have sex with men through oral sex; V L Gilbart. Sex Transm Infect 2004;80:324; page [Link]; page 396

  9. 168 Oral sex may be important risk factor for HIV infection; Scott Gottlieb. BMJ 2000;320:400 ( 12 February ); page [Link]; page 396

  10. 169 The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved a new rapid HIV diagnostic test kit that provides results with 99.6 percent accuracy in as little as 20 minutes. [Link]; page 396

  11. 170 Wright AA 2006 NEJM 354 448 Home Testing for HIV; page [Link]; page 396

  12. 171 In one study in Ugands, the time to death was 6.9yrs for subtype D, vs 8.8yrs for type A [Link]; page 396

  13. 172 Sources of AIDS awareness among women in India. Author: Pallikadavath S, Sreedharan C, Stones RW. Journal: AIDS Care; 2006 Jan; 18(1):44-8. PubMed ID: 16282075. [Link]; page 396

  14. 173 AIDS activists take over Family Research Council to Protest Abstinence-Only Programs [Link]; page 396

  15. 174 Male Circumcision Thwarts HIV Infection. Jon Cohen. Science. Washington: Aug 5, 2005.Vol.309, Iss. 5736;; page 860, 1 pgs; page [Link]; page 396

  16. 175 Burden of diseases in poor resource countries: meeting the challenges of combating HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Author: Mhalu FS. Journal: Tanzan Health Res Bull; 2005 Sep; 7(3):179-84. PubMed ID: 16941945. [Link]; page 397

  17. 176 Brit. Thoracic Soc. advice 1992 bmj i 1231; page 397

  18. 177 E Ong 1992 bmj i 1567; page 397

  19. 178 The Lancet 2006; 367:944-945; page DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68387-6 Safety, effectiveness, and outcomes of concomitant use of highly active antiretroviral therapy with drugs for tuberculosis in resource-poor settings. Prof Anthony D Harries [Link]; page 397

  20. 179 The Lancet 2006; 367:944-945; page DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68387-6 Safety, effectiveness, and outcomes of concomitant use of highly active antiretroviral therapy with drugs for tuberculosis in resource-poor settings. Prof Anthony D Harries [Link]; page 397

  21. 180 ED Chan 2002 BMJ 325:1282-1286 [Link]; page 397

  22. 181 E Ong 1992 bmj i 1567; page 397

  23. 182 G Yamey 2003 BMJ 326:606 [Link]; page 397

  24. 183 P Brown 2000 BMJ 320:821 [Link]; page 397

  25. 184 M Iseman 1993 NEJM 329: 784. See also: British Thoracic Society Guidelines for TB Treatment: Thorax 1998 53 536-48; page 397

  26. 185 A Catanzaro and P Wenger 1995 Lancet 345 204 & 235; page 397

Complications of HIV infection

  1. 186 For an excellent review of prophylaxis against opportunistic infections in HIV, see JA Kovacs 2000 NEJM 342:1416 [Link]?; page 398

  2. 187 M Wafaa 2000 nejm 342 1085 [Link]; page 398

  3. 188 Effectiveness of twice-weekly pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine as primary prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with advanced HIV infection. Author: Sch“rmann D, Bergmann F, Albrecht H, Padberg J, W”nsche T, Gr”newald T, Sch“rmann M, Grobusch M, Vall“M, Ruf B, Suttorp N. Journal: Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis; 2002 May; 21(5):353-61. PubMed ID: 12072919. [Link]; page 398

  4. 189 JA Kovacs 2000 NEJM 324:1416 [Link]?; page 398

  5. 190 Hammer SM 2005 NEJM 353 1702 [Link]; page 399

  6. 191 Image of Pneumocystis carinii [fluorescent stain] x 400; courtesy of Subhash K. Mohan [Link]; page 399

  7. 192 Image of cryptococcus neoformans courtesy of Dr M McGinnis [Link]; page 399

  8. 193 Link not available; page 399

  9. 194 Link not available; page 399What every doctor should know about HIV

  10. 195 Internat. aids soc & uk 1997 Guidelines“see P Easterbrook 1997 bmj ii 557; page 400

  11. 196 Link not available; page 401

  12. 197 Link not available; page 401

  13. 198 Reservoirs, sanctuaries, and residual disease: the hiding spots of HIV-1.; page Pomerantz RJ. HIV Clin Trials; 4:137-43. [Link]; page 401

  14. 199 NEJM 2004M Greenberg. Resistence to enfuvirtide; page [Link]; page 401

  15. 200 The Lancet 2005; 366:549-555. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67098-5. Depletion of latent HIV-1 infection in vivo: a proof-of-concept study. Ginger Lehrman [Link]; page 401

  16. 201 Link not available; page 401

  17. 202 Link not available; page 401

  18. 203 Total lymphocyte counts and ART in resource-limited settings. D Moore 2006 Lancet 366 1831.[Link]; page 401

(footnote) Current issues in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 infection. Author: Newell ML. Journal: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg; 2006 Jan; 100(1):1-5. PubMed ID: 16214193 [Link]; page 400

Antiretroviral agents

  1. 204 Link not available; page 402

  2. 205 Tenofovir DF, emtricitabine, and efavirenz vs. zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz for HIV. Author: Gallant JE, DeJesus E, Arribas JR, Pozniak AL, Gazzard B, Campo RE, Lu B, McColl D, Chuck S, Enejosa J, Toole JJ, Cheng AK, Study 934 Group . Journal: N Engl J Med; 2006 Jan 19; 354(3):251-60. PubMed ID: 16421366. [Link]; page 402

  3. 206 Guidelines on when to start HIV therapy are constantly changing .For latest information, see British HIV Association (BHIVA) guidelines. www.bhiva.org; page 402

  4. 207 Recommended therapy is constantly changing. For the latest recommended combinations of antiretrovirals, see the latest British National Fomulary www.bnf.org; page 402

  5. 208 Emtricitabine, a New Antiretroviral Agent with Activity against HIV and Hepatitis B Virus. Author: Saag MS. Journal: Clin Infect Dis; 2006 Jan 1; 42(1):126-31. PubMed ID: 16323102. [Link]; page 402

  6. 209 S Walmsley 2002 NEJM 346:2039 [Link]?; page 402

  7. 210 S Piscitelli 2001 NEJM 344: 984 [Link]?; page 402

  8. 211 RJC Gilson 2001 BMJ 322:1160-1164 [Link]; page 402

  9. 212 Online HIV textbook: HIV medicine; Christian Hoffmann et al. 2005 [Link]; page 403

  10. 213 Treatment strategies for highly treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients. Author: Luber AD. Journal: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther; 2005 Oct; 3(5):815-23. PubMed ID: 16207173. [Link]; page 403

  11. 214 Simplification therapy with once-daily didanosine, tenofovir and efavirenz in HIV-1-infected adults with viral suppression receiving a more complex antiretroviral regimen: final results of the EFADITE trial. Author: Barrios A, Negredo E, Domingo P, Estrada V, Labarga P, Asensi V, Morales D, Santos J, Clotet B, Soriano V, EFADITE Study Group . Journal: Antivir Ther; 2005; 10(7):825-32. PubMed ID: 16312178. [Link]; page 403

  12. 215 Lancet 2005; Maintaining anti-AIDS commitment post ‘3 by 5’. Nov 26 366 205 [Link]; page 403

  13. 216 BBC item: Kenya struggles to combat HIV [Link]; page 403

  14. 217 Lancet 2005 p 891 &: A prospective survey of the outcome of pregnancy in a rural area of the Gambia. Author: Greenwood AM, Greenwood BM, Bradley AK, Williams K, Shenton FC, Tulloch S, Bypass P, Oldfield FS. Journal: Bull World Health Organ; 1987; 65(5):635-43. PubMed ID: 3501343[Link]; page 403

Sexually transmitted infections/diseases (STI/STD)

  1. 218 Health protection agency [Link]; page 404

  2. 219 D Scholes 1996 NEJM 334:1362; page 404

  3. 220 Link not available; page 404

  4. 221 Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis: An emerging sexually transmitted disease in HIV-positive men in the Netherlands. Author: Perenboom RM. Journal: Drugs Today (Barc); 2006 Mar; 42 Suppl A():43-5. PubMed ID: 16683043. [Link]; page 404

  5. 222 Link not available; page 405

  6. 223 Health Protection Agency [Link]; page 405

  7. 224 Final draft review 2 (Chlamydial infection screening) [Link]; page 405

Vaginal discharge and urethritis

  1. 225 Image of Trichomonas vaginalis courtesy of Prof S Upton, Kansas University [Link]; page 406

  2. 226 An Atlas of Bedside Microscopy; JM Longmore RGGP; page [Link]; page 406

  3. 227 Ciprofloxacin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in England and Wales in 2002. Author: Fenton KA, Ison C, Johnson AP, Rudd E, Soltani M, Martin I, Nichols T, Livermore DM, GRASP collaboration . Journal: Lancet; 2003 May 31; 361(9372):1867-9. PubMed ID: 12788575. [Link]; page 407

Miscellaneous Gram positive material

  1. 228 One study in Chicargo fount time in hospital increased by 3-fold (to 14.3 days); death rate 11% [No Link: LT 9/8/2005 20]; page 408

  2. 229 Link not available; page 408

  3. 230 Image of streptococcal lymphangitis in a diabetic patient courtesy of Prof David Handley [Link]; page 408

  4. 231 Supplied by Prof RL Vollum to Churchill, and thence USA, thence Iraq [batch 14578] [No link--see The Times for Aug 9th 2005 p

  5. 19 col 1]; page 409

  6. 232 S Antoniu 2000 Lancet 356 664; page 409

  7. 233 S Tabaqchali 1997 Lancet 350 1644; page 409

  8. 234 Dose not in bnf, see N Beeching Infectious Diseases 1994 Wolfe; page 409

  9. 235 Increased reports of suspected cases of wound botulism among injecting drug users during 2004. Current Issue: Volume 15 Number 27 Published on: 7 July 2005 [Link]; page 409

  10. 236 F Charlton 1994 bmj i 1060; page 409

(footnote) S Chang 2003 NEJM 348 1342 [?no link]; page 408Miscellaneous gram negative bacteria 237; Changes in antibiotic resistance of the most common Gram-negative bacteria isolated in intensive care units. Author: Makedou KG, Tsiakiri EP, Bisiklis AG, Chatzidimitriou M, Halvantzis AA, Ntoutsou K, Alexiou-Daniel S. Journal: J Hosp Infect; 2005 Jul; 60(3):245-8. PubMed ID: 15890431 [Link]; page 410

  1. 238 Link not available; page 410

  2. 239 D Dennis 1994 bmj ii 893; page 410

  3. 240 G Luzzi 1993 Tr Roy Soc Trop Med Hy 87 138; page 410

  4. 241 GAT(Sanford) 2003 and PIDJ (1998) 17:447; page 410

  5. 242 Resurgence of pertussis in Europe. Author: Celentano LP, Massari M, Paramatti D, Salmaso S, Tozzi AE, EUVAC-NET Group . Journal: Pediatr Infect Dis J; 2005 Sep; 24(9):761-5. PubMed ID: 16148840. [Link]; page 410

  6. 243 See FE Udwadia 2003 in Oxford Textbook of Medicine (4th Ed), OUP, p545; page 411

Tetanus

  1. 244 doh 1996; the 65-yr booster is not doh advice, but is reckoned cost-effective ($4527/life saved vs $8000/life saved for hypertension screening“C Bowman 1996 Lancet 348 1664; this regimen may still be inadequate for some“R Sehgal 1997 Lancet 349 573); page 412

  2. 245 For an excellent review of typhoid fever, see CM Parry 2002 NEJM 347:1770 [Link]?; page 412

  3. 246 Image of opisthotonus in tetanus. Courtesy of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Copyright-free [Link]; page 413

Enteric fever; Bacillary dysentery; Cholera

  1. 247 G Rabbani 2000 nejm 342 345 & Cholera Group 1993 Lancet 342 387 & S Gore 1992 bmj i 287 Pre-cooked, pre-packaged hydrolysed rice-based fluid is available.; page 414

  2. 248 See Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy (2003) p12; page 414

  3. 249 M Levine 1997 Lancet 349 220, 231; page 414

  4. 250 WHO epidemiological data on Leprosy [Link]; page 414

  5. 251 Secret of ancient Athens plague is being unraveled [Link]; page 415

  6. 252 Pericles oration--Thucydides; page [Link]; page 415

(footnote) Dulce et decorum est [Link]; page 415

(footnote) J Snow 1854 Med Times Gaz 9 321, quoted by H Brody 2000 Lancet 356 64 [Link]; page 415

(footnote) R Cooter 2006 Lancet 367 1648 & The Medical Detective: John Snow and the Mystery of Cholera, Sandra Hempel, Granta Books, 2006. [Link]; page 415

Leprosy

  1. 253 K Meeran 1989 bmj i 364; page 416

  2. 254 mf Waters 1993 Tr Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 87 500; page 416

  3. 255 D Lockwood 2002 BMJ 324:1516; page [Link]; page 416

  4. 256 DermRounds [Link]; page 417

Spirochaetes

  1. 257 For a review of Lyme disease, see AC Steere 2001 NEJM 345:115; page 418

  2. 258 DA Warrell ‘Other borrelia infections’ in Oxford Textbook of Medicine, 4th Ed OUP 2002www.oup.co.uk; page 418

  3. 259 Image of T pallidum courtesy of Prof Steven R. Spilatro; Ohio [Link]; page 419

  4. 260 2004 figures for STI: [Link] [Link]; page 419

  5. 261 The re-emergence of syphilis in the United Kingdom: the new epidemic phases. Author: Simms I, Fenton KA, Ashton M, Turner KM, Crawley-Boevey EE, Gorton R, Thomas DR, Lynch A, Winter A, Fisher MJ, Lighton L, Maguire HC, Solomou M. Journal: Sex Transm Dis; 2005 Apr; 32(4):220-6. PubMed ID: 15788919. [Link]; page 419

  6. 262 No link available; page 419

  7. 263 Nodular secondary syphilis [Link]; page 419Poliomyelitis; Rabies; Viral haemorrhagic (and related) fevers

  8. 264 No link available; page 420

  9. 265 No link available; page 420

  10. 266 No link available; page 420

  11. 267 No link available; page 420

  12. 268 No link available; page 421

  13. 269 No link available; page 421

  14. 270 No link available; page 421

  15. 271 No link available; page 421

  16. 272 No link available; page 421

  17. 274 No link available; page 421

Arthropod-borne bacteria

  1. 274 No link available; page 421

  2. 275 No link available; page 422

  3. 276 No link available; page 422

  4. 277 No link available; page 423

  5. 278 No link available; page 423

  6. 279 No link available; page 423

  7. 280 No link available; page 423

  8. 281 No link available; page 423

  9. 282 No link available; page 423

  10. 283 No link available; page 423

  11. 284 No link available; page 423

  12. 285 No link available; page 423

Some gastrointestinal protozoa

  1. 286 No link available; page 424

  2. 287 No link available; page 424

  3. 288 No link available; page 424

  4. 289 No link available; page 425

  5. 290 No link available; page 425

  6. 291 No link available; page 425

Trypansomiasis

  1. 292 No link available; page 426

  2. 293 No link available; page 426

  3. 294 No link available; page 426

  4. 295 Chemotherapy of trypanosomiases and leishmaniasis. Author: Croft SL, Barrett MP, Urbina JA. Journal: Trends Parasitol; 2005 Nov; 21(11):508-12. PubMed ID: 16150644 [Link]; page 426

  5. 296 No link available; page 426

  6. 297 A Stich ‘Human African Trypnosomiasis’ in Oxford Textbook of Medicine, 4th Ed, OUP 2002www.oup.co.uk; page 426

Leishmaniasis

  1. 298 L. donovani image by kind permission of Prof S Upton of Kansas University; page [Link]; page 427

  2. 299 No link available; page 427

  3. 300 No link available; page 427

  4. 301 D Sacks 1995 Lancet 345 959; page 427

  5. 302 S Sundar 1998 BMJ i 563 4 J Rosenblatt 1999 Mayo Clin Proc 74 1161 [@10560606]; page 427

  6. 303 GATSandford 2000 98 & S Teklemariam 1994 Tr Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 88 334; page 427

  7. 304 GATSandford 2000 98 & S Teklemariam 1994 Tr Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 88 334; page 427

  8. 305 J Rosenblatt 1999 Mayo Clin Proc 74 1161 [@10560606]; page 427

  9. 306 Treatment is with intravenous voriconazole (two doses of 6 mg per kilogram of body weight on day 1, then 4 mg per kilogram twice daily for at least seven days) followed by 200 mg orally twice daily. See; page R Herbrecht 2002 NEJM 347:408-415 [Link]?; page 427

(footnote) Atypical American visceral leishmaniasis caused by disseminated Leishmania amazonensis infection presenting with hepatitis and adenopathy. Author: Aleixo JA, Nascimento ET, Monteiro GR, Fernandes MZ, Ramos AM, Wilson ME, Pearson RD, Jeronimo SM. Journal: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg; 2006 Jan; 100(1):79-82. PubMed ID: 16198385. [Link]; page 427Fungi

  1. 307 No link available; page 428

  2. 308 No link available; page 428

  3. 309 Aspergillus brain abscess in a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia successfully treated with voriconazole. Author: Wandroo F, Stableforth P, Hasan Y. Journal: Clin Lab Haematol; 2006 Apr; 28(2):130-3. PubMed ID: 16630219. [Link]; page 428

  4. 310 J Lipman 1997 bmj i 266; page 428

  5. 311 No link available; page 428

  6. 312 No link available; page 429

  7. 313 No link available; page 429

  8. 314 No link available; page 429

  9. 315 No link available; page 429

  10. 316 No link available; page 429

  11. 317 No link available; page 429

  12. 318 No link available; page 429

  13. 319 No link available; page 429

  14. 320 No link available; page 429

  15. 321 No link available; page 429

Nematodes (round worms)

  1. 322 No link available; page 430

  2. 323 No link available; page 430

  3. 324 Image of Ascaris lumbricoides worm kindly supplied by prof S Upton of Kansas University. The worm measured nearly 18 cm (7 inches) in length; and is a male, as it has a hooked tail.; page [Link]; page 430

  4. 325 No link available; page 43027

  5. 326 Dracunculiasis eradication: the final inch. Author: Hopkins DR, Ruiz-Tiben E, Downs P, Withers PC, Maguire JH. Journal: Am J Trop Med Hyg; 2005 Oct; 73(4):669-75. PubMed ID: 16222007. [Link]; page 430

  6. 327 No link available; page 431

  7. 328 P Sapak 2000 P N G Med J 43:213 (Medline 11939303); page 431

  8. 329 No link available; page 427Cestodes (tapeworms)

  9. 330 A trial of antiparasitic treatment to reduce the rate of seizures due to cerebral cysticercosis. Author: Garcia HH, Pretell EJ, Gilman RH, Martinez SM, Moulton LH, Del Brutto OH, Herrera G, Evans CA, Gonzalez AE, Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2004 Jan 15; 350(3):249-58. PubMed ID: 14724304. [Link]; page 432

  10. 331 No link available; page 432

  11. 332 Image of entire hydatid worm (Echinococcus) by kind permission of Prof S Upton of Kansas University. [Link]; page 432

  12. 333 No link available; page 432

Trematodes (flukes)(footnote) Sotelo 2003 BMJ 326 511 Neurocysticercosis. Eradication of cysticercosis is an attainable goal [Link]; page 432 334 Image of S mansoni male on female, mating, and eggs of S. mansoni (sublateral spine) and S. haematobium (terminal spine) by kind permission of Prof S Upton of Kansas University [Link]; page 433

  1. 335 Artemether as adjuvant therapy to praziquantel in murine Egyptian schistosomiasis mansoni. Author: Mahmoud MR, Botros SS. Journal: J Parasitol; 2005 Feb; 91(1):175-8. PubMed ID: 15856895.[Link]; page 433

  2. 336 Clonorchis sinensis. Permission from; page Pro Upton for all eds [Link]; page 433

Exotic infections

  1. 337 eMedicine Mycobacterium marinum infection of the skin 2005 [Link]; page 434

  2. 338 Pasteurella multocida pneumonia in an adolescent with duchenne’s muscular dystrophy following exposure to his helper dog; page Fida Bacha,; page Joseph B Domachowske. Clinical Pediatrics. Glen Head: Mar 2001.Vol.40, Iss. 3;; page 159, 3 pgs; page [Link]; page 434

  3. 339 Riley PL, Chomel BB. Hedgehog zoonoses Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2005 Jan[Link]; page 434

  4. 340 Pasteurella multocida respiratory infection: An important cat-associated zoonosis Ryland P Byrd Jr,; page Thomas M Roy. Archives of Internal Medicine. Chicago: May 26, 2003.Vol.163, Iss. 10; 1239[Link]; page 435

  5. 341 Pasteurella multocida meningitis: case report and review of the literature.; page Author: O’Neill E, Moloney A, Hickey M.; page Journal: J Infect; 2005 May; 50(4):344-5. PubMed ID: 15845433. [Link]; page 435

  6. 342 Cutaneous protothecosis: Report of the second Brazilian case; page Ivonise Follador,; page Achillea Bittencourt,; page Fernanda Duran,; page Maria Das Gracas Araujo. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo. Sao Paulo: Sep/Oct 2001.Vol.43, Iss. 5;; page 287, 4 pgs; page[Link]; page 435

  7. 343 eMedicine 2004-5 [Link]; page 435

  8. 344 Rothia dentocariosa, endocarditis and mycotic aneurysms: case report and review of the literature. Author: Boudewijns M, Magerman K, Verhaegen J, Debrock G, Peetermans WE, Donkersloot P, Mewis A, Peeters V, Rummens JL, Cartuyvels R. Journal: Clin Microbiol Infect; 2003 Mar; 9(3):222-9. PubMed ID: 12667255 [Link]; page 435

  9. 345 A Man With a Reddish Stained Washcloth Kaare Weismann,; page Anne-Grethe Poulsen,; page Alice-Friis M“ller,; page Takasi Kobayashi. Archives of Dermatology. Chicago: Jun 2005.Vol.141, Iss. 6;; page 795; page [Link]; page 435

Chapter 11: Neurology

Neurology

  1. 1 Images redrawn from \“Mapping the mind\” Rita Carter, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1998 [Link]; page 436

The chief questions of bedside neurology

2; Breathing control in neurological diseases. Author: Nogues MA, Roncoroni AJ, Benarroch E. Journal: Clin Auton Res; 2002 Dec; 12(6):440-9. PubMed ID: 12598948 &: Prof J Feldman 2005 Nature Neuroscience [Link]; page 438

3; Autism Linked To Poor Communication Between Brain Areas. G Bird, 2006 Neuroimage [Link]; page 438

  1. 4 Neurological evaluations [Link]; page 439

  2. 5 Orthopaedics [Link]; page 439

Cerebral artery territories

  1. 6 Image of middle cerebral artery [MCA]aneurysm in a post-mortem specimen’ courtesy of Danil Hammoundi; page [Link]; page 440

  2. 7 Image of CT of posterior cerebral artery inface courtest of Prof J Trobe. [Link]; page 441

Drugs and the nervous system

  1. 8 Newer antidepressants [Link]; page 442

  2. 9 Biochemical Pharmacology of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons. 2000 Neuropsychopharmacology [Link]; page 442

  3. 10 Augmentation of antidepressant therapy with 5-HT autoreceptor antagonists: receptor autoradiographic studies of pindolol [Link]; page 442

  4. 11 Mol Psychiatry 1998 Mar;3(2):135-40 Mol Psychiatry. 1998 Mar;3(2):101-2. A new framework for investigating antipsychotic action in humans: lessons from PET imaging. Kapur S. [Link]; page 442

  5. 12 Gambling on dopamine Peter Shizgal,; page Andreas Arvanitogiannis. Science. Washington: Mar 21, 2003.Vol.299, Iss. 5614;; page pg. 1856, 3 pgs [Link]; page 443

  6. 13 Acamprosate for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Author: Boothby LA, Doering PL. Journal: Clin Ther; 2005 Jun; 27(6):695-714. PubMed ID: 16117977 [Link]; page 443

  7. 14 No link available; page 443

(footnote) Oral topiramate for treatment of alcohol dependence: a randomised controlled trial. Author: Johnson BA, Ait-Daoud N, Bowden CL, DiClemente CC, Roache JD, Lawson K, Javors MA, Ma JZ. Journal: Lancet; 2003 May 17; 361(9370):1677-85. PubMed ID: 12767733. [Link]; page 443

Testing peripheral nerves

  1. 15 J Hand Surg [Am] 1980 Nov;5(6):560-5 Crossed fingers and other tests of ulnar nerve motor function. Earle AS [Link]; page 444

  2. 16 J Hand Surg [Br] 1998 Apr;23(2):240-1 Finger flexion sign for ulnar neuropathy. Tsujino A [Link]; page 444

  3. 17 Anatomy lesson [Link]; page 445

Dermatomes

  1. 18 Neuroanatomy lessons: Weakness; Myopathy, Anterior horn cell disease, Neuropathies et al [Link]; page 446

Headache

  1. 19 BMJ ed A revised classification of headache disorders. BMJ; page 2004;328:119-120 (17 January)[Link]; page 448

  2. 20 Personal histories of cluster headache [Link]; page 449

  3. 21 BASH guideline for giving O

  4. 2 in cluster headache [Link]; page 449

22; [Dental trigeminal neuralgia] Author: J“rgens J. Journal: Schmerz; 1998 Dec 9; 12(6):411-3. PubMed ID: 12799956. [Link]; page 449

23; The importance of routine magnetic resonance imaging in trigeminal neuralgia diagnosis. Author: Goh BT, Poon CY, Peck RH. Journal: Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2001 Oct; 92(4):424-9. PubMed ID: 11598578 [Link]; page 449

  1. 24 Trigeminal neuralgia associated with achondroplasia. Case report with literature review. Author: Takada Y, Morimoto T, Sugawara T, Ohno K. Journal: Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2001 Nov; 143(11):1173-6. PubMed ID: 11731870 [Link]; page 449

25; The importance of routine magnetic resonance imaging in trigeminal neuralgia diagnosis. Author: Goh BT, Poon CY, Peck RH. Journal: Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2001 Oct; 92(4):424-9. PubMed ID: 11598578 [Link]; page 449

Migraine

  1. 26 Headache. 2003 Jul-Aug;43(7):704 2003 Wolff Award: Possible parasympathetic contributions to peripheral and central sensitization during migraine--Yarnitsky D--and; page [Link] [Link]; page 450

  2. 27 P Goadsby NEJM 2002 346 257 [?no link]; page 450

  3. 28 No link available; page 450

  4. 29 No link available; page 450

30; page Arch Neurol. 2004 Apr;61(4):490-5. Topiramate in migraine prevention: results of a large controlled trial. Silberstein SD [Link]; page 450

  1. 31 M Dib 2003 Headache 43 299 [no link?]; page 450

  2. 32 No link available; page 450

33; page Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Rizatriptan and Sumatriptan versus Cafergot((R)) in the Acute Treatment of Migraine. Author: Zhang L, Hay JW. Journal: CNS Drugs; 2005; 19(7):635-42. PubMed ID: 15984898. [Link]; page 450

  1. 34 Serial MRI in a case of familial hemiplegic migraine. Author: Butteriss DJ, Ramesh V, Birchall D. Journal: Neuroradiology; 2003 May; 45(5):300-3. PubMed ID: 12669159 [Link]; page 451

  2. 35 Exp Brain Res 2002 Jul;145(2):177-81 Modulation of visual cortical excitability in migraine with aura: effects of 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Brighina F [Link]; page 451

  3. 36 Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo 2002 Nov-Dec;57(6):293-8 New migraine preventive options: an update with pathophysiological considerations. Bigal ME [Link]; page 451

  4. 37 The Headache of SAH responds to sumatriptan. Author: Rosenberg JH, Silberstein SD. Journal: Headache; 2005 May; 45(5):597-8. PubMed ID: 15953279 [Link]; page 451

  5. 38 Clinical holistic medicine: the patient with multiple diseases. Author: Ventegodt S, Merrick J. Journal: ScientificWorldJournal; 2005 Apr 12; 5():324-39. PubMed ID: 15962199. [Link]; page 451

  6. 39 J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1998 Oct;21(8):511-9 The efficacy of spinal manipulation, amitriptyline and the combination of both therapies for the prophylaxis of migraine headache. Nelson CF [Link]; page 451

  7. 40 CNS Drugs 2002;16(9):611-34 New and emerging prophylactic agents for migraine. Krymchantowski AV [Link]; page 451

  8. 41 No link available; page 451

  9. 42 A high incidence of migraine with aura among morbidly obese women. Author: Horev A, Wirguin I, Lantsberg L, Ifergane G. Journal: Headache; 2005 Jul; 45(7):936-8. PubMed ID: 15985113. [Link]; page 451

  10. 43 Migraine during pregnancy: options for therapy. Author: Fox AW, Diamond ML, Spierings EL. Journal: CNS Drugs; 2005; 19(6):465-81. PubMed ID: 15962998 [Link]; page 451

(footnote) Comparative aspects of triptans in treating migraine. Author: Adelman JU, Lewit EJ. Journal: Clin Cornerstone; 2001; 4(3):53-64. PubMed ID: 12739316 [Link]; page 450

(footnote) Almotriptan in migraine patients who respond poorly to oral sumatriptan: a double-blind, randomized trial. Author: Diener HC, Gendolla A, Gebert I, Beneke M. Journal: Headache; 2005 Jul; 45(7):874-82. PubMed ID: 15985104 [Link]; page 450~Blackouts (footnote) Body surface distribution and response to drugs of ST segment elevation in Brugada syndrome: clinical implication of eighty-seven-lead body surface potential mapping and its application to twelve-lead electrocardiograms. Author: Shimizu W, Matsuo K, Takagi M, Tanabe Y, Aiba T, Taguchi A, Suyama K, Kurita T, Aihara N, Kamakura S. Journal: J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol; 2000 Apr; 11(4):396-404. PubMed ID: 10809492 [Link]; page 452

(footnote) Tilt test for the evaluation of syncope of unknown origin] Author: Muratore C, Rabinovich R, Valentino M, Baranchuk A, Liprandi AS. Journal: Medicina (B Aires); 1997; 57(2):139-42. PubMed ID: 9532822. [Link]; page 452

Diziness and vertigo

  1. 44 Case 72 Cerebella-pontine angle tumours [Link]; page 454

Hearing lossNo links

Tinnitis

  1. 45 Long-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients with chronic tinnitus. Author: Kleinjung T, Eichhammer P, Langguth B, Jacob P, Marienhagen J, Hajak G, Wolf SR, Strutz J. Journal: Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2005 Apr; 132(4):566-9. PubMed ID: 15806046 [Link]; page 456

  2. 46 Otolaryngol Pol. 2002;56(2):213.Tinnitus in systemic diseases--Nowak K [Link]; page 456

47; page Lancet. 2003 Jul 26;362(9380):292 Tinnitus after cycling--Lanczik O [Link]; page 456

  1. 48 No link available; page 456

  2. 49 J Otolaryngol. 2001 Oct;30(5):300 Efficacy of amitriptyline in the treatment of subjective tinnitus. Bayar N [Link]; page 456

50; page Arch Intern Med. 1993 Oct 11;153(19):2251-9 A randomized trial of nortriptyline for severe chronic tinnitus. Effects on depression, disability, and tinnitus symptoms--Sullivan M [Link]; page 456

  1. 51 Long-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients with chronic tinnitus. Author: Kleinjung T, Eichhammer P, Langguth B, Jacob P, Marienhagen J, Hajak G, Wolf SR, Strutz J. Journal: Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2005 Apr; 132(4):566-9. PubMed ID: 15806046 [Link]; page 458

Weak legs and cord compression

  1. 52 Eur Radiol. 1999;9(7):1252 Spinal cord tumors--Baleriaux DL [Link]; page 459

  2. 53 Surg Neurol. 1988 Sep;30(3):220 Metastases of the spinal cord from remote neoplasms. Study of five cases--Tognetti F [Link]; page 459

54; page Br J Neurosurg. 2002 Jun;16(3):296-300 Schistosoma haematobium presenting as an intrinsic conus tumour--Samandouras G [Link]; page 459

  1. 55 Dev Med Child Neurol. 1977 Feb;19(1):54 Bizarre posture and movement disorder with third ventricle astrocytoma--Hanson PA [Link]; page 459

56; page Neurol. 1991 Jun;238(3):140 How to identify psychogenic disorders of stance and gait. A video study in 37 patients--Lempert T [Link]; page 459

Abnormal involuntary movements (dyskinesia)57 Movement disorders: classifications. Author: Klein C. Journal: J Inherit Metab Dis; 2005; 28(3):425-39. PubMed ID: 15868475 [Link]; page 460

  1. 58 J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1999 Nov;67(5):646-50. Re-emergent tremor of Parkinson’s disease. Jankovic J [Link]; page 460

  2. 59 No link available; page 460

  3. 60 Tardive Dystonia. Journal: Curr Treat Options Neurol; 2005 May; 7(3):231-236. PubMed ID: 15814076 [Link]; page 460

61; page Beneficial effect of donepezil in the treatment of elderly patients with tardive movement disorders. Author: Bergman J, Dwolatzky T, Brettholz I, Lerner V. Journal: J Clin Psychiatry; 2005 Jan; 66(1):107-10. PubMed ID: 15669896 [Link]; page 460

  1. 62 Tetrabenazine treatment in movement disorders. Author: Paleacu D, Giladi N, Moore O, Stern A, Honigman S, Badarny S. Journal: Clin Neuropharmacol; 2004 Sep-Oct; 27(5):230-3. PubMed ID: 15602104 [Link]; page 460

  2. 63 Patient’s forums [Link]; page 461

  3. 64 Microelectrode-guided implantation of deep brain stimulators into the globus pallidus internus for dystonia: techniques, electrode locations, and outcomes. Author: Starr PA, Turner RS, Rau G, Lindsey N, Heath S, Volz M, Ostrem JL, Marks WJ. Journal: Neurosurg Focus; 2004 Jul 15; 17(1):E4. PubMed ID: 15264773. [Link]; page 461

  4. 65 Ritual Relieved Axial Dystonia Triggered by Gaze-Evoked Amaurosis. American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 314(5):348-350, November 1997. JACOME, DANIEL E. MD [Link]; page 461

  5. 66 No link available; page 461

  6. 67 Scott Adams, Drawing the Line [Link]; page 461

  7. 68 Specific muscle EMG biofeedback for hand dystonia. Author: Deepak KK, Behari M. Journal: Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback; 1999 Dec; 24(4):267-80. PubMed ID: 10789003 [Link]; page 461

  8. 69 J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001;71:413-41 Obsessive-compulsive characteristics in patients with writer’s cramp [Link]; page 461

70; page Modulation of electromyographic activity of wrist flexor and extensor muscles in patients with writer’s cramp. Author: Valls-Sol“, Hallett M. Journal: Mov Disord; 1995 Nov; 10(6):741-8. PubMed ID: 8749993. [Link]; page 461

71; page Movement-related electroencephalographic desynchronization in patients with hand cramps: evidence for motor cortical involvement in focal dystonia. Author: Toro C, Deuschl G, Hallett M. Journal: Ann Neurol; 2000 Apr; 47(4):456-61. PubMed ID: 10762156 [Link]; page 461

  1. 72 Specific muscle EMG biofeedback for hand dystonia. Author: Deepak KK, Behari M. Journal: Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback; 1999 Dec; 24(4):267-80. PubMed ID: 10789003. [Link]; page 461

(footnote) Paracelcus [Link]; page 460Stroke: clinical features and investigations

  1. 73 British Heart protection study, Lancet 2003 361 2005 [Link]; page 462

  2. 74 No link available; page 462

  3. 75 No link available; page 462

(footnote) The link between carotid artery disease and ischemic stroke may be partially attributable to autonomic dysfunction and failure of cerebrovascular autoregulation triggered by Darwinian maladaptation of the carotid baroreceptors and chemoreceptors. Author: Doux JD, Yun AJ. Journal: Med Hypotheses; 2006; 66(1):176-81. PubMed ID: 16274832. [Link]; page 462

(footnote) Carotid endarterectomy--an evidence-based review: report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Author: Chaturvedi S, Bruno A, Feasby T, Holloway R, Benavente O, Cohen SN, Cote R, Hess D, Saver J, Spence JD, Stern B, Wilterdink J, Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology . Journal: Neurology; 2005 Sep 27; 65(6):794-801. PubMed ID: 16186516. [Link]; page 462

Stroke: management and prevention

  1. 76 No link available; page 463

  2. 77 Prevention of thromboembolic events in atrial fibrillation. Author: Koefoed BG, Gull“v AL, Petersen P. Journal: Thromb Haemost; 1997 Jul; 78(1):377-81. PubMed ID: 9198182 [Link]; page 463

  3. 78 Stroke unit versus neurology ward--a before and after study. Author: Krespi Y, Gurol ME, Coban O, Tuncay R, Bahar S. Journal: J Neurol; 2003 Nov; 250(11):1363-9. PubMed ID: 14648154. [Link]; page 464

  4. 79 No link available; page 464

  5. 80 No link available; page 464

  6. 81 No link available; page 464

  7. 82 NATIONAL CLINICAL GUIDELINES FOR STROKE; RCP 2004 [Link]; page 464

  8. 83 Nice evidence is based on a single flawed and underpowered study--ESPS-2 (flawed as it used 50mg aspirin rather than 75mg). See Cost-effectiveness of antiplatelet agents in secondary stroke prevention: the limits of certainty. Author: Matchar DB, Samsa GP, Liu S. Journal: Value Health; 2005 Sep-Oct; 8(5):572-80. PubMed ID: 16176495. Also GP News 2005 p

  9. 4 [4 Nov) &: CMAJ 2005 173 1024-6 [Link]; page 464

  10. 84 Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin July 2005; 43 (7): 53-56 [no link]; page 464

(footnote) Folate, vitamin B

12, and risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke: a prospective, nested case-referent study of plasma concentrations and dietary intake. Author: Van Guelpen B, Hultdin J, Johansson I, Stegmayr B, Hallmans G, Nilsson TK, Weinehall L, Witth“ft C, Palmqvist R, Winkvist A. Journal: Stroke; 2005 Jul; 36(7):1426-31. PubMed ID: 15933256. [Link]; page 464

(footnote) Modest salt reduction lowers blood pressure in isolated systolic hypertension and combined hypertension. Author: He FJ, Markandu ND, MacGregor GA. Journal: Hypertension; 2005 Jul; 46(1):66-70. PubMed ID: 15956111 [Link]; page 464

Rehabilitation after stroke

  1. 85 No link available; page 466

86; page J Rehabil Med. 2003 Jul;35(4):180 Sitting up and transferring to a chair: two functional tests for patients with stroke--Sunnerhagen K [Link]; page 466

87; page Stroke. 2005 Jun;36(6):1330-40. Epub 2005 May 5. Frequency of depression after stroke: a systematic review of observational studies. Hackett ML [Link]; page 466

  1. 88 Technol Health Care 1999;7(6):419 Overview of clinical trials with MIT-MANUS: a robot-aided neuro-rehabilitation facility. Krebs H [Link]; page 466

89; page Nervenarzt 2003 Apr;74(4):334 New developments in stroke rehabilitation based on behavioral and neuroscientific principles: constraint-induced therapy Elbert T [Link]; page 466

  1. 90 S Luttrell 1999 bmj i 1710 & [Link]; page 466

(footnote) Screening for depression [Link]; page 466

(footnote) Psychological Bulletin 2006 132 180-211 &: Minerva 2006 BMJ 332 1102 [Link]; page 467

Transient ischaemic attack (TIA)91 No link available; page 468

  1. 92 Haematologia (Budap). 2001;31(2):153 Multiple myeloma in sickle cell syndromes--Kaloterakis A[Link]; page 468

  2. 93 No link available; page 468

  3. 94 No link available; page 468

  4. 95 Carotid endarterectomy--an evidence-based review: report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Author: Chaturvedi S, Bruno A, Feasby T, Holloway R, Benavente O, Cohen SN, Cote R, Hess D, Saver J, Spence JD, Stern B, Wilterdink J, Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology . Journal: Neurology; 2005 Sep 27; 65(6):794-801. PubMed ID: 16186516. [Link]; page 468

  5. 96 No link available; page 468

97; page Long-term survival and vascular event risk after transient ischaemic attack or minor ischaemic stroke: a cohort study. Author: van Wijk I, Kappelle LJ, van Gijn J, Koudstaal PJ, Franke CL, Vermeulen M, Gorter JW, Algra A, LiLAC study group . Journal: Lancet; 2005 Jul 7; 365(9477):2098-104. PubMed ID: 15964446 [Link]; page 468

  1. 98 A simple score (ABCD) to identify individuals at high early risk of stroke after transient ischaemic attack. Author: Rothwell PM, Giles MF, Flossmann E, Lovelock CE, Redgrave JN, Warlow CP, Mehta Z. Journal: Lancet; 2005 Jul 2; 366(9479):29-36. PubMed ID: 15993230 [Link]; page 469

99; page Timing of TIAs preceding stroke: time window for prevention is very short. Author: Rothwell PM, Warlow CP. Journal: Neurology; 2005 Mar 8; 64(5):817-20. PubMed ID: 15753415 [Link]; page 469

  1. 100 Management and outcomes of transient ischemic attacks in Ontario. Author: Gladstone DJ, Kapral MK, Fang J, Laupacis A, Tu JV. Journal: CMAJ; 2004 Mar 30; 170(7):1099-104. PubMed ID: 15051693[Link]; page 469Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH)101 Image of left lateral hemisphere with SAH, courtesy of Danil Hammoudi [Link]; page 470

  2. 102 D Gaist 2000 bmj i 141 [Link]; page 470

  3. 103 No link available; page 470

  4. 104 No link available; page 470

  5. 105 No link available; page 470

  6. 106 Subarachnoid hemorrhage diagnosis by computed tomography and lumbar puncture: Are fifth generation CT scanners better at identifying subarachnoid hemorrhage? Author: Boesiger BM, Shiber JR. Journal: J Emerg Med; 2005 Jul; 29(1):23-7. PubMed ID: 15961003. [Link]; page 470

  7. 107 No link available; page 470

  8. 108 Endovascular treatment of posterior circulation aneurysms by electrothrombosis using electrically detachable coils. Author: Guglielmi G, Vi“uela F, Duckwiler G, Dion J, Lylyk P, Berenstein A, Strother C, Graves V, Halbach V, Nichols D. Journal: J Neurosurg; 1992 Oct; 77(4):515-24. PubMed ID: 1527608.[Link]; page 470

  9. 109 Britz, G.W. 2005. ISAT trial: Coiling or clipping for intracranial aneurysms? Lancet 366(Sept. 3):783-785. [Link]; page 470

  10. 110 The Lancet 2005; 366:809-817; DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67214-5. International subarachnoid aneurysm trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomised comparison of effects on survival, dependency, seizures, rebleeding, subgroups, and aneurysm occlusion [Link]; page 470

  11. 111 Endovascular management of intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Author: Marden FA, Roy SS. Journal: Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med; 2005 Jul; 7(3):197-209. PubMed ID: 16004851[Link]; page 470

  12. 112 No link available; page 471

  13. 113 No link available; page 471

  14. 114 ISUIA 2003 Lancet 362 103 and an editorial by White PM Lancet 2003 362 90; page [Link]; page 471

115; page Follow-up screening after subarachnoid haemorrhage: frequency and determinants of new aneurysms and enlargement of existing aneurysms. Journal: Brain; 2005 Jul 6; ():. PubMed ID: 16000333. [Link]; page 471

  1. 116 No link available; page 471

(footnote) Comparison of blood pressure-associated risk of intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage: Korea Medical Insurance Corporation study. Author: Kim HC, Nam CM, Jee SH, Suh I. Journal: Hypertension; 2005 Aug; 46(2):393-7. PubMed ID: 15998702 [Link]; page 471

Intracranial venous thrombosis

  1. 117 S Bruijn 1996 Lancet 348 1623 [Link]; page 472

118; page Importance of T

2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI for diagnosis of cortical vein thrombosis. Journal: Eur J Radiol; 2005 Jun 17. PubMed ID: 15967621. [Link]; page 472

  1. 119 Rinsho Shinkeigaku 1996 Nov;36(11):1234-9 [A case with an isolated cortical vein thrombosis] Adachi T [Link]; page 472

120; page Importance of T

2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI for diagnosis of cortical vein thrombosis. Journal: Eur J Radiol; 2005 Jun 17. PubMed ID: 15967621. [Link]; page 472

121; page [Galen vein thrombosis: case report] Author: Marques MC, Pires LA, Damasceno CA, Felo AC, Atala A, Franco GM. Journal: Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2003 Jun; 61(2A):285-7. PubMed ID: 12806514.[Link]; page 472

  1. 122 Cerebral venous thrombosis associated with tentorial subdural hematoma during oxymetholone therapy. Author: Chu K, Kang DW, Kim DE, Roh JK. Journal: J Neurol Sci; 2001 Mar 15; 185(1):27-30. PubMed ID: 11266687 [Link]; page 472

  2. 123 Diabetic ketoacidosis presenting as a cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Author: De Keyzer K, Paemeleire K, De Clerck M, Peeters D, De Reuck JL. Journal: Acta Neurol Belg; 2004 Sep; 104(3):117-20. PubMed ID: 15508266. [Link]; page 472

124; page Infliximab-induced cerebral thrombophlebitis. Author: Grange L, Nissen MJ, Garambois K, Dumolard A, Duc C, Gaudin P, Juvin R. Journal: Rheumatology (Oxford); 2005 Feb; 44(2):260-1. PubMed ID: 15637045 [Link]; page 472

125; page Cerebral venous thrombosis in four patients with multiple sclerosis. Author: Vandenberghe N, Debouverie M, Anxionnat R, Clavelou P, Bouly S, Weber M. Journal: Eur J Neurol; 2003 Jan; 10(1):63-6. PubMed ID: 12534995 [Link]; page 472

  1. 126 No link available; page 472

  2. 127 S Bruijn 1996 Lancet 348 1623 [Link]; page 472

  3. 128 No link available; page 472

  4. 129 Presse Med 1999 Sep 25;28(28):1547-52 [Cerebral venous thromboses] Masson C [Link]; page 472

130; [Serious cerebral venous thrombosis: can we use fibrinolytic?] Author: Lemarchand E, Letouze S, du Manoir B, Courtheoux P, Bricard H, Gerard JL. Journal: Ann Fr Anesth Reanim; 2003 Feb; 22(2):133-6. PubMed ID: 12706767. [Link]; page 472

  1. 131 Streptokinase in the treatment of venous sinus thrombosis: a case report. Author: Yang YH, Shih MC, Chou MS, Liu CK. Journal: Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2003 Aug; 19(8):421-7. PubMed ID: 12962430.[Link]; page 472

(footnote) Causes and Predictors of Death in Cerebral Venous Thrombosis. Journal: Stroke; 2005 Jul 7; ():. PubMed ID: 16002765. [Link]; page 472Subdural haemorhage

  1. 132 Chronic subdural hematoma following dural metastasis of gastric cancer: measurement of pre- and postoperative cerebral blood flow with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine--case report. Author: Fukino K, Terao T, Kojima T, Adachi K, Teramoto A. Journal: Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2004 Dec; 44(12):646-9. PubMed ID: 15684596 [Link]; page 474

133; page Very late onset of chronic subdural hematoma. Case report. Author: Sato M, Nakano M, Sasanuma J, Asari J, Watanabe K. Journal: Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2005 Jan; 45(1):41-3. PubMed ID: 15699620 [Link]; page 474

  1. 134 J Neurosurg. 2005 Feb;102(2):389. Subdural cysticercosis mimicking a chronic subdural hematoma. Case illustration. Im SH [Link]; page 474

  2. 135 Outcome of contemporary surgery for chronic subdural haematoma: evidence based review. Author: Weigel R, Schmiedek P, Krauss JK. Journal: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2003 Jul; 74(7):937-43. PubMed ID: 12810784. [Link]; page 474

  3. 136 Craniotomy for organized subdural hematoma. Author: Ohkawa T, Ogura M, Tanaka S, Terada T, Itakura T. Journal: No Shinkei Geka; 2005 Apr; 33(4):357-62. PubMed ID: 15830542 [Link]; page 474

Extradural (epidural) haemorrhage

137 [Link]; page 474

(footnote) Intracranial hypotension syndrome: a comprehensive review. MICHAEL PALDINO, M.D. [Link]; page 474

(footnote) Spontaneous intracranial hypotension presenting as mental deterioration. Author: Tsai PH, Wang SJ, Lirng JF, Fuh JL. Journal: Headache; 2005 Jan; 45(1):76-80. PubMed ID: 15663618. [Link]; page 474

Delirium (acute confusional state)

  1. 138 Joseph Conrad; _Heart of Darkness_ [Link]; page 476

  2. 139 Epilepsy and catalepsy in Anglo-American literature between romanticism and realism: Tennyson, Poe, Eliot and Collins. Wolf P. [Link]; page 477

  3. 140 NCSE post subarachnoid haemorrhage is refractory to therapy, and the prognosis is poor. Routine postoperative EEG monitoring of patients with SAH who are at high risk for NCSE, allowing earlier diagnosis and treatment, offers the best chance of improving outcomes [Link]; page 477

  4. 141 Acta Neurol Scand 2000 Nov;102(5):337-9 Non-convulsive status epilepticus with marked neuropsychiatric manifestations and MRI changes after treatment of hypercalcaem ia. [Link]; page 477

  5. 142 No link available; page 477

  6. 143 No link available; page 477

  7. 144 Ganser syndrome after solitary confinement in prison: a short review and a case report. Author: Andersen HS, Sestoft D, Lillebaek T. Journal: Nord J Psychiatry; 2001; 55(3):199-201. PubMed ID: 11827615 [Link]; page 477

  8. 145 Ganser syndrome The Lancet 2004; 364:471-473 [Link]; page 477

Demetia

  1. 146 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(3):CD003672. Cholinesterase inhibitors for dementia with Lewy bodies--Wild R [Link]; page 478

  2. 147 chweiz Rundsch Med Prax 1999 Nov 4;88(45):1867 Vitamin B

  3. 12 deficiency in geriatrics Bopp-Kistler I [Link]; page 478

148; page Radiology. 2003 Aug;228(2):515 Cost-Effectiveness of PET in the Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease--McMahon PM [Link]; page 478

  1. 149 No link available; page 478

150; page [Frontotemporal dementia: therapeutic possibilities] Author: Robles Bay“n A. Journal: Neurologia; 2000 Jan; 15 Suppl 1():38-42. PubMed ID: 10723174 [Link]; page 479

  1. 151 Image of amyloid plaques in alzheimer’s diseaseMicromedex image [redrawn] [Link]; page 479

Alzheimer’s disease (AD)

  1. 152 No link available; page 480

  2. 153 A diagnostic formulation for Anosognosia in Alzheimer’s disease. Journal: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2006 Mar 20; ():. PubMed ID: 16549411. [Link]; page 480

  3. 154 Different MRI findings for normal elderly and very mild Alzheimer’s disease in a community: Implications for clinical practice The Tajiri Project. Author: Ishii H, Meguro K, Yamaguchi S, Hirayama K, Tabuchi M, Mori E, Yamadori A. Journal: Arch Gerontol Geriatr; 2006 Jan-Feb; 42(1):59-71. PubMed ID: 16085324. [Link]; page 480

  4. 155 NEJM 348:2489-2490 Use It or Lose It ? Do Effortful Mental Activities Protect against Dementia? Joseph Coyle [Link]; page 480

  5. 156 CNS Drugs. 2003;17(1):27 The role of insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease: implications for treatment--Watson GS [Link]; page 480

157; page Stroke. 2003 Mar;34(3):594-9. Pulse pressure and risk of Alzheimer disease in persons aged 75 years and older. Qiu C, Winblad B, Viitanen M, Fratiglioni L. [Link]; page 480

  1. 158 A 20-week randomized controlled trial of estradiol replacement therapy for women aged 70 years and older: Effect on mood, cognition and quality of life. Author: Almeida OP, Lautenschlager NT, Vasikaran S, Leedman P, Gelavis A, Flicker L. Journal: Neurobiol Aging; 2006 Jan; 27(1):141-9. PubMed ID: 16298249. [Link]; page 480

  2. 159 Treatments for Alzheimer disease. Author: Potyk D. Journal: South Med J; 2005 Jun; 98(6):628-35. PubMed ID: 16004170. [Link]; page 480

  3. 160 Pharmacological strategies for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. Author: Doraiswamy PM, Xiong GL. Journal: Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2006 Jan; 7(1):1-10. PubMed ID: 16370917. [Link]; page 480

  4. 161 Aging with Grace: ?The Nun Study? By David Snowdon [Link]; page 480

  5. 162 Music therapy in moderate and severe dementia of Alzheimer’s type: a case-control study. Journal: Int Psychogeriatr; 2006 Apr 18; ():1-9. PubMed ID: 16618375. [Link]; page 481

  6. 163 Ballard C Aromatherapy for Agitated patients [Link]; page 481

  7. 164 A randomized controlled trial of the effects of multi-sensory stimulation (MSS) for people with dementia. Author: Baker R, Bell S, Baker E, Gibson S, Holloway J, Pearce R, Dowling Z, Thomas P, Assey J, Wareing LA. Journal: Br J Clin Psychol; 2001 Mar; 40(Pt 1):81-96. PubMed ID: 11317951.[Link]; page 481

  8. 165 SIGN guideline 86 [Link]; page 481

  9. 166 M Gillick 2000 nejm 342 206 [Link]; page 481

  10. 167 Beneficial effect of cholinesterase inhibitor medications on recognition memory performance in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: preliminary findings. Author: Crowell TA, Paramadevan J, Abdullah L, Mullan M. Journal: J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol; 2006 Mar; 19(1):13-5. PubMed ID: 16449754. [Link]; page 481

  11. 168 Drug Ther Bul 2000 38 15; page 481

  12. 169 This quotation [‘Brighter, more motivated’ is from one of JML’s patients taking donepezil] [no link]; page 481

  13. 170 SIGN guideline 86 [Link]; page 481

(footnote) Jagust W, 2006 Annals of Neurology for 8 Feb &:; page Brain scans predict cognitive decline in normal people, says new study; Sarah Yang; page [Link]; page 480

(footnote) Orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex neurofibrillary tangle burden is associated with agitation in Alzheimer disease. Author: Tekin S, Mega MS, Masterman DM, Chow T, Garakian J, Vinters HV, Cummings JL. Journal: Ann Neurol; 2001 Mar; 49(3):355-61. PubMed ID: 11261510. [Link]; page 481

(footnote) Understanding and managing behavioural symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias: focus on rivastigmine. Author: Robert P. Journal: Curr Med Res Opin; 2002; 18(3):156-71. PubMed ID: 12094826 [Link]; page 481

(footnote) [Glutamate-related excitoxicity neuroprotection with memantine, an uncompetitive antagonist of NMDA-glutamate receptor, in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementiadisease and vascular dementia.] Author: Tanovic A, Alfaro V. Journal: Rev Neurol; 2006 May 16-31; 42(10):607-16. PubMed ID: 16703529. [Link]; page 481

(footnote) BMJ 28 April 2006. Cerebral emboli as a potential cause of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia: case-control study. Nitin Purandare [Link]; page 481

(footnote) Heart Failure and Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer Disease; page A Population-Based Cohort Study; Chengxuan Qiu; page [Link]; page 481Epilepsy: diagnosis

  1. 171 B Pohlmann 2006 BMJ 332 Feb 11 339 [Link]; page 483

172; page J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999 May;66(5):561-8 Supratentorial cavernous haemangiomas and epilepsy: a review of the literature and case series. Moran NF [Link]; page 483

  1. 173 NICE 2004 advice [Link]; page 483

Anti-epilepsy drugs (AEDs)174 Lamotrigine monotherapy compared with carbamazepine, phenytoin, or valproate monotherapy in patients with epilepsy. Author: Kaminow L, Schimschock JR, Hammer AE, Vuong A. Journal: Epilepsy Behav; 2003 Dec; 4(6):659-66. PubMed ID: 14698699 [Link]; page 484

175; page Rev Neurol. 2001 Feb 1-15;32(3):247--Use of lamotrigine in the treatment of absence epilepsy crises--Mauri-Llerda JA [Link]; page 484

  1. 176 Primary Care Guidelines for the Management of Females with Epilepsy; Royal Society of Medicine [no link]; page 484

  2. 177 Primary Care Guidelines for the Management of Females with Epilepsy; Royal Society of Medicine [no link]; page 484

  3. 178 Epilepsia 2000;41 Suppl 2:S7-12 Sudden unexplained death and injury in epilepsy. Ficker DM[Link]; page 484

179; page Clinical effectiveness, tolerability and cost-effectiveness of newer drugs for epilepsy in adults: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Author: Wilby J, Kainth A, Hawkins N, Epstein D, McIntosh H, McDaid C, Mason A, Golder S, O’Meara S, Sculpher M, Drummond M, Forbes C. Journal: Health Technol Assess; 2005 Apr; 9(15):1-157, iii-iv. PubMed ID: 15842952. [Link]; page 485

  1. 180 Zonisamide: a review of its use in the management of partial seizures in epilepsy. Author: Frampton JE, Scott LJ. Journal: CNS Drugs; 2005; 19(4):347-67. PubMed ID: 15813651. [Link]; page 485

  2. 181 M Gillick 2000 nejm 342 206 [Link]; page 485

  3. 182 M Gillick 2000 nejm 342 206 [Link]; page 485

  4. 183 Uncontrolled epilepsy following discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs in seizure-free patients: a review of current clinical experience. Author: Schmidt D, L“scher W. Journal: Acta Neurol Scand; 2005 May; 111(5):291-300. PubMed ID: 15819708 [Link]; page 485

  5. 184 Drug Ther Bul 2003 41 ( June) 41 [no link]; page 485

Parkinson’s disease (PD) and parkinsonism

  1. 185 Exp Gerontol. 2003 Apr;38(4):397 mt4216C variant in linkage with the mtDNA TJ cluster may confer a susceptibility to mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in an increased risk of Parkinson’s disease in the Irish--Ross O [Link]; page 486

  2. 186 J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003 Feb;74(2):158-62. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003 Feb;74(2):148-9. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation for people with Parkinson’s disease: a randomised controlled study. Wade D [Link]; page 486

  3. 187 Qigong exercise for the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease: A randomized, controlled pilot study. Journal: Mov Disord; 2005 Oct 14; ():. PubMed ID: 16229022. [Link]; page 486

  4. 188 Scottish adult formulary 2005 [Link]; page 486

  5. 189 Sleep. 2002 Dec 15;25(8):905-9. Modafinil for the treatment of daytime sleepiness in Parkinson’s disease: a double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled polygraphic trial. Hogl B [Link]; page 486

  6. 190 Scottish adult formulary 2005 [Link]; page 487

  7. 191 Ropinirole therapy for Parkinson’s disease. Author: Pahwa R, Lyons KE, Hauser RA. Journal: Expert Rev Neurother; 2004 Jul; 4(4):581-8. PubMed ID: 15853577. [Link]; page 487

  8. 192 Drug Ther Bul 1995 33 49; page 487

  9. 193 No link available; page 487

  10. 194 Monoamine oxidase B inhibitors for early Parkinson’s disease. Author: Macleod AD, Counsell CE, Ives N, Stowe R. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (3):CD004898. PubMed ID: 16034956.[Link]; page 487

  11. 195 Prescrire Int 2002 Aug;11(60):108-11 Selegiline: a second look. Six years later: too risky in Parkinson’s disease [Link]; page 487

(footnote) Ann Neurol. 2005 Feb;57(2):298-302. Intraputamenal infusion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in PD: a two-year outcome study. Patel NK [Link]; page 487

(footnote) Cell therapy for Parkinson’s disease: problems and prospects. Author: Bj“rklund A. Journal: Novartis Found Symp; 2005; 265():174-86; discussion 187, 204-211. (footnote) PubMed ID: 16050257.[Link]; page 487

Multiple sclerosis (MS)

  1. 196; Thalamic neurodegeneration in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Author: Wylezinska M, Cifelli A, Jezzard P, Palace J, Alecci M, Matthews PM. Journal: Neurology; 2003 Jun 24; 60(12):1949-54. PubMed ID: 12821738 [Link]; page 488

  2. 197 J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1998 Jun;64(6):730High incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in south east Scotland: evidence of a genetic predisposition--Rothwell PM [Link]; page 488

  3. 198 BMJ; page 2003;327:646 Multiple sclerosis Self reported stressful life events and exacerbations in multiple sclerosis: prospective study--D Buljevac [Link]; page 488

  4. 199 NEJM 349:139 2003 Antimyelin Antibodies as a Predictor of Clinically Definite Multiple Sclerosis after a First Demyelinating Event--Thomas Berger [Link]; page 488

  5. 200 Drugs. 2003;63(15):1525 Early intervention in multiple sclerosis: better outcomes for patients and society? Flachenecker P [Link]; page 488

  6. 201 “interferon 1a appears effective after 1st clinical MS event (if prior subclinical lesions on MRI): CHAMPS 2000 NEJM 343 898; page 488

  7. 202 Title: Cost-utility analysis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treatment with azathioprine or interferon beta in Spain. Author: Rubio-Terres C, Dominguez-Gil Hurle A. Journal: Rev Neurol; 2005 Jun 16-30; 40(12):705-10. PubMed ID: 15973634 [Link]; page 488

  8. 203 [Update in multiple sclerosis treatment.] Author: Uria D. Journal: Neurologia; 2004 Dec; 19 Suppl 2():8-21. PubMed ID: 16184497. [Link]; page 488

  9. 204 MS criteria [Link]; page 489

  10. 205 Whiting P 2006 BMJ 332 15 April page 875. Accuracy of MRI for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: systemic review. [Link]; page 489

  11. 206 Temporal critteria [@11456302] [Link]; page 489

(footnote) Multiple sclerosis in eMedicine [Link]; page 489

(footnote) Significance of the Argyll Robertson pupil in clinical medicine. Author: Dacso CC, Bortz DL. Journal: Am J Med; 1989 Feb; 86(2):199-202. PubMed ID: 2643871. [Link]; page 489Space-occupying lesions

  1. 207 Mobile phone use and risk of glioma in adults: case-control study. Sarah J Hepworth. BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.38720.687975.55 (published 20 January 2006) [Link]; page 490

  2. 208 Gliadel((R)) wafer in initial surgery for malignant glioma: long-term follow-up of a multicenter controlled trial. Journal: Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2006 Feb 17; ():. PubMed ID: 16482400. [Link]; page 490

  3. 209 Cerebral edema associated with Gliadel wafers: two case studies. Author: Weber EL, Goebel EA. Journal: Neuro-oncol; 2005 Jan; 7(1):84-9. PubMed ID: 15701285. [Link]; page 490

  4. 210 Changing paradigms--an update on the multidisciplinary management of malignant glioma. Author: Stupp R, Hegi ME, van den Bent MJ, Mason WP, Weller M, Mirimanoff RO, Cairncross JG. Journal: Oncologist; 2006 Feb; 11(2):165-80. PubMed ID: 16476837 [Link]; page 490

  5. 211 Clinical and therapeutic aspects of benign intracranial hypertension] Author: Errguig L, Benomar A, Aitbenhaddou E, Mouti O, Regragui W, Benaaboud B, Yahyaoui M, Chkili T. Journal: Rev Neurol (Paris); 2004 Dec; 160(12):1187-90. PubMed ID: 15602365. [Link]; page 490

  6. 212 No link available; page 490

  7. 213 Curr Opin Ophthalmol 1998 Dec;9(6):27-32 Elevated intracranial pressure and pseudotumor cerebri. Brazis PW, Lee AG. Mayo School [Link]; page 490

  8. 214 Religiosity is associated with hippocampal but not amygdala volumes in patients with refractory epilepsy. Author: Wuerfel J, Krishnamoorthy ES, Brown RJ, Lemieux L, Koepp M, Tebartz van Elst L, Trimble MR. Journal: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2004 Apr; 75(4):640-2. PubMed ID: 15026516.[Link]; page 491

  9. 215 Title: [Astral and out-of-body voyages. Heautoscopy, ecstasis and experimental hallucinations of epileptic origin] Author: Vuilleumier P, Despland PA, Assal G, Regli F. Journal: Rev Neurol (Paris); 1997 Mar; 153(2):115-9. PubMed ID: 9296122. [Link]; page 491

216; page [Palinacousis with hemianacusia caused by left temporal lesion] Author: Auzou P, Hannequin D, Cochin JP, Girard C, Augustin P. Journal: Rev Neurol (Paris); 1995 Feb; 151(2):129-31. PubMed ID: 7676140 [Link]; page 491

  1. 217 Late-onset drop attacks in temporal lobe epilepsy: a reevaluation of the concept of temporal lobe syncope. Author: Gambardella A, Reutens DC, Andermann F, Cendes F, Gloor P, Dubeau F, Olivier A. Journal: Neurology; 1994 Jun; 44(6):1074-8. PubMed ID: 8208403. [Link]; page 491

  2. 218 Complex partial status epilepticus presenting as fever of unknown origin. Author: Semel JD. Journal: Arch Intern Med; 1987 Sep; 147(9):1571-2. PubMed ID: 3632165. [Link]; page 491

  3. 219 The spectrum of abdominal epilepsy in adults. Author: Peppercorn MA, Herzog AG. Journal: Am J Gastroenterol; 1989 Oct; 84(10):1294-6. PubMed ID: 2801681. [Link]; page 491

220; page Ictal SPECT in a case of pure musicogenic epilepsy. Author: Gelisse P, Thomas P, Padovani R, Hassan-Sebbag N, Pasquier J, Genton P. Journal: Epileptic Disord; 2003 Sep; 5(3):133-7. PubMed ID: 14684347 [Link]; page 491

221; page Tooth-brushing epilepsy with ictal orgasms. Author: Chuang YC, Lin TK, Lui CC, Chen SD, Chang CS. Journal: Seizure; 2004 Apr; 13(3):179-82. PubMed ID: 15010056 [Link]; page 491

222; page Dreamy states and psychoses in temporal lobe epilepsy: mediating role of affect. Author: Sengoku A, Toichi M, Murai T. Journal: Psychiatry Clin Neurosci; 1997 Feb; 51(1):23-6. PubMed ID: 9076856 [Link]; page 491

223; page Pattern-induced partial seizures with repetitive affectionate kissing: an unusual manifestation of right temporal lobe epilepsy. Author: Mikati MA, Comair YG, Shamseddine AN. Journal: Epilepsy Behav; 2005 May; 6(3):447-51. PubMed ID: 15820359. [Link]; page 491

  1. 224 No link available; page 491

  2. 225 Epilepsy and violence. Author: Hindler CG. Journal: Br J Psychiatry; 1989 Aug; 155():246-9. PubMed ID: 2597922. [Link]; page 491

226; page Rev Electroencephalogr Neurophysiol Clin. 1981 Dec;11(3-4):509 Epilepsy beginning between 18 and 39 years of age--Courjon J [Link]; page 491

  1. 227 Psychopathology of Frontal Lobe Syndromes. Michael H. Thimble, F.R.C.P., F.R.C. Psych [Link]; page 491

  2. 228 Optometry. 2001 Apr;72(4):234 Dorsal midbrain syndrome secondary to a pineocytoma--Allmer DM[Link]; page 491

  3. 229 Nystagmus [Link]. Convergence-retraction [Link] book/emneuro7.htm; page 491

  4. 230 Nystagmus [Link]; page 491

Bell’s palsy (idiopathic facial nerve palsy)

  1. 231 Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 1997 Sep;14(2):115 Differential diagnosis of facial nerve palsy. James D [Link]; page 492

  2. 232 Am J Otol 1996 Nov;17(6):893 Episodic facial paralysis due to temporal bone pneumocele: a case report. Ivers C [Link]; page 492

  3. 233 Can J Anaesth 1998 Sep;45(9):893 Unilateral trigeminal and facial nerve palsies associated with epidural analgesia in labour. Carrero E [Link]; page 492

  4. 234 When is facial paralysis Bell palsy? Current diagnosis and treatment. Author: Ahmed A. Journal: Cleve Clin J Med; 2005 May; 72(5):398-401, 405. PubMed ID: 15929453. [Link]; page 492

  5. 235 The phenomenon of the late recovered Bell’s palsy: treatment options to improve facial symmetry. Author: Bulstrode NW, Harrison DH. Journal: Plast Reconstr Surg; 2005 May; 115(6):1466-71. PubMed ID: 15861048. [Link]; page 492

  6. 236 Recent developments in Bell’s Palsy BMJ; page 2004;329:553-557 (4 September), doi:10.1136/bmj.329.7465.553 [Link]; page 492

  7. 237 Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003 Apr;128(4):523 Scarless lip rehabilitation for the adynamic lip--Bloch DC [Link]; page 492

  8. 238 The spectrum of cranial neuropathy in patients with Bell’s palsy. Author: Benatar M, Edlow J. Journal: Arch Intern Med; 2004 Nov 22; 164(21):2383-5. PubMed ID: 15557420 [Link]; page 492

  9. 239 Treatment of gustatory hyperlacrimation (crocodile tears) with injection of botulinum toxin into the lacrimal gland. Author: Montoya FJ, Riddell CE, Caesar R, Hague S. Journal: Eye; 2002 Nov; 16(6):705-9. PubMed ID: 12439663. [Link]; page 492

240; page J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001 Aug;71(2):149 Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Sweeney C[Link]; page 492

241; page Lakartidningen. 2005 Apr 25-May 1;102(17):1358. Peripheral facial paralysis? Exclude borreliosis, perform LP! Reimer M. PMID: 15921115 [Link]; page 492

  1. 242 Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2003 Mar;112(3):197 Outcome of treatment with valacyclovir and prednisone in patients with Bell’s palsy. Axelsson S [Link]; page 492

  2. 243 J Neurol 2001 Jun;248(6):469-77 Viral infections of the CNS with special emphasis on herpes simplex infections. Schmutzhard E. Department of Neurology, University Hospital Innsbruck, Austria[Link]; page 492

  3. 244 Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2003 Mar;112(3):197 Outcome of treatment with valacyclovir and prednisone in patients with Bell’s palsy. Axelsson S [Link]; page 492

245; page Bell’s palsy and Herpes simplex virus: fact or mystery? Author: Linder T, Bossart W, Bodmer D. Journal: Otol Neurotol; 2005 Jan; 26(1):109-13. PubMed ID: 15699730. [Link]; page 492

  1. 246 The phenomenon of the late recovered Bell’s palsy: treatment options to improve facial symmetry. Author: Bulstrode NW, Harrison DH. Journal: Plast Reconstr Surg; 2005 May; 115(6):1466-71. PubMed ID: 15861048 [Link]; page 492

  2. 247 Excerpt from pages 11-28 of Love, Sex & Tragedy: How the Ancient World Shapes Our Lives by Simon Goldhill, published by the University of Chicago Press. “2004 by the University of Chicago. [Link]; page 492

  3. 248 Bell’s palsy in pregnancy: a study of recovery outcomes. Author: Gillman GS, Schaitkin BM, May M, Klein SR. Journal: Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2002 Jan; 126(1):26-30. PubMed ID: 11821761.[Link]; page 492

  4. 249 Gray’s Anatomy [Link]; page 493

  5. 250 Lingual nerve lesions [Link]; page 493

(footnote) The possible contributing factors for the success of steroid therapy in Bell’s palsy: a clinical and electrophysiological study. Author: Shafshak TS, Essa AY, Bakey FA. Journal: J Laryngol Otol; 1994 Nov; 108(11):940-3. PubMed ID: 7829945 [Link]; page 492

(footnote) Corticosteroids for Bell’s palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis). Author: Salinas RA, Alvarez G, Ferreira J. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2004; (4):CD001942. PubMed ID: 15495021 [Link]; page 492Mononeuropathies/Autonomic neuropathy (sympathetic and parasympathetic)

  1. 251 Autonomic dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus. Journal: Rheumatol Int; 2005 Dec 20; ():1-4. PubMed ID: 16365754. [Link]; page 494

  2. 252 Autonomic neuropathy [Link]; page 494

  3. 253 Acknowledgement: Prof Mark Lowenthal; see: Surgical efficacy of carpal tunnel release for carpal tunnel syndrome in acromegaly: report of four patients. Author: Iwasaki N, Masuko T, Ishikawa J, Minami A. Journal: J Hand Surg [Br]; 2005 Dec; 30(6):605-6. PubMed ID: 16095779. [Link]; page 495

  4. 254 No link available; page 495

  5. 255 J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1998 Sep-Oct;6(5):282-8 Compressive ulnar neuropathies at the elbow: I. Etiology and diagnosis. Posner MA [Link]; page 495

  6. 256 Night splints [Link]; page 495

  7. 257 Ulnar nerve enetrapment [Link]; page 495

  8. 258 Instr Course Lect 2000;49:305-17 Compressive neuropathies of the ulnar nerve at the elbow and wrist. Posner MA. [Link]; page 495

(footnote) J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2002 Sep;7(3):198-204. Neuralgic amyotrophy: variable expression in 40 patients.Cruz-Martinez A, Barrio M, Arpa J. [Link]; page 494

(footnote) Multiple system atrophy--update] Author: Sasaki H. Journal: Rinsho Shinkeigaku; 2004 Nov; 44(11):979-81. PubMed ID: 15651348 [Link]; page 494

(footnote) Multisystem atrophy [Link]; page 494

259; J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2003 Jul;62(7):699 Dominantly inherited peripheral neuropathies--Vallat J [Link]; page 496

Polyneuropathies

  1. 260 J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2003 Sep;8(3):155-8.; Related Articles, Links; Resolution of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy-associated central nervous system lesions after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin--Fee D [Link]; page 496

  2. 261 No link available; page 496

  3. 262 Gabapentin for acute and chronic pain. Author: Wiffen P, McQuay H, Edwards J, Moore R. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (3):CD005452. PubMed ID: 16034978 [Link]; page 498

Bulbar palsy/Motor neurone disease (MND)263 Hawaii Med J. 2002 Dec;61(12):280 Therapy with hypertonic saline in combination with anti-convulsants for hyponatremia-induced seizure: a case report and review of the literature--Youn K [Link]; page 498

  1. 264 Acta Neurol Belg. 1999 Sep;99(3):189 Improvement of central pontine myelinolysis as demonstrated by repeated magnetic resonance imaging in a patient without evidence of hyponatremia--Bernsen H [Link]; page 498

  2. 265 Psychiatry Rounds: Pathologic Laughing and Crying in Multiple Sclerosis [Link]; page 498

  3. 266 Are amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients cognitively normal? Author: Lomen-Hoerth C, Murphy J, Langmore S, Kramer JH, Olney RK, Miller B. Journal: Neurology; 2003 Apr 8; 60(7):1094-7. PubMed ID: 12682312. [Link]; page 498

  4. 267 2002; US links motor neurone disease with Gulf war service--F Charatan [Link] [Link]?; page 498

268; page J Biol Inorg Chem. 2003 Apr;8(4):373-80. Epub 2003 Mar 19. The perplexing role of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease)--Potter S [Link]; page 498

269; page J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003 Sep;74(9):1258-61. Effect of a multidisciplinary amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) clinic on ALS survival: a population based study, 1996-2000--Traynor B [Link]; page 498

  1. 270 Nursing role in the multidisciplinary management of motor neurone disease. Author: Skelton J. Journal: Br J Nurs; 2005 Jan 13-26; 14(1):20-4. PubMed ID: 15750484 [Link]; page 498

  2. 271 M Cookson 1999 Brain Path 9 165; page 499

  3. 272 Rapidly progressive aphasic dementia with motor neuron disease: a distinctive clinical entity. Author: Catani M, Piccirilli M, Geloso MC, Cherubini A, Finali G, Pelliccioli G, Senin U, Mecocci P. Journal: Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord; 2004; 17(1-2):21-8. PubMed ID: 14560061 [Link]; page 499

  4. 273 B Halliwell 2000 Lancet 355 1179; page 499

  5. 274 Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2001;35(1 Suppl):25 Pathogenesis of ALS: implications for treatment strategies--Braga M [Link]; page 499

  6. 275 No link available; page 499

  7. 276 Intake of Polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E reduce the risk of developing ALS. Journal: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2006 Apr 28; ():. PubMed ID: 16648143. [Link]; page 499

  8. 277 Curr Biol. 2003 Apr 15;13(8):669-73. Inhibiting axon degeneration and synapse loss attenuates apoptosis and disease progression in a mouse model of motoneuron disease. Ferri A [Link]; page 499

  9. 278 No link available; page 499

  10. 279 Ventilation in motor neuron disease: difficult decisions in difficult circumstances. Author: Oliver D. Journal: Amyotroph Lateral Scler Other Motor Neuron Disord; 2004 Mar; 5(1):6-8. PubMed ID: 15204017 [Link]; page 499

  11. 280 Dignitas: Swiss suicide helpers [BBC] [Link]; page 499

  12. 281 Do not go gentle into that good night, /; page; page Old age should burn and rave at close of day;/; page Rage, rage against the dying of the light. /; page Though wise men at their end know dark is right, / Because their words had forked no lightning they/ Do not go gentle into that good night. [Link]; page 499Cervical spondylosis

  13. 282 A Singh 1999 Lancet 354 370; page 500

  14. 283 Nishio Y, Takane K, Hasegawa T, Inoue K, Honda K. [Link]; page 500

  15. 284 A Singh 1999 Lancet 354 370; page 500

  16. 285 Cochrane review on the role of surgery in cervical spondylotic radiculomyelopathy. Author: Fouyas IP, Statham PF, Sandercock PA. Journal: Spine; 2002 Apr 1; 27(7):736-47. PubMed ID: 11923667.[Link]; page 500

  17. 286 Predictive factors for spondylotic cervical myelopathy treated conservatively or surgically. Author: Kadanka Z, Mares M, BednarJ, Smrcka V, Krbec M, Chaloupka R, Dusek L. Journal: Eur J Neurol; 2005 Jan; 12(1):55-63. PubMed ID: 15613148 [Link]; page 500

287; page Long-term outcome of laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy due to disc herniation: a comparative study of laminoplasty and anterior spinal fusion. Author: Sakaura H, Hosono N, Mukai Y, Ishii T, Iwasaki M, Yoshikawa H. Journal: Spine; 2005 Apr 1; 30(7):756-9. PubMed ID: 15803077 [Link]; page 500

  1. 288 Diaphragmatic paralysis caused by cervical spondylosis. Case report. Author: Hayashi H, Kihara S, Hoshimaru M, Hashimoto N. Journal: J Neurosurg Spine; 2005 May; 2(5):604-7. PubMed ID: 15945437.[Link]; page 500

  2. 289 Anterior spinal artery syndrome due to cervical spondylosis presenting as cervical angina] Author: Odaka M, Hirata K. Journal: No To Shinkei; 2004 Nov; 56(11):961-3. PubMed ID: 15678954 [Link]; page 500

  3. 290 Neurosurgery Today--cervical spine [Link]; page 501

  4. 291 Laminoplasty [Link]; page 501

  5. 292 Operative treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy. A comparison of laminectomy and laminoplasty at five year average follow-up. Author: Kaminsky SB, Clark CR, Traynelis VC. Journal: Iowa Orthop J; 2004; 24():95-105. PubMed ID: 15296214. [Link]; page 501

  6. 293 Wheeless online orthopaedic tesxtbook [Link]; page 501

  7. 294 Image of cervical verteba redrawn from Daphne Palomar [Link]; page 501

Primary disorders of muscle (myopathies)

  1. 295 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;3:CD003278 Scapular fixation idn muscular dystrophy--Mummery C [Link]; page 502

  2. 296 Muscle Nerve. 2001 Mar;24(3):352 Unusual clinical presentations in patients harboring the facioscapulohumeral dystrophy 4q35 deletion--Felice K [Link]; page 502

  3. 297 Spine. 1985 Sep;10(7):614 Spinal deformities in patients with muscular dystrophy other than Duchenne. A review of 11 patients having surgical treatment--Daher Y [Link]; page 502

  4. 298 New classification and treatment for myotonic disorders. Author: Kurihara T. Journal: Intern Med; 2005 Oct; 44(10):1027-32. PubMed ID: 16293911 [Link]; page 502

  5. 299 Tau aggregates are abnormally phosphorylated in inclusion body myositis and have an immunoelectrophoretic profile distinct from other tauopathies. [Link]; page 502

Myasthenia gravis (MG)/ Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome

  1. 300 Vaccines against myasthenia gravis. Author: Berrih-Aknin S, Fuchs S, Souroujon MC. Journal: Expert Opin Biol Ther; 2005 Jul; 5(7):983-95. PubMed ID: 16018742 [Link]; page 504

  2. 301 Extrathymic malignancies in patients with myasthenia gravis. Journal: J Neurol Sci; 2005 Jun 28; ():. PubMed ID: 15990114. [Link]; page 504

  3. 302 The features of myasthenia gravis with autoantibodies to MuSK. Author: Lavrnic D, Losen M, Vujic A, De Baets M, Hajdukovic LJ, Stojanovic V, Trikic R, Djukic P, Apostolski S. Journal: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2005 Aug; 76(8):1099-102. PubMed ID: 16024887 [Link]; page 504

303; page Preoperative preparation of the patient with myasthenia gravis. Author: Kernstine KH. Journal: Thorac Surg Clin; 2005 May; 15(2):287-95. PubMed ID: 15999526 [Link]; page 504

  1. 304 Ophthalmology 1999 Jul;106(7):1282-6 Related Articles, Links Ophthalmology. 2000 Apr;107(4):622-3. An ice test for the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. Golnik KC [Link]; page 504

  2. 305 Corticosteroids for myasthenia gravis. Author: Schneider-Gold C, Gajdos P, Toyka KV, Hohlfeld RR. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (2):CD002828. PubMed ID: 15846640 [Link]; page 504

306; page Neurol Sci. 2002 Apr;23 Suppl 1:S9 High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin G treatment of myasthenia gravis--Ferrero B [Link]; page 504

  1. 307 Acta Neurol Scand. 2003 Aug;108(2):136 Intravenous immunoglobulin in the preparation of thymectomy for myasthenia gravis--Huang C [Link]; page 504

308; Pulmonary function tests and blood gases in worsening myasthenia gravis. Journal: Muscle Nerve; 2005 Jul 15; ():. PubMed ID: 16025526. [Link]; page 504

  1. 309 Chin Med J (Engl). 2003 Aug;116(8):1187-90. Diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of thymoma: an analysis of 116 cases--Wang Y [Link]; page 504

310; Electrophysiological diagnostic criteria of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. Journal: Muscle Nerve; 2005 Jul 7; ():. PubMed ID: 16003742. [Link]; page 504

  1. 311 [Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome: diagnosis and treatment] Author: Motomura M, Iwanaga H. Journal: Clin Calcium; 2001 Nov; 11(11):1468-74. PubMed ID: 15775666 [Link]; page 504

  2. 312 Treatment for Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. Author: Maddison P, Newsom-Davis J. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (2):CD003279. PubMed ID: 15846654 [Link]; page 504

(footnote) Does this patient have myasthenia gravis? Author: Scherer K, Bedlack RS, Simel DL. Journal: JAMA; 2005 Apr 20; 293(15):1906-14. PubMed ID: 15840866 [Link]; page 504

(footnote) Associated autoimmune diseases in patients with the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome and their families. Author: Wirtz PW, Bradshaw J, Wintzen AR, Verschuuren JJ. Journal: J Neurol; 2004 Oct; 251(10):1255-9. PubMed ID: 15503107 [Link]; page 504

Neurofibromatosis

  1. 313 Image of Lisch nodule in neurofibromatosis type 1 courtesy of Prof; page J Troube [Link]; page 506

  2. 314 P Mathew 2000 Arch Pathol Lab Med 124 319 [@10656749] & S Huson 1994 The Neurofibromatoses Chapman & Hall; page 506

  3. 315 Q J Med. 1992 Aug;84(304):603 A clinical study of type 2 neurofibromatosis--Evans D [Link]; page 506

Syringomyelia

  1. 316 eMedicine: syringomyelia [Link]; page 508

  2. 317 Spinothalamic pathways [Link]; page 508

  3. 318 Eye. 2000 Dec;14(Pt 6):884 Ocular manifestations of hindbrain-related syringomyelia and outcome following craniovertebral decompression--Rowlands A [Link]; page 508

  4. 319 Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997 Jul;78(7):780 Total knee arthroplasty in a patient with bilateral Charcot knees--Fullerton B [Link]; page 508

  5. 320 Joint Bone Spine. 2000;67(4):334 Destructive hip disease complicating traumatic paraplegia--Avimadje AM [Link]; page 508

  6. 321; page J Belge Radiol. 1993 Aug;76(4):232 Neuropathic arthropathy of the shoulder secondary to syringomyelia--Heylen Y [Link]; page 508

  7. 322 [Link] [Link]; page 508

  8. 323 R Fuller 2000 Lancet 355 284 (this paper describes a patient with sudden respiratory failure); see:[Link]; page 508

  9. 324 Adult syringomielia. Classification, pathogenesis and therapeutic approaches. Author: Di Lorenzo N, Cacciola F. Journal: J Neurosurg Sci; 2005 Sep; 49(3):65-72. PubMed ID: 16288188. [Link]; page 508

(footnote) Oscillopsia without nystagmus caused by head titubation in a patient with multiple sclerosis. Author: Proudlock FA, Gottlob I, Constantinescu CS. Journal: J Neuroophthalmol; 2002 Jun; 22(2):88-91. PubMed ID: 12131465 [Link]; page 508

Retroviruses and neurology

  1. 325 Neurological manifestations of HIV infection in Kwazulu-Natal South Africa. Author: Bhigjee AI. Journal: J Neurovirol; 2005; 11 Suppl 1():17-21. PubMed ID: 15960236. [Link]; page 508

Models of brain functioning

  1. 326 Neural Netw. 1997 Oct 1;10(7):1175-1183. Three Centuries of Category Errors in Studies of the Neural Basis of Consciousness and Intentionality. Freeman W [Link]; page 509

  2. 327 W Freeman; Comparison of Brain Models [Link]; page 509

  3. 328 Lancet. 1999 Oct 16;354(9187):1320 Lancet. 1999 Oct 16;354(9187):1331 Modification of attitudes to influence survival from breast cancer. Tucker J [Link]; page 509

  4. 329 J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000 May;48(5):473 Emotional well-being predicts subsequent functional independence and survival. Ostir GV [Link]; page 509

Chapter 12: Oncology and palliative care

Oncology and palliative care

  1. 1 Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Women With Breast Cancer, Journal of Clinical Oncology. 20(18s) (SUPPLEMENT):34s-38s, September 15, 2002. 510 2 J Holland 1999 nejm 340 1758 & [Link]; page 510

  2. 3 L Fallowfield 1995 bmj ii 1316 511 4 TJ Meyer 1995 Health Psych 14 101 511 5 BMJ 2003;327:1044-1046 Cancer care in the United Kingdom: new solutions are needed--Karol Sikora [Link]; page 511

  3. 6 Breaking bad news: practical advice for busy doctors, Mir NU Hosp Med. 2004 Oct;65(10):613-5. 511

  4. 7 S Sontag 1978 Illness as Metaphor 511

  5. 8 Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005 Mar 1;61(3):870-3. Accuracy of survival prediction by palliative radiation oncologists.Chow E [Link]; page 511

  6. 9 R Buckman 1992 How to Break Bad News, PaperMac 0-333 54564-7 511

Oncology and genetics

  1. 10 Breast. 2005 Sep 23;Management of women at high risk for breast cancer: New imaging beyond mammography.Kuhl CK, Kuhn W, Schild H. 512

  2. 12 Recent advances in endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: implications for treatment and prevention. Annals of oncology, {Ann-Oncol}, Dec 2004, vol. 15, no. 12, p. 1738-47, 67 refs, ISSN: 0923-7534. Tobias-J-S [Link]; page 512

  3. 11 No reference available

  4. 13 Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colon Cancer (HNPCC) [Link]; page 512

  5. 14 Environmental and heritable factors in the causation of cancer--analyses of cohorts of twins from Sweden, Denmark, and Finland. Lichtenstein P, [Link]; page 512

Oncological emergencies

  1. 15 Curr Treat Options Oncol 2001 Feb;2(1):77 Superior vena cava syndrome. Wudel LJ [Link]; page 514

  2. 16 Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2002 Jun;14(3):228 Radiological stenting provides effective palliation in malignant central venous obstruction. Wilson E [Link]; page 514

  3. 17 Palliative radiotherapy of cerebral metastasis from lung cancer. Author: Li JC, Liu MT, Chang KH, Chung CH. Journal: J Formos Med Assoc; 1990 Apr; 89(4):281-5. PubMed ID: 1698912. [Link]; page 514

  4. 18 D Provan 1998 Oxford Handbook of Clinical Haematology, page 470, oup 514 19 Support Care Cancer 2003 Apr;11(4):249 Pan-European multicentre economic evaluation of recombinant urate oxidase (rasburicase) in prevention and treatment of hyperuricaemia and tumour lysis syndrome in haematological cancer patients. Annemans I [Link]; page 514

  5. 20 Correcting Plasma Calcium [Link]; page 515

  6. 21 Semin Oncol 2002 Dec;29(6 Suppl 21):12 Treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy with bisphosphonates. Berenson JR [Link]; page 515

Cancer therapy

  1. 22 Drug Saf 1995 Apr;12(4):245 Prevention and management of extravasation of cytotoxic drugs. Bertelli G [Link]; page 516

  2. 23 J Eary 1999 Lancet 354 853 517Radiotherapy

  3. 24 Can J Oncol. 1996 Feb;6 Suppl 1:5-11. The principles of palliative radiotherapy: a radiation oncologist’s perspective.Mackillop WJ. [Link]; page 518

  4. 25 Measuring the benefit and toxicity of palliative radiotherapy. The Canadian journal of oncology, {Can-J-Oncol}, Feb 1996, vol. 6 Suppl 1, p. 86-9, ISSN: 1183-2509. Shelley-W. [Link]; page 518

  5. 26 Recchia F. Sica G, DeFilippis S, et.al. Goserelin as ovarian protection in the adjuvant treatment of premenopausal breast cancer: a phase II pilot study. Anticancer Drugs 2002; 13: 17-24 [Link]; page 519

  6. 27 Aust Fam Physician 2003 Jan-Feb;32(1-2):9 Fertility effects of cancer treatment. Marsden DE [Link]; page 519

  7. 28 Preserving Fertility After Cancer Beth Simon, MD, Stephanie Joi Lee, MD, Ann Hart Partridge, MD and Carolyn D. Runowicz, MD, CA Cancer J Clin 2005; 55:211-228 [Link]; page 519

  8. 29 Contracept Fertil Sex 1993 Oct;21(10):749 Conservation of sperm before cancer therapy. An efficient measure for preserving chances of future conception Auger J [Link]; page 519

  9. 30 Cancer 2001 Sep 15;92(6):1632 Testicular sperm extraction combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection in the treatment of men with persistent azoospermia postchemotherapy. Chan PT [Link]; page 519

  10. 31 J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2005;(34):57-9. Fertility preservation: a comprehensive approach to the young woman with cancer.Roberts JE, Oktay K. [Link]; page 519

  11. 32 Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002 Jun;16(2):311 Late reproductive sequelae following treatment of childhood cancer and options for fertility preservation. Thomson AB [Link]; page 519

  12. 33 Cancer survival depends on where you are... [Link]; page 519

  13. 34 Arch Fam Med. 1999 Nov-Dec;8(6):521 Breast cancer trends of black women compared with white women--Chu K [Link]; page 520

Palliative care

  1. 38 Br J Anaesth. 2005 Apr;94(4):505-13. Epub 2005 Jan 28. Effects of acetaminophen on morphine side-effects and consumption after major surgery: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.Remy C[Link]; page 520

  2. 39 Br J Cancer. 2003 Dec 1;89(11):2027-30. Comparison of sustained-release morphine with sustained-release oxycodone in advanced cancer patients. Lauretti GR, Oliveira GM, Pereira NL. [Link]; page 520

  3. 40 Pain Symptom Manage 2000 Mar;19(3):185 Transdermal fentanyl in opioid-naive cancer pain patients: an open trial using transdermal fentanyl for the treatment of chronic cancer pain in opioid-naive patients and a group using codeine. Vielvoye-Kerkmeer A [Link]; page 520

  4. 40 Cancer. 1999 Sep 1;86(5):871-7. High dose morphine use in the hospice setting. A database survey of patient characteristics and effect on life expectancy.Bercovitch M, Waller A, Adunsky A. [Link]; page 520

  5. 41 No reference available 521

  6. 42 R Twycross 1990 Symptom Control in Terminal Cancer, Sobell Publications, Oxford and R Twycross, S Lack 1990 Therapeutics in Terminal Care, Churchill Livingstone 521

  7. 43 Support Care Cancer. 2005 Apr 8. A validation study of the WHO analgesic ladder: a two-step vs three-step strategy. Maltoni M et al [Link]; page 521

Urgent referral in possible malignancy

  1. 44 Twycross R. (2000). Palliative care: anorexia, cachexia, nausea and vomiting. Medicine 28: 7-12.[Link]; page 522

  2. 45 PRODIGY Guidance - Palliative care-nausea/vomiting/malignant bowel obstruction [Link]; page 522

  3. 46 Am J Med Sci. 2001 Aug;322(2):79-87. Diagnosis and management of chronic pericardial effusions. Karam N, Patel P, deFilippi C. [Link]; page 522

  4. 47 NICE Referral for suspected cancer - quick reference guide www.nice.org.uk/CG027quickrefguide; page 524 48 Roger Jones 2001 BMJ 322:1555-1556 ( 30 June ) editorial [Link]; page 525

  5. 49 Roger Jones 2001 BMJ 322:1555-1556 ( 30 June ) editorial [Link]; page 525

  6. 50 Br J Dermatol. 2004 Feb;150(2):291-8. & Br J Dermatol. 2005 May;152(5):1065-6. Evaluation of the U.K. 2-week referral rule for skin cancer. Cox NH [Link]; page 525

Chapter 13: Rheumatology

Rheumatological and related illnesses/Points to note in the rheumatological history

  1. 1 Courtesy of Monica Bhargava & Dr. John Hunter, M.D., [Link] Courtesy of Monica Bhargava & Dr. John Hunter, M.D., [Link] 526

  2. 2 Francois Verret’s interpretation of Robert Musil’s novel ‘The Man Without Qualities’ [Link] 526

  3. 3 M Doherty 1992 Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 51 1165-9 527

  4. 4 Approved by the Arthritis and Rheumatism Council and the uk Society for Rheumatology (1991) 527

Back pain

  1. 5 Speed C. Low back pain. BMJ 2004; 328: 1119-21. 528

  2. 6 van Tulder M, et al. European guidelines for the management of acute non-specific low back pain in primary care. European Comission, Research Directorate General. www.backpaineurope.org 528

  3. 7 New Zealand Guidelines Group. New Zealand Acute Low Back Pain Guide. 2004 [Link] (accessed 12.09.05) 529

Arthritis-general points

  1. 8 Courtney P, Doherty M. Joint aspiration and injection. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2005 Jun; 19: 345-69. [Link] 530

  2. 9 Drug Ther Bul 2003 41 9 65 Management of Septic Arthritis [Link] 530

  3. 10 ra Hughes 1996 Reports on Rheumatic Diseases 7 1-4 530

  4. 11 Drug Ther Bul 2003 41 9 65 Management of Septic Arthritis [Link] 530

  5. 12 Clin Infect Dis 2003 Feb 1;36(3):319-27 Pneumococcal septic arthritis: review of 190 cases. Ross JJ[Link] 530

  6. 13 Quinn MA, Cox S. The evidence for early intervention. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2005; 31: 575-89.[Link] 531

  7. 14 Brown AK, Wakefield RJ, Conaghan PG, Karim Z, O’Connor PJ, Emery P. New approaches to imaging early inflammatory arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2004; 22(5 Suppl 35): S18-25. [Link] 531

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

  1. 15 American College of Rheumatology. Classification criteria for rheumatoloid arthritis. 1987.www.rheumatology.org 532

  2. 16 Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Management of early rheumatoid arthritis. 2000 [Link]532

  3. 17 British Society for Rheumatology. National Guidelines For the Monitoring of Second Line Drugs. 2000. [Link] 533

  4. 18 Ledingham J, Deighton C. British Society for Rheumatology Standards, Guidelines and Audit Working Group. Update on the British Society for Rheumatology guidelines for prescribing TNF blockers in adults with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology 2005 44(2):157-163. [Link] 533

Osteoarthritis(OA)/Crystal arthropies

  1. 19 Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2002 Aug;10(8):595 C-reactive protein as a biomarker of emergent osteoarthritis. Sowers M [Link] 534

  2. 20 Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and the two in combination for painful knee osteoarthritis. Author: Clegg DO, Reda DJ, Harris CL, Klein MA, O’Dell JR, Hooper MM, Bradley JD, Bingham CO, Weisman MH, Jackson CG, Lane NE, Cush JJ, Moreland LW, Schumacher HR, Oddis CV, Wolfe F, Molitor JA, Yocum DE, Schnitzer TJ, Furst DE, Sawitzke AD, Shi H, Brandt KD, Moskowitz RW, Williams HJ. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2006 Feb 23; 354(8):795-808. PubMed ID: 16495392. [Link] 534

  3. 21 R Sturrock 2000 bmj i 132; see [Link] 534

  4. 22 Ian Morris 2003 bmj, 327 1275 534

  5. 23 Evidence from medline: 11346223 &: 10443078 &: 8377534 &: 1657004 &: 11292305 &: 6273554[Link] 534

  6. 24 A Herxheimer 1998 bmj i 492 & h Wyne 1996 BJ Cl Pharm 42 253 535

  7. 25 Prevention of ulcers by esomeprazole in at-risk patients using non-selective NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors. Author: Scheiman JM, Yeomans ND, Talley NJ, Vakil N, Chan FK, Tulassay Z, Rainoldi JL, Szczepanski L, Ung KA, Kleczkowski D, Ahlbom H, Naesdal J, Hawkey C. Journal: Am J Gastroenterol; 2006 Apr; 101(4):701-10. PubMed ID: 16494585. [Link] 535

  8. 26 Risk of cardiovascular events and celecoxib: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Author: Caldwell B, Aldington S, Weatherall M, Shirtcliffe P, Beasley R. Journal: J R Soc Med; 2006 Mar; 99(3):132-40. PubMed ID: 16508052. [Link] 535 27 CSM (2005a) Updated advice on the safety of selective cox-2 inhibitors. Committee on Safety of Medicines. [Link] 535

  9. 28 When should COX-2 selective NSAIDs be used for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis? Author: Lo V, Meadows SE, Saseen J. Journal: J Fam Pract; 2006 Mar; 55(3):260-2. PubMed ID: 16510063. [Link]535

(footnote) Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, Willett W, Curhan G. Purine-rich foods, dairy and protein intake, and the risk of gout in men. N Engl J Med. 2004; 350: 1093-103. [Link] 535 Spondyloarthritides29 Wanders A, Heijde DV, Landewe R, et al. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs reduce radiographic progression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a randomized clinical trial. Arthritis & Rheumatism 2005; 52(6): 1756-65. 536

  1. 30 British Society for Rheumatology. BSR guideline for prescribing TNFa blockers in adults with ankylosing spondylitis. 2004 www.rheumatology.org.uk 536

  2. 31 Hashkes PJ, Laxer RM. Medical treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. JAMA. 2005; 294: 1671-84.[Link] 537

Autoimmune connective tissue diseases

  1. 32 Bodolay E, Szekanecz Z, Vegh J, Szegedi G. Mixed connective tissue disease: should the diagnosis be more restrictive?: reply. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2005 Sep 13; [Epub ahead of print] [Link] 538

Polymyositis and dermatomyositis No links

Systemic lupus erythematosus

  1. 33 emin Nephrol 2000 Jan;20(1):32 New prospects for treatment of lupus nephritis. Balow JE [Link] 540

  2. 34 Baglin TP, Keeling DM, Watson HG. British Committee for Standards in Haematology. Guidelines on oral anticoagulation (warfarin): third edition- 2005 update. [Link]= 540

  3. 35 Transplantation 2003 Mar 15;75(5):651 Recurrent lupus nephritis in renal transplant recipients revisited: it is not rare. Goral S [Link] 540 36 Anolik JH, Aringer M. New treatments for SLE: cell-depleting and anti-cytokine therapies. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2005; 19: 859-78. [Link] 540

  4. 37 Tan EM, Cohen AS, Fries JF, Masi AT, McShane DJ, Rothfield NF, et al. The 1982 revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1982;25:1271 [Link] 541

  5. 38 Image of vasculitis under a nail, courtesy of the Crookston collection [Link] 541

  6. 39 Updating the American College of Rheumatology Revised Criteria for the Classification of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus [Link] 541

  7. 40 Leonard R. A mnemonic for SLE diagnostic criteria. Ann Rheum Dis. 2001; 60(6): 638. [Link] 541

  8. 41 David F Fiorentino MD, PhD, with kind permission from Skin & Aging [Link] 541

  9. 42 Amy McMichael, MD, with kind permission from Skin & Aging [Link] 541

(footnote) ROYAL COLLEGE OF OPHTHALMOLOGISTS GUIDELINES. OCULAR TOXICITY AND HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE: GUIDELINES FOR SCREENING 2004 [Link] 540 Vasculitis/Giant cell (or cranial or temporal) arthritis (GCA)/ Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR)

  1. 43 Med Klin 2002 Dec 15;97(12):730 Neuropsychiatric involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus. Part 1: clinical presentation and pathogenesis Weiner SM [Link] 542

  2. 44 Jayne D. How to induce remission in primary systemic vasculitis. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2005; 19: 293-305. [Link] 542

  3. 45 Stephens RS, Brown C, Wiener CM. Persistent lower abdominal and groin pain: what is the diagnosis? Am J Med 2005; 118(4): 364-7. [Link] 543

  4. 46 Dr. William Herring [Link] 543

Systemic conditions causing eye signs

  1. 47 Jonathan Trobe [Link] 544

  2. 48 Prof Jonathan Trobe [Link] 544

  3. 49 Prof Jonathan Trobe [Link] 544

  4. 50 Prof Jonathan Trobe [Link] 545

Skin manifestations of systemic diseases/Specific diseases and their skin manifestations

  1. 51 Lancet. 1997 Dec 13;350(9093):1720-1. Pyoderma gangrenosum and its treatment. Powell RJ [Link]546

  2. 52 Professor Thomas Habif www.dermnet.com 547

  3. 53 Professor Thomas Habif www.dermnet.com 547

  4. 54 Professor Thomas Habif www.dermnet.com 547

Skin diagnoses not to be missed

  1. 55 NICE (June 2005). Referral Guidelines for Suspected Cancer. [Link] 548

Chapter 14: Surgery

SurgeryNo links

Pre-operative care

  1. 1 No link available 552

  2. 2 Correct Site Surgery. A directive from the National Patient Safety Agency. March 2005. [Link] 552

  3. 3 The NICE guideline poster for preoperative tests. Downloadable from: [Link] 552

  4. 4 See National Confidential Enquiry into Perioperative Deaths (NCEPOD) www.ncepod.org.uk 553

  5. 5 The Department of Health website: consent from patients [Link] 554

Consent

  1. 6 Good practice in consent implementing guide: consent to examination of treatment [Link] 555

  2. 7 Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech AHA [1986] AC 112 555

  3. 8 Good practice in consent implementing guide: consent to examination of treatment [Link] 555

  4. 9 A poster on perioperative fasting guidelines is available from the Royal College of Nursing website. Thanks to Lysnsey Brown, Trauma Nurse Co-ordinator, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, UK, for sourcing this material. [Link] 555

Prophylactic antibiotics in surgery/Bowel preparation in colorectal surgery/Sutures

  1. 10 Influence of timing of antibiotic administration on tissue concentrations during surgery. Author: Wong-Beringer A, Corelli RL, Schrock TR, Guglielmo BJ. Journal: Am J Surg; 1995 Apr; 169(4):379-81. PubMed ID: 7694975. [Link] 556

  2. 11 Prophylactic use of cefuroxime in biliary tract surgery: randomized controlled trial of single versus multiple dose in high-risk patients. Galant Trial Study Group. Author: Meijer WS, Schmitz PI. Journal: Br J Surg; 1993 Jul; 80(7):917-21. PubMed ID: 8369939. [Link] 556

  3. 12 Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Author: Song F, Glenny AM. Journal: Br J Surg; 1998 Sep; 85(9):1232-41. PubMed ID: 9752867. [Link]556

  4. 13 Supplemental perioperative oxygen to reduce the incidence of surgical-wound infection. Outcomes Research Group. Author: Greif R, Ak”a O, Horn EP, Kurz A, Sessler DI.Journal: N Engl J Med; 2000 Jan 20; 342(3):161-7. PubMed ID: 10639541. [Link] 556

  5. 14 Antibiotics versus placebo for prevention of postoperative infection after appendicectomy. Author: Andersen B, Kallehave F, Andersen H. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (3):CD001439. PubMed ID: 16034862. [Link] 556

  6. 15 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in vascular surgery: increasing prevalence. Author: Taylor MD, Napolitano LM. Journal: Surg Infect (Larchmt); 2004 Summer; 5(2):180-7. PubMed ID: 15353115. [Link] 556

  7. 16 Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery. Author: Guenaga KF, Matos D, Castro AA, Atallah AN, Wille-J“rgensen P. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (1):CD001544. PubMed ID: 15674882. [Link] 556

  8. 17 Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery: a meta-analysis. Author: Bucher P, Mermillod B, Gervaz P, Morel P. Journal: Arch Surg; 2004 Dec; 139(12):1359-64; discussion 1365. PubMed ID: 15611462. [Link] 556

  9. 18 Hyponatremia and seizures after bowel preparation: report of three cases. Author: Frizelle FA, Colls BM. Journal: Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Feb; 48(2):393-6. PubMed ID: 15812590. [Link] 556

  10. 19 Pre-operative mechanical bowel cleansing or not? an updated meta-analysis. Author: Wille-J“rgensen P, Guenaga KF, Matos D, Castro AA. Journal: Colorectal Dis; 2005 Jul; 7(4):304-10. PubMed ID: 15932549. [Link] 556

  11. 20 Prophylactic anastomotic drainage for colorectal surgery. Author: Jesus EC, Karliczek A, Matos D, Castro AA, Atallah AN. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2004; (4):CD002100. PubMed ID: 15495028. [Link] 557

Anaesthesia

  1. 21 No link available 558

  2. 22 No link available 558

  3. 23 upivacaine: a new safer long acting local anaesthetic agent. Author: Gristwood RW, Greaves JL. Journal: Expert Opin Investig Drugs; 1999 Jun; 8(6):861-76. PubMed ID: 15992136. [Link] 559

The control of pain

  1. 24 Co-codamol 30/500 (codeine phosphate and paracetamol) 2 tablets/6h is a less effective alternative: H McQuay 1997 bmj i 1531 & [Link] 560

  2. 25 Day case surgery in childhood from the parents’ point of view. Author: Astfalk W, Warth H, Leriche C. Journal: Eur J Pediatr Surg; 1991 Dec; 1(6):323-7. PubMed ID: 1777486. [Link] 561

(footnote) Day Surgery. Five years of experience and activity] Author: Ivaldi L, Perino M, Gambetta G, Ferro A, Colombini M, Gennaro M, Mura G, Carrozza V, Boetti M, Baracco E, Revetria P. Journal: Minerva Chir; 2003 Apr; 58(2):149-55. PubMed ID: 12738924. [Link]

  1. 561

General post-operative complications No links

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)/ Swollen legs

  1. 26 Variation of plasma D-dimer following surgery: implications for prediction of postoperative venous thromboembolism. Author: Lippi G, Veraldi GF, Fraccaroli M, Manzato F, Cordiano C, Guidi G. Journal: Clin Exp Med; 2001 Sep; 1(3):161-4. PubMed ID: 11833854. [Link] 564

  2. 27 Combination of a normal D-dimer concentration and a non-high pretest clinical probability score is a safe strategy to exclude deep venous thrombosis. Author: Schutgens RE, Ackermark P, Haas FJ, Nieuwenhuis HK, Peltenburg HG, Pijlman AH, Pruijm M, Oltmans R, Kelder JC, Biesma DH. Journal: Circulation; 2003 Feb 4; 107(4):593-7. PubMed ID: 12566372. [Link] 564

  3. 28 Venous protocols, techniques, and interpretations of the upper and lower extremities. Author: Fraser JD, Anderson DR. Journal: Radiol Clin North Am; 2004 Mar; 42(2):279-96. PubMed ID: 15136017.[Link] 564

  4. 29 Fondaparinux or enoxaparin for the initial treatment of symptomatic deep venous thrombosis: a randomized trial. Author: B“ller HR, Davidson BL, Decousus H, Gallus A, Gent M, Piovella F, Prins MH, Raskob G, Segers AE, Cariou R, Leeuwenkamp O, Lensing AW, Matisse Investigators . Journal: Ann Intern Med; 2004 Jun 1; 140(11):867-73. PubMed ID: 15172900. [Link] 564

  5. 30 Ximelagatran for the prevention of venous thromboembolism following elective hip or knee replacement surgery. Author: Colwell C, Mouret P. Journal: Semin Vasc Med; 2005 Aug; 5(3):266-75. PubMed ID: 16123914. [Link] 564

  6. 31 Local and systemic thrombolytic therapy for acute deep venous thrombosis. Author: Janssen MC, Wollersheim H, Schultze-Kool LJ, Thien T. Journal: Neth J Med; 2005 Mar; 63(3):81-90. PubMed ID: 15813419. [Link] 564

  7. 32 Value of assessment of pretest probability of deep-vein thrombosis in clinical management. Author: Wells PS, Anderson DR, Bormanis J, Guy F, Mitchell M, Gray L, Clement C, Robinson KS, Lewandowski B. Journal: Lancet; 1997 Dec 20-27; 350(9094):1795-8. PubMed ID: 9428249. [Link] 565

  8. 33 Venous thrombosis from air travel: the LONFLIT3 study--prevention with aspirin vs low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in high-risk subjects: a randomized trial. Author: Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Nicolaides AN, Incandela L, De S, Geroulakos G, Lennox A, Myers KA, Moia M, Ippolito E, Winford M. Journal: Angiology; 2002 Jan-Feb; 53(1):1-6. PubMed ID: 11863301. [Link] 565

  9. 34 Travel as a risk factor for venous thromboembolic disease. Author: Ferrari E, Morgan G. Journal: Eur J Med Res; 2004 Mar 30; 9(3):146-9. PubMed ID: 15096325. [Link] 565

  10. 35 Towards an understanding of oedema.Diskin CJ, Stokes TJ, Dansby LM, Carter TB, Radcliff L, Thomas SG. BMJ; 1999 Jun 12; 318(7198):1610-3. PubMed ID: 10364127 [Link] 565 Specific post-operative complications

  11. 36 Factors influencing the development of incisional hernia. A retrospective study of 2,983 laparotomy patients over a period of 10 years Author: H“er J, Lawong G, Klinge U, Schumpelick V. Journal: Chirurg; 2002 May; 73(5):474-80. PubMed ID: 12089832. [Link] 566

  12. 37 Surgical complications after thyroid surgery performed in a cancer hospital. Author: Gon“alves Filho J, Kowalski LP. Journal: Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2005 Mar; 132(3):490-4. PubMed ID: 15746868.[Link] 566

  13. 38 Incidence and risk of arm oedema following treatment for breast cancer: a three-year follow-up study. Author: Clark B, Sitzia J, Harlow W. Journal: QJM; 2005 May; 98(5):343-8. PubMed ID: 15820971.[Link] 566

  14. 39 Anastomotic leakage following anterior resection for rectal cancer. Author: Kanellos I, Vasiliadis K, Angelopoulos S, Tsachalis T, Pramateftakis MG, Mantzoros I, Betsis D. Journal: Tech Coloproctol; 2004 Nov; 8 Suppl 1():s79-81. PubMed ID: 15655652. [Link] 566

  15. 40 Emedicine: Short-bowel syndrome. [Link] 566

  16. 41 A prospective analysis of predictive factors on the results of laparoscopic adhesiolysis in patients with chronic abdominal pain. Author: Swank DJ, Van Erp WF, Repelaer Van Driel OJ, Hop WC, Bonjer HJ, Jeekel H. Journal: Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2003 Apr; 13(2):88-94. PubMed ID: 12709613. [Link] 567

  17. 42 Fewer adhesions induced by laparoscopic surgery? Author: Gutt CN, Oniu T, Schemmer P, Mehrabi A, B“chler MW. Journal: Surg Endosc; 2004 Jun; 18(6):898-906. PubMed ID: 15108105. [Link] 567

  18. 43 Preventing intra-abdominal adhesions with polylactic acid film: an animal study. Author: Avital S, Bollinger TJ, Wilkinson JD, Marchetti F, Hellinger MD, Sands LR. Journal: Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Jan; 48(1):153-7. PubMed ID: 15690673. [Link] 567

  19. 44 Complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in China: analysis of 39,238 cases Author: Huang X, Feng Y, Huang Z. Journal: Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 1997 Nov; 35(11):654-6. PubMed ID: 10678005.[Link] 567

(footnote) Can bile duct injuries be prevented? “A new technique in laparoscopic cholecystectomy” Author: Sari YS, Tunali V, Tomaoglu K, Karag”z B, G”neyi A, Karag”z I. Journal: BMC Surg; 2005 Jun 17; 5():14. PubMed ID: 15963227. [Link] 567

Stoma care

  1. 45 The pre- and postoperative nursing care for patients with a stoma. Author: Burch J. Journal: Br J Nurs; 2005 Mar 24-Apr 13; 14(6):310-8. PubMed ID: 15902026. [Link] 568

  2. 46 Laparoscopic stoma creation. Author: Olmi S, Croce E, Magnone S, Mastropasqua E. Journal: Chir Ital; 2003 Nov-Dec; 55(6):897-902. PubMed ID: 14725232. [Link] 568

  3. 47 A Defunctioning Ileostomy Does Not Prevent Clinical Anastomotic Leak After a Low Anterior Resection: A Prospective, Comparative Study. Journal: Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Aug 1; ():. PubMed ID: 16086220. [Link] 568

  4. 48 Dynamic graciloplasty for total anorectal reconstruction after abdominoperineal resection for rectal tumour. Author: Ho KS, Seow-Choen F. Journal: Int J Colorectal Dis; 2005 Jan; 20(1):38-41. PubMed ID: 15293066. [Link] 568

  5. 49 Sphincter-saving resection for all rectal carcinomas: the end of the 2-cm distal rule. Author: Rullier E, Laurent C, Bretagnol F, Rullier A, Vendrely V, Zerbib F. Journal: Ann Surg; 2005 Mar; 241(3):465-9. PubMed ID: 15729069. [Link] 568

  6. 50 A three-centre experience of orthotopic neobladder reconstruction after radical cystectomy: initial results. Author: Meyer JP, Drake B, Boorer J, Gillatt D, Persad R, Fawcett D. Journal: BJU Int; 2004 Dec; 94(9):1317-21. PubMed ID: 15610113. [Link] 568

  7. 51 Prospective analysis of stoma-related complications. Author: Robertson I, Leung E, Hughes D, Spiers M, Donnelly L, Mackenzie I, Macdonald A. Journal: Colorectal Dis; 2005 May; 7(3):279-85. PubMed ID: 15859968. [Link] 569

Blood transfusion and blood products

  1. 52 Handbook of Transfusion Medicine 2001 [Link] 570

  2. 53 Safety, efficacy, and cost of intraoperative cell salvage and autotransfusion after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: a randomized trial. Author: Murphy GJ, Rogers CS, Lansdowne WB, Channon I, Alwair H, Cohen A, Caputo M, Angelini GD. Journal: J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2005 Jul; 130(1):20-8. PubMed ID: 15999036. [Link] 570

  3. 54 Relative cost of autologous red cell salvage versus allogeneic red cell transfusion during abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Author: Gardner A, Gibbs N, Evans C, Bell R. Journal: Anaesth Intensive Care; 2000 Dec; 28(6):646-9. PubMed ID: 11153290. [Link] 570

(footnote) Jehovah’s Witnesses’ blood policy. Sharp D. Lancet; 2000 Jul 1; 356(9223):8. PubMed ID: 10892756 [Link]

  1. 571

(footnote) Treatment without consent: a medicolegal precedent. Yate RM, Milling MA, McFadzean W. Lancet; 2000 Jul 1; 356(9223):69. PubMed ID: 10892780 [Link]

  1. 571

Nutritional support in hospital

  1. 55 Early enteral nutrition after surgical treatment of gut perforations: a prospective randomised study. Author: Malhotra A, Mathur AK, Gupta S. Journal: J Postgrad Med; 2004 Apr-Jun; 50(2):102-6. PubMed ID: 15235203. [Link] 572

Parental (intravenous) nutrition

  1. 56 Nutrition support to patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery. Author: Ward N. Journal: Nutr J; 2003 Dec 1; 2():18. PubMed ID: 14641921. [Link] 574

  2. 57 Complications and cost associated with parenteral nutrition delivered to hospitalized patients through either subclavian or peripherally-inserted central catheters. Author: Cowl CT, Weinstock JV, Al-Jurf A, Ephgrave K, Murray JA, Dillon K. Journal: Clin Nutr; 2000 Aug; 19(4):237-43. PubMed ID: 10952794.[Link] 574

  3. 58 Preventing complications of central venous catheterization. McGee DC, Gould MK. N Engl J Med; 2003 Mar 20; 348(12):1123-33. PubMed ID: 12646670 [Link] 574

  4. 59 Refeeding syndrome. Hearing SD. BMJ; 2004 Apr 17; 328(7445):908-9. PubMed ID: 15087326[Link] 575

  5. 60 Refeeding syndrome: effective and safe treatment with Phosphates Polyfusor. Author: Terlevich A, Hearing SD, Woltersdorf WW, Smyth C, Reid D, McCullagh E, Day A, Probert CS. Journal: Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2003 May 15; 17(10):1325-9. PubMed ID: 12755846. [Link] 575

Diabetic patients undergoing surgery

  1. 61 Perioperative management of diabetes. Author: Marks JB. Journal: Am Fam Physician; 2003 Jan 1; 67(1):93-100. PubMed ID: 12537172. [Link] 576

  2. 62 ACC/AHA guideline update on perioperative cardiovascular evaluation for non-cardiac surgery. See below at: [Link] 576

  3. 63 Lack of association of diabetes with increased postoperative mortality and cardiac morbidity: results of 6565 major vascular operations. Author: Hamdan AD, Saltzberg SS, Sheahan M, Froelich J, Akbari CM, Campbell DR, LoGerfo FW, Pomposelli FB. Journal: Arch Surg; 2002 Apr; 137(4):417-21. PubMed ID: 11926945. [Link] 576

  4. 64 This is a sample regime, taken from the following website: [Link] 577 Jaundiced patients during surgery/Surgery in those on steroids/ Surgery in those on anticoagulants

  5. 65 Renal failure in obstructive jaundice. Author: Uslu A, Cayci M, Nart A, Karaca C, Zalluhoglu N, G“rkan A, Varilsuha C, Adag“l” H. Journal: Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Jan-Feb; 52(61):52-4. PubMed ID: 15782993. [Link] 578

  6. 66 A randomized trial on the effect of mannitol on postoperative renal function in patients with obstructive jaundice. Author: Gubern JM, Sancho JJ, Sim” J, Sitges-Serra A. Journal: Surgery; 1988 Jan; 103(1):39-44. PubMed ID: 3122349. [Link] 578

  7. 67 Perioperative renal protection in patients with obstructive jaundice using drug combinations. Author: Wahbah AM, el-Hefny MO, Wafa EM, el-Kharbotly W, el-Enin AA, Zaglol A, Atallah MM. Journal: Hepatogastroenterology; 2000 Nov-Dec; 47(36):1691-4. PubMed ID: 11149033. [Link] 578

  8. 68 Prospective study of postoperative renal function in obstructive jaundice and the effect of perioperative dopamine. Author: Parks RW, Diamond T, McCrory DC, Johnston GW, Rowlands BJ. Journal: Br J Surg; 1994 Mar; 81(3):437-9. PubMed ID: 8173923. [Link] 578

  9. 69 Effects of dopamine and domperidone on ventilatory sensitivity to hypoxia after 8 h of isocapnic hypoxia. Author: Pedersen ME, Dorrington KL, Robbins PA. Journal: J Appl Physiol; 1999 Jan; 86(1):222-9. PubMed ID: 9887134. [Link] 578

  10. 70 Preoperative monitoring of warfarin in cutaneous surgery. Author: Ah-Weng A, Natarajan S, Velangi S, Langtry JA. Journal: Br J Dermatol; 2003 Aug; 149(2):386-9. PubMed ID: 12932248. [Link] 578

  11. 71 Surgery in patients treated with anticoagulation during emergency and elective interventions Author: Encke A. Journal: Chirurg; 1997 Jul; 68(7):670-4. PubMed ID: 9340230. [Link] 578

  12. 72 Duration of increased bleeding tendency after cessation of aspirin therapy. Author: Cahill RA, McGreal GT, Crowe BH, Ryan DA, Manning BJ, Cahill MR, Redmond HP. ournal: J Am Coll Surg; 2005 Apr; 200(4):564-73; quiz A59-61. PubMed ID: 15804471. [Link] 578

  13. 73 Antiplatelet agents in the perioperative period: expert recommendations of the French Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care (SFAR) 2001--summary statement. Author: Samama CM, Bastien O, Forestier F, Denninger MH, Isetta C, Juliard JM, Lasne D, Leys D, Mismetti P, French Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care . Journal: Can J Anaesth; 2002 Jun-Jul; 49(6):S26-35. PubMed ID: 12557412. [Link] 578

  14. 74 Obesity in general elective surgery. Author: Dindo D, Muller MK, Weber M, Clavien PA. Journal: Lancet; 2003 Jun 14; 361(9374):2032-5. PubMed ID: 12814714. [Link] 579

  15. 75 Bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Author: Buchwald H, Avidor Y, Braunwald E, Jensen MD, Pories W, Fahrbach K, Schoelles K. Journal: JAMA; 2004 Oct 13; 292(14):1724-37. PubMed ID: 15479938. [Link] 579

  16. 76 Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: weight loss, co-morbidities, medication usage and quality of life at one year. Author: Ahroni JH, Montgomery KF, Watkins BM. Journal: Obes Surg; 2005 May; 15(5):641-7. PubMed ID: 15946454. [Link] 579

(footnote) Surgery in the obese. Mason EE. Lancet; 2003 Jun 14; 361(9374):2001-2. PubMed ID: 12814706 www.thelancet.com 579

The acute abdomen

(footnote) Duration of pneumoperitoneum on chest radiograph after open colorectal surgery. Author: Shatari T, Clark MA, Keighley MR. Journal: Tech Coloproctol; 2004 Mar; 8(1):27-30. PubMed ID: 15057586. [Link] 581

Acute appendiscitis

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  2. 78 Appendicectomy: assessment of stump invagination versus simple ligation: a prospective, randomized trial. Author: Engstr“m L, Feny” G. Journal: Br J Surg; 1985 Dec; 72(12):971-2. PubMed ID: 3910160. [Link] 582

  3. 79 Simple ligation superior to inversion of the appendiceal stump; a prospective randomized study Author: Jacobs PP, Koeyers GF, Bruyninckx CM. Journal: Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 1992 May 23; 136(21):1020-3. PubMed ID: 1603146. [Link] 582

  4. 80 Laparoscopic versus open surgery for suspected appendicitis. Author: Sauerland S, Lefering R, Neugebauer EA. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2004; (4):CD001546. PubMed ID: 15495014.[Link] 582

  5. 81 Fertility patterns after appendicectomy: historical cohort study. Author: Andersson R, Lambe M, Bergstr”m R. Journal: BMJ; 1999 Apr 10; 318(7189):963-7. PubMed ID: 10195964. [Link] 582

  6. 82 Appendicitis in the young child: a continuing diagnostic challenge. Author: Nance ML, Adamson WT, Hedrick HL. Journal: Pediatr Emerg Care; 2000 Jun; 16(3):160-2. PubMed ID: 10888451. [Link] 582

  7. 83 A practical score for the early diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Author: Alvarado A. Journal: Ann Emerg Med; 1986 May; 15(5):557-64. PubMed ID: 3963537. [Link] 583

  8. 84 Appraisal of the modified Alvarado Score for acute appendicits in adults. Author: Al-Hashemy AM, Seleem MI. Journal: Saudi Med J; 2004 Sep; 25(9):1229-31. PubMed ID: 15448772. [Link] 583

  9. 85 Randomised controlled trial of ultrasonography in diagnosis of acute appendicitis, incorporating the Alvarado score. [Link] 583

  10. 86 Evaluation of the Alvarado score in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Author: Shrivastava UK, Gupta A, Sharma D. Journal: Trop Gastroenterol; 2004 Oct-Dec; 25(4):184-6. PubMed ID: 15912982.[Link] 583

Acute pancreatitis

  1. 87 Drug-induced pancreatitis: an update. Author: Trivedi CD, Pitchumoni CS. Journal: J Clin Gastroenterol; 2005 Sep; 39(8):709-16. [Link] 584

  2. 88 The dynamics of the oxidant-antioxidant balance in the early phase of human acute biliary pancreatitis. Author: Dziurkowska-Marek A, Marek TA, Nowak A, Kacperek-Hartleb T, Sierka E, Nowakowska-Du_awa E. Journal: Pancreatology; 2004; 4(3-4):215-22. PubMed ID: 15148440. [Link]584

  3. 89 Congenital abnormalities of the pancreas and biliary tree in adults. Author: Rizzo RJ, Szucs RA, Turner MA. Journal: Radiographics; 1995 Jan; 15(1):49-68; quiz 147-8. PubMed ID: 7899613. [Link]584

  4. 90 Should serum pancreatic lipase replace serum amylase as a biomarker of acute pancreatitis? Author: Smith RC, Southwell-Keely J, Chesher D. Journal: ANZ J Surg; 2005 Jun; 75(6):399-404. PubMed ID: 15943725. [Link] 584

  5. 91 Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of acute pancreatitis. Author: Arvanitakis M, Delhaye M, De Maertelaere V, Bali M, Winant C, Coppens E, Jeanmart J, Zalcman M, Van Gansbeke D, Devi”re J, Matos C. Journal: Gastroenterology; 2004 Mar; 126(3):715-23. PubMed ID: 14988825. [Link] 584

  6. 92 Differing effects of pethidine and morphine on human sphincter of Oddi motility. Author: Thune A, Baker RA, Saccone GT, Owen H, Toouli J. Journal: Br J Surg; 1990 Sep; 77(9):992-5. PubMed ID: 2207591. [Link] 584

  7. 93 Narcotic analgesic effects on the sphincter of Oddi: a review of the data and therapeutic implications in treating pancreatitis. Author: Thompson DR. Journal: Am J Gastroenterol; 2001 Apr; 96(4):1266-72. PubMed ID: 11316181. [Link] 584

  8. 94 Antibiotic therapy for prophylaxis against infection of pancreatic necrosis in acute pancreatitis. Author: Bassi C, Larvin M, Villatoro E. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2003; (4):CD002941. PubMed ID: 14583957. [Link] 584

  9. 95 Moore EM Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2000 Jan;82(1):16-7. [Link] 585

  10. 96 C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum phospholipase A2 in the assessment of the severity of acute pancreatitis. Author: Puolakkainen P, Valtonen V, Paananen A, Schr”der T. Journal: Gut; 1987 Jun; 28(6):764-71. PubMed ID: 3623221. [Link] 585 Aneurysms and dissections of arteries

  11. 97 A meta-analysis of 50 years of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Author: Bown MJ, Sutton AJ, Bell PR, Sayers RD. Journal: Br J Surg; 2002 Jun; 89(6):714-30. PubMed ID: 12027981. [Link] 586

  12. 98 Mortality results for randomised controlled trial of early elective surgery or ultrasonographic surveillance for small abdominal aortic aneurysms. The UK Small Aneurysm Trial Participants. Journal: Lancet; 1998 Nov 21; 352(9141):1649-55. PubMed ID: 9853436. [Link] 586

  13. 99 Endovascular repair or surveillance of patients with small AAA. Author: Zarins CK, Crabtree T, Arko FR, Heikkinen MA, Bloch DA, Ouriel K, White RA. Journal: Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg; 2005 May; 29(5):496-503; discussion 504. PubMed ID: 15966088. [Link] 586

  14. 100 ‘Trash foot’ following operations involving the abdominal aorta. Author: Kuhan G, Raptis S. Journal: Aust N Z J Surg; 1997 Jan; 67(1):21-4. PubMed ID: 9033371. [Link] 586

  15. 101 Role of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in assessment of acute aortic syndromes. [Link] 586

  16. 102 Multicentre aneurysm screening study (MASS): cost effectiveness analysis of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms based on four year results from randomised controlled trial. Author: Multicentre Aneurysm Screening Study Group . Journal: BMJ; 2002 Nov 16; 325(7373):1135. PubMed ID: 12433761. [Link] 587

  17. 103 Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: single centre randomised controlled trial. Author: Lindholt JS, Juul S, Fasting H, Henneberg EW. Journal: BMJ; 2005 Apr 2; 330(7494):750. PubMed ID: 15757960. [Link] 587

  18. 104 Endoleak: predictive value for aneurysm growth at 3 years. http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi?id=11904802&from=cqsrJournal: Ann Vasc Surg; 2002 Jan; 16(1):37-42. PubMed ID: 11904802. [Link] 587

Diverticular disease/Angiodysplasia

  1. 105 Primary anastomosis or Hartmann’s procedure for patients with diverticular peritonitis? A systematic review. Author: Salem L, Flum DR. Journal: Dis Colon Rectum; 2004 Nov; 47(11):1953-64. PubMed ID: 15622591. [Link] 588

  2. 106 Acute diverticulitis. Ferzoco LB, Raptopoulos V, Silen W. N Engl J Med; 1998 May 21; 338(21):1521-6. PubMed ID: 9593792 [Link] 589

  3. 107 Imaging diverticular disease. Author: Halligan S, Saunders B. Journal: Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol; 2002 Aug; 16(4):595-610. PubMed ID: 12406453. [Link] 589

  4. 108 Elective laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy for diverticulitis. Results of a prospective study. [Link] 589

  5. 109 Elective surgery after acute diverticulitis. Author: Janes S, Meagher A, Frizelle FA. Journal: Br J Surg; 2005 Feb; 92(2):133-42. PubMed ID: 15685694. [Link] 589

Gallstones

  1. 110 C Corvera 1997 bmj i 586 (success rate: “95%; morbidity is a with ercp) 590

  2. 111 Emedicine: an exposition of porcelain gallbladder [Link] 590

  3. 112 Timing of cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis: a meta-analysis. Author: Papi C, Catarci M, D’Ambrosio L, Gili L, Koch M, Grassi GB, Capurso L. Journal: Am J Gastroenterol; 2004 Jan; 99(1):147-55. PubMed ID: 14687156. [Link] 590

  4. 113 Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis. Journal: Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol; 2005 Apr; 8(2):99-104. PubMed ID: 15769430. [Link] 590

  5. 114 Short-versus long-sequence MRI cholangiography for the preoperative imaging of the common bile duct in patients with cholecystolithiasis. Journal: Surg Endosc; 2005 May 26; ():. PubMed ID: 16021379. [Link] 590

  6. 115 Bouveret syndrome. Brennan GB, Rosenberg RD, Arora S. Radiographics; 2004 Jul-Aug; 24(4):1171-5. PubMed ID: 15256636 [Link] 590

  7. 116 Randomized clinical trial of open versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of acute cholecystitis. Author: Johansson M, Thune A, Nelvin L, Stiernstam M, Westman B, Lundell L. Journal: Br J Surg; 2005 Jan; 92(1):44-9. PubMed ID: 15584058. [Link] 591

  8. 117 Sham neurosurgery in patients with Parkinson’s disease: is it morally acceptable? Author: Dekkers W, Boer G. Journal: J Med Ethics; 2001 Jun; 27(3):151-6. PubMed ID: 11417020. [Link] 591

Gangrene and necrotizing fasciitis/ Skin ulcers

  1. 118 Emergence of a unique group of necrotizing mycobacterial diseases. Author: Dobos KM, Quinn FD, Ashford DA, Horsburgh CR, King CH. Journal: Emerg Infect Dis; 1999 May-Jun; 5(3):367-78. PubMed ID: 10341173. [Link] 592

  2. 119 Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in acute necrotizing infections. With a special reference to the effects on tissue gas tensions. Author: Korhonen K. Journal: Ann Chir Gynaecol; 2000; 89 Suppl 214():7-36. PubMed ID: 11288993. [Link] 592

  3. 120 Systematic review of antimicrobial agents used for chronic wounds. Author: O’Meara SM, Cullum NA, Majid M, Sheldon TA. Journal: Br J Surg; 2001 Jan; 88(1):4-21. PubMed ID: 11136304. [Link] 592

  4. 121 Cutaneous tuberculosis: diagnosis and treatment. Author: Barbagallo J, Tager P, Ingleton R, Hirsch RJ, Weinberg JM. Journal: Am J Clin Dermatol; 2002; 3(5):319-28. PubMed ID: 12069638. [Link] 593

Mesenteric ischaemia

  1. 122 For a review of acute small bowel ischaemia, see web reference below [Link] 594

  2. 123 Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia: etiology, diagnosis, and interventional therapy. [Link] 594

  3. 124 Biphasic CT with mesenteric CT angiography in the evaluation of acute mesenteric ischemia: initial experience. Author: Kirkpatrick ID, Kroeker MA, Greenberg HM. Journal: Radiology; 2003 Oct; 229(1):91-8. PubMed ID: 12944600. [Link] 594

  4. 125 Systematic review of survival after acute mesenteric ischaemia according to disease aetiology. Author: Schoots IG, Koffeman GI, Legemate DA, Levi M, van Gulik TM. Journal: Br J Surg; 2004 Jan; 91(1):17-27. PubMed ID: 14716789. [Link] 594

  5. 126 MR angiography: noninvasive vascular imaging of the abdomen. Author: Laissy JP, Trillaud H, Douek P. Journal: Abdom Imaging; 2002 Sep-Oct; 27(5):488-506. PubMed ID: 12172987. [Link] 594

  6. 127 Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in the treatment of chronic mesenteric ischemia: results and 3 years of follow-up in 23 patients. Author: Maspes F, Mazzetti di Pietralata G, Gandini R, Innocenzi L, Lupattelli L, Barzi F, Simonetti G. Journal: Abdom Imaging; 1998 Jul-Aug; 23(4):358-63. PubMed ID: 9663269. [Link] 594

  7. 128 Collateral mesenteric circulation. Author: Fisher DF, Fry WJ. Journal: Surg Gynecol Obstet; 1987 May; 164(5):487-92. PubMed ID: 3554567. [Link] 595

  8. 129 The adequacy of the marginal blood-supply to the left colon after high ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery during excision of the rectum. GOLIGHER JC. Br J Surg; 1954 Jan; 41(168):351-3. PubMed ID: 13126470 [Link] 595

  9. 130 For a review of gastric volvulus, see web reference below [Link] 595 Limb ischaemia

  10. 131 Thrombangiitis obliterans (Buerger’s disease): still a limb threatening disease. Author: Van Damme H, De Leval L, Creemers E, Limet R. Journal: Acta Chir Belg; 1997 Oct; 97(5):229-36. PubMed ID: 9394964. [Link] 596

  11. 132 Gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography as first-line preoperative imaging in high-risk patients with lower limb ischemia. Author: Brillet PY, Vayssairat M, Tassart M, Deux JF, Bazot M, Allaire E, Boudghene F. Journal: J Vasc Interv Radiol; 2003 Sep; 14(9 Pt 1):1139-45. PubMed ID: 14514805.[Link] 596

  12. 133 Exercise training versus angioplasty for stable claudication. Long and medium term results of a prospective, randomised trial. [Link] 596

  13. 134 Does supervised exercise offer adjuvant benefit over exercise advice alone for the treatment of intermittent claudication? A randomised trial. Author: Cheetham DR, Burgess L, Ellis M, Williams A, Greenhalgh RM, Davies AH. Journal: Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg; 2004 Jan; 27(1):17-23. PubMed ID: 14652832. [Link] 596

  14. 135 Vein versus polytetrafluoroethylene in above-knee femoropopliteal bypass grafting: five-year results of a randomized controlled trial. Author: Klinkert P, Schepers A, Burger DH, van Bockel JH, Breslau PJ. Journal: J Vasc Surg; 2003 Jan; 37(1):149-55. PubMed ID: 12514593. [Link] 596

  15. 136 Warfarin improves the outcome of infrainguinal vein bypass grafting at high risk for failure. Author: Sarac TP, Huber TS, Back MR, Ozaki CK, Carlton LM, Flynn TC, Seeger JM. Journal: J Vasc Surg; 1998 Sep; 28(3):446-57. PubMed ID: 9737454. [Link] 596

  16. 137 Major lower extremity amputation: outcome of a modern series. Author: Aulivola B, Hile CN, Hamdan AD, Sheahan MG, Veraldi JR, Skillman JJ, Campbell DR, Scovell SD, LoGerfo FW, Pomposelli FB. Journal: Arch Surg; 2004 Apr; 139(4):395-9; discussion 399. PubMed ID: 15078707. [Link] 596

  17. 138 Gabapentin in postamputation phantom limb pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Author: Bone M, Critchley P, Buggy DJ. Journal: Reg Anesth Pain Med; 2002 Sep-Oct; 27(5):481-6. PubMed ID: 12373695. [Link] 596

  18. 139 Surgery versus thrombolysis for acute limb ischaemia: initial management. [Link] 597

Obstruction of the bowel

  1. 140 For an exposition on Ogilvie’s syndrome see the reference below. [Link] 599

  2. 141 Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction. Journal: Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol; 2005 Feb; 8(1):3-11. PubMed ID: 15625029. [Link] 599

Some paediatric surgical emergencies

  1. 142 An idea suggested by Dr. P.S. Ireland, reflecting on current dietary habit after a consultation with a patient with intussusception [Link] 600

Torsion of the testisNo links

Urinary retention and benign prostatic hypertrophy

  1. 143 Tamsulosin in the management of patients in acute urinary retention from benign prostatic hyperplasia. Author: Lucas MG, Stephenson TP, Nargund V. Journal: BJU Int; 2005 Feb; 95(3):354-7. PubMed ID: 15679793. [Link] 602

  2. 144 Comparison of long-term results of transurethral incision of the prostate with transurethral resection of the prostate, in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy. Author: Tkocz M, Prajsner A. Journal: Neurourol Urodyn; 2002; 21(2):112-6. PubMed ID: 11857663. [Link] 602

  3. 145 A randomized prospective study of laser ablation of the prostate versus transurethral resection of the prostate in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Author: Shingleton WB, Terrell F, Renfroe DL, Kolski JM, Fowler JE. Journal: Urology; 1999 Dec; 54(6):1017-21. PubMed ID: 10604701. [Link] 602

  4. 146 Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Author: Wilt T, Ishani A, Mac Donald R. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2002; (3):CD001423. PubMed ID: 12137626. [Link] 602

  5. 147 Saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Author: Bent S, Kane C, Shinohara K, Neuhaus J, Hudes ES, Goldberg H, Avins AL. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2006 Feb 9; 354(6):557-66. PubMed ID: 16467543. [Link] 602

  6. 148 A comparison of the effect of 1.5% glycine and 5% glucose irrigants on plasma serum physiology and the incidence of transurethral resection syndrome during prostate resection. Author: Collins JW, Macdermott S, Bradbrook RA, Keeley FX, Timoney AG. Journal: BJU Int; 2005 Aug; 96(3):368-72. PubMed ID: 16042732. [Link] 603

(footnote) Urology. 1999 Nov;54(5):857-61. Lechevallier E, Eghazarian C, Ortega JC, Roux F, Coulange C. Effect of digital rectal examination on serum complexed and free prostate-specific antigen and percentage of free prostate-specific antigen. English [Link] 602

(footnote) [The effect of acute urinary retention on serum prostate specific antigen concentration] Author: Hua LX, Wu HF, Sui YG, Cheng SG, Xu ZQ. Journal: Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2002; 8(2):134-5. PubMed ID: 12479031. [Link] 602

(footnote) The influence of finasteride on the development of prostate cancer. Author: Thompson IM, Goodman PJ, Tangen CM, Lucia MS, Miller GJ, Ford LG, Lieber MM, Cespedes RD, Atkins JN, Lippman SM, Carlin SM, Ryan A, Szczepanek CM, Crowley JJ, Coltman CA. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2003 Jul 17; 349(3):215-24. PubMed ID: 12824459. [Link] 602

Urinary incontinence

  1. 149 Evaluation of female pelvic-floor muscle function and strength. Author: B” K, Sherburn M. Journal: Phys Ther; 2005 Mar; 85(3):269-82. PubMed ID: 15733051. [Link] 604

  2. 150 Duloxetine vs placebo in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence: a four-continent randomized clinical trial. Author: Millard RJ, Moore K, Rencken R, Yalcin I, Bump RC, Duloxetine UI Study Group . Journal: BJU Int; 2004 Feb; 93(3):311-8. PubMed ID: 14764128. [Link] 604

  3. 151 Burch procedure compared with sling for stress urinary incontinence: a decision analysis. [Link] 604

  4. 152 Clinical efficacy and safety of tolterodine compared to placebo in detrusor overactivity. Author: Millard R, Tuttle J, Moore K, Susset J, Clarke B, Dwyer P, Davis BE. Journal: J Urol; 1999 May; 161(5):1551-5. PubMed ID: 10210394. [Link] 605

  5. 153 Tolterodine versus oxybutynin in the treatment of urge urinary incontinence: a meta-analysis. Author: Harvey MA, Baker K, Wells GA. Journal: Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2001 Jul; 185(1):56-61. PubMed ID: 11483904. [Link] 605

  6. 154 Use of peripheral neuromodulation of the S3 region for treatment of detrusor overactivity: a urodynamic-based study. Author: Klingler HC, Pycha A, Schmidbauer J, Marberger M. Journal: Urology; 2000 Nov 1; 56(5):766-71. PubMed ID: 11068296. [Link] 605

  7. 155 For the budding urologist see: Improving Outcomes in Urological Cancers. NICE Cancer Service Guideline: Improving Outcomes in Urological Cancers, downloadable from: [Link] 606

Urinary tract malignancies

  1. 156 Preoperative evaluation of renal anatomy and renal masses with helical CT, 3D-CT and 3D-CT angiography. Author: Toprak U, Erdo_an A, G”lbay M, Karademir MA, Pa_ao_lu E, Akar OE. Journal: Diagn Interv Radiol; 2005 Mar; 11(1):35-40. PubMed ID: 15795842. [Link] 606

  2. 157 Preoperative imaging in renal cell cancer. Author: Heidenreich A, Ravery V, European Society of Oncological Urology . Journal: World J Urol; 2004 Nov; 22(5):307-15. PubMed ID: 15290202. [Link] 606

  3. 158 Which is the real gold standard for small-volume renal tumors? Radical nephrectomy versus nephron-sparing surgery. Author: Manikandan R, Srinivasan V, Ran” A. Journal: J Endourol; 2004 Feb; 18(1):39-44. PubMed ID: 15006052. [Link] 606

  4. 159 Interleukin-2- and interferon alfa-2a-based immunochemotherapy in advanced renal cell carcinoma: a Prospectively Randomized Trial of the German Cooperative Renal Carcinoma Chemoimmunotherapy Group (DGCIN). Author: Atzpodien J et al. Prospectively Randomized Trial of the German Cooperative Renal Carcinoma Chemoimmunotherapy Group (DGCIN) . Journal: J Clin Oncol; 2004 Apr 1; 22(7):1188-94. PubMed ID: 14981107. [Link] 606

  5. 160 Noninvasive detection of clinically occult lymph-node metastases in prostate cancer. Author: Harisinghani MG, Barentsz J, Hahn PF, Deserno WM, Tabatabaei S, van de Kaa CH, de la Rosette J, Weissleder R. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2003 Jun 19; 348(25):2491-9. PubMed ID: 12815134. [Link] 606

  6. 161 Radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in early prostate cancer. Author: Bill-Axelson A, Holmberg L, Ruutu M, H”ggman M, Andersson SO, Bratell S, Sp”ngberg A, Busch C, Nordling S, Garmo H, Palmgren J, Adami HO, Norl”n BJ, Johansson JE, Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study No. 4 . Journal: N Engl J Med; 2005 May 12; 352(19):1977-84. PubMed ID: 15888698. [Link] 606

  7. 162 Androgen suppression adjuvant to definitive radiotherapy in prostate carcinoma--long-term results of phase III RTOG 85-31. Author: Pilepich MV, Winter K, Lawton CA, Krisch RE, Wolkov HB, Movsas B, Hug EB, Asbell SO, Grignon D. Journal: Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Apr 1; 61(5):1285-90. PubMed ID: 15817329. [Link] 606

  8. 163 Natural experiment examining impact of aggressive screening and treatment on prostate cancer mortality in two fixed cohorts from Seattle area and Connecticut. Author: Lu-Yao G, Albertsen PC, Stanford JL, Stukel TA, Walker-Corkery ES, Barry MJ. Journal: BMJ; 2002 Oct 5; 325(7367):740. PubMed ID: 12364300. [Link] 607

  9. 164 For the full TNM staging of prostatic carcinoma see: www.prostateinfo.com/patient/treatment/tnm.asp 607

  10. 165 British Journal of Cancer (2006) 94, 1361-1368. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603105. A model of the natural history of screen-detected prostate cancer, and the effect of radical treatment on overall survival. C Parker [Link] 607

  11. 166 British Journal of Cancer (2006) 94, 1361-1368. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603105. A model of the natural history of screen-detected prostate cancer, and the effect of radical treatment on overall survival. C Parker [Link] 607 Bladder tumours

  12. 167 Intravesical bacille Calmette-Gu”rin versus mitomycin C in superficial bladder cancer: formal meta-analysis of comparative studies on tumor progression. Author: B”hle A, Bock PR. Journal: Urology; 2004 Apr; 63(4):682-6; discussion 686-7. PubMed ID: 15072879. [Link] 608

  13. 168 Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for invasive bladder cancer. Author: Advanced Bladder Cancer Overview Collaboration . Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (2):CD005246. PubMed ID: 15846746. [Link] 608

  14. 169 How safe is 1% alum irrigation in controlling intractable vesical hemorrhage? Author: Goswami AK, Mahajan RK, Nath R, Sharma SK. Journal: J Urol; 1993 Feb; 149(2):264-7. PubMed ID: 8426397.[Link] 608

  15. 170 Isolated asymptomatic microhematuria: a cross-sectional analysis of test-positive and test-negative patients. Author: Mohr DN, Offord KP, Melton LJ. Journal: J Gen Intern Med; 1987 Sep-Oct; 2(5):318-24. PubMed ID: 3498809. [Link]” 609

  16. 171 Time to abandon testing for microscopic haematuria in adults? Malmstr”m PU. BMJ; 2003 Apr 12; 326(7393):813-5. PubMed ID: 12689982 [Link] 609

  17. 172 The effect of exercise intensity on hematuria in healthy male runners. Author: McInnis MD, Newhouse IJ, von Duvillard SP, Thayer R. Journal: Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol; 1998 Dec; 79(1):99-105. PubMed ID: 10052668. [Link] 609

Breast lumps and breast carcinoma

  1. 173 Favourable and unfavourable effects on long-term survival of radiotherapy for early breast cancer: an overview of the randomised trials. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Journal: Lancet; 2000 May 20; 355(9217):1757-70. PubMed ID: 10832826. [Link] 610

  2. 174 Effects of radiotherapy and surgery in early breast cancer. An overview of the randomized trials. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Journal: N Engl J Med; 1995 Nov 30; 333(22):1444-55. PubMed ID: 7477144. [Link] 610

  3. 175 Tamoxifen for early breast cancer: an overview of the randomised trials. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Journal: Lancet; 1998 May 16; 351(9114):1451-67. PubMed ID: 9605801. [Link] 610

  4. 176 Ovarian ablation for early breast cancer. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2000; (2):CD000485. PubMed ID: 10796722. [Link] 610

  5. 177 Use of chemotherapy plus a monoclonal antibody against HER 2 for metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses HER2. Author: Slamon DJ, Leyland-Jones B, Shak S, Fuchs H, Paton V, Bajamonde A, Fleming T, Eiermann W, Wolter J, Pegram M, Baselga J, Norton L. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2001 Mar 15; 344(11):783-92. PubMed ID: 11248153. [Link] 610

  6. 178 Deaths from breast cancer fall dramatically in UK and US BMJ; 2000 May 27; 320(7247):1428A. PubMed ID: 0010827041 www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/320/7247/1428/a 610

  7. 179 Initial Results of the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) Released: Osteoporosis Drug Raloxifene Shown to be as Effective as Tamoxifen in Preventing Invasive Breast Cancer [Link] 610

  8. 180 A randomized comparison of sentinel-node biopsy with routine axillary dissection in breast cancer. Author: Veronesi U, Paganelli G, Viale G, Luini A, Zurrida S, Galimberti V, Intra M, Veronesi P, Robertson C, Maisonneuve P, Renne G, De Cicco C, De Lucia F, Gennari R. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2003 Aug 7; 349(6):546-53. PubMed ID: 12904519. [Link] 611

(footnote) Benign breast disease and the risk of breast cancer. Author: Hartmann LC, Sellers TA, Frost MH, Lingle WL, Degnim AC, Ghosh K, Vierkant RA, Maloney SD, Pankratz VS, Hillman DW, Suman VJ, Johnson J, Blake C, Tlsty T, Vachon CM, Melton LJ, Visscher DW. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2005 Jul 21; 353(3):229-37. PubMed ID: 16034008. [Link] 611

Colorectal adenocarcinoma

  1. 181 Environmental and other risk factors for colorectal carcinogenesis. Author: Papapolychroniadis C. Journal: Tech Coloproctol; 2004 Nov; 8 Suppl 1():s7-9. PubMed ID: 15655649. [Link] 612

  2. 182 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and molecular carcinogenesis of colorectal carcinomas. Author: Huls G, Koornstra JJ, Kleibeuker JH. Journal: Lancet; 2003 Jul 19; 362(9379):230-2. PubMed ID: 12885487. [Link] 612

  3. 183 For the latest NICE guidance on treating colorectal cancer see: Improving Outcomes in Colorectal Cancers, downloadable from: [Link] 612

  4. 184 Suturing or stapling in gastrointestinal surgery: a prospective randomized study. West of Scotland and Highland Anastomosis Study Group. Journal: Br J Surg; 1991 Mar; 78(3):337-41. PubMed ID: 2021851. [Link] 612

  5. 185 Preoperative radiotherapy for resectable rectal cancer: A meta-analysis. Author: Camm” C, Giunta M, Fiorica F, Pagliaro L, Crax” A, Cottone M. Journal: JAMA; 2000 Aug 23-30; 284(8):1008-15. PubMed ID: 10944647. [Link] 612

  6. 186 Adjuvant preoperative radiotherapy in patients with rectal carcinoma. Adverse effects during long term follow-up of two randomized trials. Author: Holm T, Singnomklao T, Rutqvist LE, Cedermark B. Journal: Cancer; 1996 Sep 1; 78(5):968-76. PubMed ID: 8780533. [Link] 612

  7. 187 Adjuvant 5FU plus levamisole in colonic or rectal cancer: improved survival in stage II and III. Author: Taal BG, Van Tinteren H, Zoetmulder FA, NACCP group . Journal: Br J Cancer; 2001 Nov 16; 85(10):1437-43. PubMed ID: 11720425. [Link] 612

  8. 188 For a review of management of colorectal cancer, see A Leslie 2002 Postgrad Med J 78:473-8 www.postgradmedj.com 612

  9. 189 Anastomotic leakage is predictive of diminished survival after potentially curative resection for colorectal cancer. Author: Walker KG, Bell SW, Rickard MJ, Mehanna D, Dent OF, Chapuis PH, Bokey EL. Journal: Ann Surg; 2004 Aug; 240(2):255-9. PubMed ID: 15273549. [Link] 612

  10. 190 For an overiew on screening for colorectal cancer see: Clinical practice. Screening for colorectal cancer. Ransohoff DF, Sandler RS. N Engl J Med; 2002 Jan 3; 346(1):40-4. PubMed ID: 11778002[Link] 613

  11. 191 Flexible sigmoidoscopy in the PLCO cancer screening trial: results from the baseline screening examination of a randomized trial. Author: Weissfeld JL, Schoen RE, Pinsky PF, Bresalier RS, Church T, Yurgalevitch S, Austin JH, Prorok PC, Gohagan JK, PLCO Project Team . Journal: J Natl Cancer Inst; 2005 Jul 6; 97(13):989-97. PubMed ID: 15998952. [Link] 613

Carcinoma of the stomach/Carcinoma of the oesophagus

  1. 192 [Link] [Link] 614

  2. 192 Laparoscopy significantly improves the perceived preoperative stage of gastric cancer. Author: Blackshaw GR, Barry JD, Edwards P, Allison MC, Thomas GV, Lewis WG. Journal: Gastric Cancer; 2003; 6(4):225-9. PubMed ID: 14716516. [Link] 614

  3. 193 Chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer. Author: Wagner AD, Grothe W, Behl S, Kleber G, Grothey A, Haerting J, Fleig WE. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (2):CD004064. PubMed ID: 15846694. [Link] 614

  4. 194 Guidelines for the management of oesophageal and gastric cancer. Allum WH, Griffin SM, Watson A, Colin-Jones D, Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland , British Society of Gastroenterology , British Association of Surgical Oncology . Gut; 2002 Jun; 50 Suppl 5():v1-23. PubMed ID: 12049068 [Link] 614

  5. 195 Preoperative chemotherapy for resectable thoracic esophageal cancer. Author: Malthaner R, Fenlon D. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2003; (4):CD001556. PubMed ID: 14583936. [Link]614

  6. 196 Neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy for resectable esophageal cancer: a clinical practice guideline. Author: Malthaner RA, Wong RK, Rumble RB, Zuraw L, Gastrointestinal Cancer Disease Site Group of Cancer Care Ontario’s Program in Evidence-based Care . Journal: BMC Cancer; 2004 Sep 24; 4():67. PubMed ID: 15447791. [Link] 614

  7. 197 Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy (without surgery) compared with radiotherapy alone in localized carcinoma of the esophagus. Author: Wong R, Malthaner R. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2001; (2):CD002092. PubMed ID: 11406033. [Link] 614

  8. 198 For an exposition on the proposed development of cancer services in the UK see: The NHS Cancer Plan, downloadable from: [Link] 615

(footnote) Effect of a surgical training programme on outcome of rectal cancer in the County of Stockholm. Stockholm Colorectal Cancer Study Group, Basingstoke Bowel Cancer Research Project. Author: Martling AL, Holm T, Rutqvist LE, Moran BJ, Heald RJ, Cedemark B. Journal: Lancet; 2000 Jul 8; 356(9224):93-6. PubMed ID: 10963244. [Link] 612

Lumps

  1. 199 Dercum’s disease: a severe complication in a rare disease. A case report Author: Haddad D, Athmani B, Costa A, Cartier S. Journal: Ann Chir Plast Esthet; 2005 Jun; 50(3):247-50. PubMed ID: 15963847. [Link] 616

  2. 200 Improving the results of ganglion aspiration by the use of hyaluronidase. Author: Paul AS, Sochart DH. Journal: J Hand Surg [Br]; 1997 Apr; 22(2):219-21. PubMed ID: 9149991. [Link] 616

  3. 201 No link available 617Lumps in the groin and scrotum

  4. 202 Analysis of 508 infertile male patients in south-western Finland in 1980-2000: hormonal status and factors predisposing to immunological infertility. Author: Ver“j”nkorva E, Laato M, P“ll”nen P. Journal: Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2003 Dec 10; 111(2):173-8. PubMed ID: 14597247. [Link] 618

  5. 203 Association for Genitourinary Medicine (AGUM), Medical Society for the Study of Venereal Disease (MSSVVD). 2002 national guideline for the management of epididymo-orchitis. [Link] 618

  6. 204 Upper genital tract infection in men--Epididymitis [Link] 618

  7. 205 Casparie M 2004 Pubmed 15211966 618

(footnote) Assessment of efficacy of varicocele repair for male subfertility: a systematic review. Author: Evers JL, Collins JA. Journal: Lancet; 2003 May 31; 361(9372):1849-52. PubMed ID: 12788571. [Link]619

Lumps in the neck(footnote) Kikuchi’s disease: a Singapore case series. Author: Poulose V, Chiam P, Poh WT. Journal: Singapore Med J; 2005 May; 46(5):229-32. PubMed ID: 15858692. [Link] 620

Lumps in the thyroid

  1. 206 Can cytology accurately predict benign follicular nodules? Author: Smith J, Cheifetz RE, Schneidereit N, Berean K, Thomson T. Journal: Am J Surg; 2005 May; 189(5):592-5; discussion 595. PubMed ID: 15862502. [Link] 622

  2. 207 Thyroid carcinoma. Author: Sherman SI. Journal: Lancet; 2003 Feb 8; 361(9356):501-11. PubMed ID: 12583960. [Link] 622

Abdominal masses No links

Around the anus

  1. 208 Topical capsaicin--a novel and effective treatment for idiopathic intractable pruritus ani: a randomised, placebo controlled, crossover study. Author: Lysy J, Sistiery-Ittah M, Israelit Y, Shmueli A, Strauss-Liviatan N, Mindrul V, Keret D, Goldin E. Journal: Gut; 2003 Sep; 52(9):1323-6. PubMed ID: 12912865. [Link] 626

  2. 209 Ischaemic nature of anal fissure. Author: Schouten WR, Briel JW, Auwerda JJ, De Graaf EJ. Journal: Br J Surg; 1996 Jan; 83(1):63-5. PubMed ID: 8653368. [Link] 626

  3. 210 Progress in the understanding and treatment of chronic anal fissure. Author: McCallion K, Gardiner KR. Journal: Postgrad Med J; 2001 Dec; 77(914):753-8. PubMed ID: 11723312. [Link] 626

  4. 211 Operative procedures for fissure in ano. Author: Nelson R. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (2):CD002199. PubMed ID: 15846630. [Link] 626

  5. 212 MR imaging of fistula-in-ano. Author: Halligan S, Buchanan G. Journal: Eur J Radiol; 2003 Aug; 47(2):98-107. PubMed ID: 12880990. [Link] 626

  6. 213 Pre-operative assessment of anal fistulas using endoanal ultrasound. Author: Lengyel AJ, Hurst NG, Williams JG. Journal: Colorectal Dis; 2002 Nov; 4(6):436-40. PubMed ID: 12790915. [Link] 626

  7. 214 Randomized clinical trial comparing primary closure with the Limberg flap in the treatment of primary sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease. Author: Akca T, Colak T, Ustunsoy B, Kanik A, Aydin S. Journal: Br J Surg; 2005 Sep; 92(9):1081-4. PubMed ID: 16078300. [Link] 626

  8. 215 Surgical management of rectal prolapse. Author: Madiba TE, Baig MK, Wexner SD. Journal: Arch Surg; 2005 Jan; 140(1):63-73. PubMed ID: 15655208. [Link] 626

  9. 216 For a review of anal carcinoma, see N Esiashvili 2002 The Oncologist 7:188-199 www.theoncologist.com 627

(footnote) [EUS results of malignant rectal giant condyloma acuminatum (Buschke-Loewenstein tumor)] Author: Strock P, Barrioz T, Lauroy J, Babin P, Mordi A, Fort E, Laurin C, Sevestre C, Silvain C. Journal: Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2004 Aug-Sep; 28(8-9):801-3. PubMed ID: 15646541. [Link] 627

(footnote) Online dermatology library image. [Link] 627

Haemorrhoids (piles)

  1. 217 A randomized controlled trial of rubber band ligation versus infra-red coagulation in the treatment of internal haemorrhoids. Author: Poen AC, Felt-Bersma RJ, Cuesta MA, Devill” W, Meuwissen SG. Journal: Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2000 May; 12(5):535-9. PubMed ID: 10833097. [Link] 628

  2. 218 Long stapled haemorrhoidectomy versus Milligan-Morgan procedure: short- and long-term results of a randomised, controlled, prospective trial Author: Ascanelli S, Gregorio C, Tonini G, Baccarini M, Azzena G. Journal: Chir Ital; 2005 Jul-Aug; 57(4):439-47. PubMed ID: 16060181. [Link] 628

  3. 219 Double-blind randomised controlled trial of effect of metronidazole on pain after day-case haemorrhoidectomy. Author: Carapeti EA, Kamm MA, McDonald PJ, Phillips RK. Journal: Lancet; 1998 Jan 17; 351(9097):169-72. PubMed ID: 9449871. [Link] 628

Hernias

  1. 220 Long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of suture versus mesh repair of incisional hernia. Author: Burger JW, Luijendijk RW, Hop WC, Halm JA, Verdaasdonk EG, Jeekel J. Journal: Ann Surg; 2004 Oct; 240(4):578-83; discussion 583-5. PubMed ID: 15383785. [Link] 630

  2. 221 Ward reduction without general anaesthesia versus reduction and repair under general anaesthesia for gastroschisis in newborn infants. Author: Davies MW, Kimble RM, Woodgate PG. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2002; (3):CD003671. PubMed ID: 12137704. [Link] 631

Inguinal hernias

  1. 222 Transabdominal pre-peritoneal (TAPP) vs totally extraperitoneal (TEP) laparoscopic techniques for inguinal hernia repair. Author: Wake BL, McCormack K, Fraser C, Vale L, Perez J, Grant AM. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (1):CD004703. PubMed ID: 15674961. [Link] 632

Varicose veins (VVs)

  1. 223 The epidemiology of chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins. Author: Beebe-Dimmer JL, Pfeifer JR, Engle JS, Schottenfeld D. Journal: Ann Epidemiol; 2005 Mar; 15(3):175-84. PubMed ID: 15723761. [Link] 634

  2. 224 Currently under investigation by NICE. Check progress at: [Link] 635

  3. 225 Surgery versus sclerotherapy for the treatment of varicose veins. Author: Rigby KA, Palfreyman SJ, Beverley C, Michaels JA. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2004; (4):CD004980. PubMed ID: 15495134. [Link] 654

  4. 226 J Herman 1997 BMJ 315 [Link] 635

Gastric surgery and its aftermath

  1. 227 Extended versus limited lymph nodes dissection technique for adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Author: McCulloch P, Nita ME, Kazi H, Gama-Rodrigues J. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2004; (4):CD001964. PubMed ID: 15495024. [Link] 636

  2. 228 Afferent loop obstruction presenting as acute pancreatitis and pseudocyst: case reports and review of the literature. Author: Conter RL, Converse JO, McGarrity TJ, Koch KL. Journal: Surgery; 1990 Jul; 108(1):22-7. PubMed ID: 2360186. [Link] 636

  3. 229 For a description of Dumping Syndrome see: [Link] 636

  4. 230 229 Long-term effect of alpha-glucosidase inhibitor on late dumping syndrome. Author: Hasegawa T, Yoneda M, Nakamura K, Ohnishi K, Harada H, Kyouda T, Yoshida Y, Makino I. Journal: J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 1998 Dec; 13(12):1201-6. PubMed ID: 9918426. [Link] 636

  5. 231 For an account of Billroth’s life and achievements see: [Link] 637

  6. 232 Don’t forget Polya! [Link]

  7. 637Operations for peptic ulcers

  8. 233 Laparoscopic Highly Selective Vagotomy. Journal: Semin Laparosc Surg; 1994 Sep; 1(3):150-153. PubMed ID: 10401051. [Link] 638

  9. 234 Laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer: a meta-analysis. Author: Lau H. Journal: Surg Endosc; 2004 Jul; 18(7):1013-21. PubMed ID: 15136924. [Link] 638

Fundoplication for gastro-oesophageal reflux No links

Minimally invasive surgery

  1. 235 Laparoscopic versus open surgery for suspected appendicitis. Author: Sauerland S, Lefering R, Neugebauer EA. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2004; (4):CD001546. PubMed ID: 15495014.[Link] 640

  2. 236 Transabdominal pre-peritoneal (TAPP) vs totally extraperitoneal (TEP) laparoscopic techniques for inguinal hernia repair. Author: Wake BL, McCormack K, Fraser C, Vale L, Perez J, Grant AM. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (1):CD004703. PubMed ID: 15674961. [Link] 640

  3. 237 Short term benefits for laparoscopic colorectal resection. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005 Jul 20; 3():CD003145. PubMed ID: 16034888. [Link] 640

  4. 238 Laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer: a meta-analysis. Author: Lau H. Journal: Surg Endosc; 2004 Jul; 18(7):1013-21. PubMed ID: 15136924. [Link] 640

  5. 239 Immunologic postoperative competence after laparoscopy versus laparotomy. Author: Bolla G, Tuzzato G. Journal: Surg Endosc; 2003 Aug; 17(8):1247-50. PubMed ID: 12799884. [Link] 640

  6. 240 See: [Link] 640

Chapter 15: Epidemiology

Epidemiology

  1. 1 Lancet 1996 348 1251 [Link]; page 642

  2. 2 Dr Peter Bribdle 2005 risk calculations--see NICE and SIGN guidelines and British study of over 12,000 people published in the November issue of the British Journal of General Practice [Link]; page 642

Evidence-based medicine (EBM)

  1. 3 F Davidoff 1995 bmj i 1085 & W Rosenberg 1995 bmj i 1122 & ii 259 [Link]; page 644

  2. 4 Evidence-based Medicine bma, Journal marketing dept, po box 299, London wc1h 9jp-tel. 020 7383 6270. See L Ridsdale Evidence-based General Practice, isbn 0 7020 1611” & A Miles 1995 Effective Clinical Practice, Blackwell 644 5 ASTIN: a Bayesian adaptive dose-response trial in acute stroke. Author: Grieve AP, Krams M. Journal: Clin Trials; 2005; 2(4):340-51; discussion 352-8, 364-78. PubMed ID: 16281432. [Link]; page 644

  3. 6 F Davidoff 1995 bmj i 1085 & W Rosenberg 1995 bmj i 1122 & ii 259 [Link]; page 644

Six to five against

  1. 7 D Runyon `A Nice Price’, in Runyon on Broadway, 1950, Constable [Link]; page 646

Investigations change the odds

  1. 8 BMJ 2001;323:372 Is it possible to exclude a diagnosis of myocardial damage within six hours of admission to an emergency department? Diagnostic cohort study. K Herren [Link]; page 648

  2. 10 C Hawke 1997 BMJ i 1690 [Link]; page 648

  3. 11 P Moayeddi 1997 bmj i 119 [Link]; page 648

  4. 11 Rees Rules were first formulated in The Times on June 9th 1988, page 15 650 12 E Black Diagnostic Strategies 2e 33 Am Col Physic [Link]; page 648

Clin Biochem. 2003 Feb;36(1):27-30. Agewall S. Evaluation of point-of-care test systems using the new definition of myocardial infarction. English [Link]; page 648

Number needed to treat (NNT)/Screening13 No reference available page 650 14 Rees Rules were first formulated in The Times on June 9th 1988, page 15 650 15 Numbers needed to treat derived from meta-analyses--sometimes informative, usually misleading L Smeeth [Link]; page 651

  1. 16 Confidence intervals for the number needed to treat DG Altman [Link]; page 651

Chapter 16: Clinical chemistry

Clinical chemistry No links

On being normal in the society of numbersNo links

The laboratory and ward tests No links

Intravenous fluid therapy

  1. 1 Proc Nutr Soc; 2004 Aug; 63(3):453-66. PubMed ID: 15373958 page 656

IV fluids on the surgical ward No links

Acid-base balance No links

Kidney function

  1. 2 R Gabriel Postgraduate Nephrology 3 ed, Butterworth; page 660

  2. 3 A Levey Ann Intern Med. 1999 Mar 16;130(6):461-70A more accurate method to estimate glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine: a new prediction equation. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group. [Link]; page 661

  3. 4 No reference available; page 661

Urate and the kidney No links

Electrolyte physiology

  1. 5 BRS/RA INTEGRATED CONFERENCE 2006At What Level Does Quantification of Estimated GFR Cease to Become Useful?. M Kao Department of Renal Medicine, Ninewells Hospital,The level of correlation declined with increasing GFR (r2 value of 0.661 in GFR<60 ml/min/1.73m2, r

  2. 2 of 0.255 in GFR between 60-90 ml/min/1.73m2 and r

  3. 2 of 0.068 in GFR >90 ml/min/1.73m2). eGFR progressively underestimated with increasing GFR. [Link]; page 665

(footnote) Nagaya N, Goto Y, Nishikimi T, Uematsu M, Miyao Y, Kobayashi Y, Miyazaki S, Hamada S, Kuribayashi S, Takamiya M, Matsuo H, Kangawa K, Nonogi H. Sustained elevation on plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels associated with progressive ventricular remodelling after acute myocardial infarction. Clin Sci (Lond). 1999 Feb; 96(2): 129-36.; page 665 (twice)

Sodium: hyponatraemia/Hypernatraemia

  1. 7 N Lane 1999 bmj i 1363 [Link]; page 667

(footnote) Hillier TA, Abbott RD. Barrett EJ. Hyponatremia: evaluating the correction factor for hyperglycemia. Am J Med, 1999 Aprl 106(4): 399-403. Comment in: Am J Med. 2000 Feb;108(2): 180-1.; page 666

Potassium/ Hyperkalaemia/ Hypokalaemia No links

Calcium: physiology/Hypocalcaemia No links

Hypercalcaemia

  1. 8 Bone isoenzyme of serum alkaline phosphatase and urinary hydroxyproline excretion in thyrotoxicosis. Broulik PD [Link]; page 673

(footnote) Acid-base disorders [Link]; page 673

Metabolic bone diseases 1.Osteoporosis/ 2. Paget’s disease of bone

  1. 9 D Gatti 1999 Drugs & Aging 15 285 674

  2. 10 No reference available 674

  3. 11 TA

  4. 087 Osteoporosis - secondary prevention - Quick Reference Guide [Link]; page 674

3. Osteomalacia No links

Plasma proteins

  1. 12 Circulation 2003;107:363-369, page 678

Plasma enzymesNo links

Tumour markers

  1. 13 A Lindblom 2000 bmj i 242 1064. No hyperlink available; page 680

Hyperlipidaemia

  1. 14 Lancet 1994 344 1383 [@7968073] 682

  2. 15 nejm 1995 333 1301; page 682

  3. 16 nejm 1996 335 1001; page 682

  4. 17 Lancet 2002;360:7-22; page 682

  5. 18 Brit. Hyperlipid. Soc. 1999 Guidelines 8 46; page 682

  6. 19 Brit. Hyperlipid. Soc. 1999 Guidelines 8 46; page 682

The porphyrias

  1. 20 S Whatley 1995 Lancet 346 1007; page 684

Chapter 17: Eponymous syndromes

Behcet’s disease

  1. 1 Marshall SE. Behcet’s disease. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2004; 18: 291-311. [Link]; page 686

  2. 2 J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2004 Jan;15(1):64 Phenotypic characterization of a large European family with Brugada syndrome displaying a sudden unexpected death syndrome mutation in SCN5A: Hong K [Link]; page 687

Brown-Sequard syndrome

  1. 9 Successful liver transplantation of two brothers with crigler-najjar syndrome type 1 using a single cadaveric organ.Schauer R Transplantation 2002 Jan 15;73(1):67-9 [Link]; page 689

Budd-Chiari syndrome

  1. 3 Menon KV, Shah V, Kamath PS. The Budd-Chiari syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2004; 350: 578-85.[Link]; page 688

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)

  1. 4 Prion diseases: current understanding of epidemiology and pathogenesis, and therapeutic advances. Author: Caramelli M, Ru G, Acutis P, Forloni G. Journal: CNS Drugs; 2006; 20(1):15-28. PubMed ID: 16396521. [Link]; page 688

  2. 5 Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and vision. Author: Armstrong RA. Journal: Clin Exp Optom; 2006 Jan; 89(1):3-9. PubMed ID: 16430434. [Link]; page 688

  3. 6 Detection of Pathologic Prion Protein in the Olfactory Epithelium in Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Gianluigi Zanusso NEJM Volume 348:711-719 February 20, 2003 [Link]; page 688

  4. 7 Reference not available 688 Crigler – Najjar syndrome

  5. 8 Reference not available 688 10 Raised CSF phospho-tau concentrations in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: diagnostic and pathological implications. Author: Goodall CA, Head MW, Everington D, Ironside JW, Knight RS, Green AJ. Journal: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2006 Jan; 77(1):89-91. PubMed ID: 16361602. [Link]; page 689

Devic’s syndrome

  1. 15 Neuromyelitis optica: what it is and what it might be. Weinshenker BG. Lancet; 2003 Mar 15; 361(9361):889-90. PubMed ID: 12648964 [Link]; page 691

Dubin-Johnson syndrome

  1. 11 For a review of the molecular mechanisms behind cholestasis, see Molecular Pathogenesis of Cholestasis Michael Trauner, M.D NEJM 1998 Volume 339:1217-1227 [Link]; page 690

Ekbom’s syndrome

  1. 12 No reference available Fabry’s disease

  2. 13 WA Gahl NEJM Volume 345:55-57 July 5, 2001 [Link]; page 690

Fanconi anaemia

  1. 14 No reference available Gardner’s syndrome

  2. 16 [Gardner syndrome: clinical and epidemiologic up to date] Author: Losacco T, Punzo C, Santacroce L. Journal: Clin Ter; 2005 Nov-Dec; 156(6):267-71. PubMed ID: 16463563 [Link]; page 692

  3. 17 case report: Complete regression of colonic adenomas after treatment with sulindac in Gardner’s syndrome: a 4-year follow-up Takashi Okai Journal of Gastroenterology Volume 36 Issue 11 (2001) pp 778-782 [Link]; page 692

Gelineau’s syndrome (narcolepsy)18 Narcolepsy and the HLA System NEJM 2001 Volume 344:692 March 1, 2001 Emmanuel Mignot, M.D., Ph.D [Link]; page 692

  1. 21 Atonic Seizures by Roberto Michelucci, Carlo Alberto Tassinari, and Masakazu Seino. June 28, 2004[Link]; page 693

  2. 22 Reevaluating spells initially identified as cataplexy.Author: Krahn LE. Journal: Sleep Med; 2005 Nov; 6(6):537-42. PubMed ID: 15994123. [Link]; page 693

  3. 24 Presentation and frequency of catatonia in new admissions to two acute psychiatric admission units in India and Wales. Author: Chalasani P, Healy D, Morriss R. Journal: Psychol Med; 2005 Nov; 35(11):1667-75. PubMed ID: 16219124. [Link]; page 693

  4. 25 Catatonia causing permanent cognitive impairment: a case study. Author: Baker IW, Jackson M, Bass C. Journal: Cogn Behav Neurol; 2005 Sep; 18(3):141-3. PubMed ID: 16175016. [Link]; page 693

  5. 25 Reevaluating spells initially identified as cataplexy. Author: Krahn LE. Journal: Sleep Med; 2005 Nov; 6(6):537-42. PubMed ID: 15994123. [Link]; page 695

Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

  1. 19 Abnormal thalamic volume in treatment-na?ve boys with Tourette syndrome. Author: Lee JS, Yoo SS, Cho SY, Ock SM, Lim MK, Panych LP. Journal: Acta Psychiatr Scand; 2006 Jan; 113(1):64-7. PubMed ID: 16390372. [Link]; page 693

  2. 26 Post-streptococcal autoimmune disorders of the central nervous system. Author: Dale RC. Journal: Dev Med Child Neurol; 2005 Nov; 47(11):785-91. PubMed ID: 16225745. [Link]; page 693Goodpasture’s syndrome

  3. 27 Update in the diagnosis and management of pulmonary vasculitis. Author: Frankel SK, Cosgrove GP, Fischer A, Meehan RT, Brown KK. Journal: Chest; 2006 Feb; 129(2):452-65. PubMed ID: 16478866. [Link]; page 693

Huntington’s chorea

  1. 28 Huntington’s disease: neurological assessment of potential gene carriers presenting for predictive DNA testing.McCusker E J Clin Neurosci 2000 Jan;7(1):38-41 [Link]; page 694

Jervell-Lange-Nielsen syndrome

  1. 29 P Duggal 1998 Circulation 97:142 694 Kaposi’s sarcoma

  2. 30 Image of kaposi’s sarcoma (foot) courtesy of the Crookston collection [Link]; page 695

  3. 31 Professor Thomas Habif www.dermnet.com; page 695 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome

  4. 32 See JH Lisko, emedicine article at: [Link]; page 696

Korsakoff’s syndrome

  1. 33 Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome--three further cases show response to donepezil. Author: Cochrane M, Cochrane A, Jauhar P, Ashton E. Journal: Alcohol Alcohol; 2005 Mar-Apr; 40(2):151-4. PubMed ID: 15596427 [Link]; page 696

Langerhans’-cell histiocytosis ( Histiocytosis X)

  1. 34 Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis R Vassalo NEJM 2000 342:1969 696 Leriche’s syndrome

  2. 35 [One-stage coronary artery bypass and extra-anatomical bypass operation in a patient with ischemic heart disease and Leriche syndrome; report of a case] Author: Yamaguchi T, Sakagoshi N, Kobayashi Y. Journal: Kyobu Geka; 2006 Feb; 59(2):153-6. PubMed ID: 16482912. [Link]; page 699

Loffler’s eosinophilic carditis

  1. 36 Loffler’s endomyocarditis in the idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. Corssmit EP Cardiology 1999;91(4):272-6 [Link]; page 696

Loffler’s syndrome (pulmonary eosinophilia)37 Loffler’s syndrome associated with Clonorchis sinensis infestation. Author: Lee HK, Jin SL, Lee HP, Choi SJ, Yum HK. Journal: Korean J Intern Med; 2003 Dec; 18(4):255-9. PubMed ID: 14717238 [Link]; page 696

Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome

  1. 38 See Daniel M Beyerbach, MD, PhD, emedicine online, at: [Link]; page 696

McArdle’s glycogen storage disease (Type V)

  1. 39 Quinlivan R, Beynon RJ. Pharmacological and nutritional treatment for McArdle’s disease (Glycogen Storage Disease type V). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(3):CD003458. [Link]; page 696

Marchiafava-Bignami syndrome

  1. 40 [Callosal dementia: behavioral disorders related to central and extrapontine myelinolysis] Author: Ghika-Schmid F, Ghika J, Assal G, Bogousslavsky J. Journal: Rev Neurol (Paris); 1999 May; 155(5):367-73. PubMed ID: 10427600. [Link]; page 696

  2. 41 Heinrich A, Runge U, Khaw AV. Clinicoradiologic subtypes of Marchiafava-Bignami disease. J Neurol. 2004; 251: 1050-9. [Link]; page 696

Marchiafava-Micheli syndrome (paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria, PNH)

  1. 42 [Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria--consequences of a missing anchor] Author: Korte W, Heijnen IA. Journal: Ther Umsch; 2006 Jan; 63(1):71-7. PubMed ID: 16450736. [Link]; page 696

  2. 43 What’s new in PNH? [Link]; page 697

  3. 44 [Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria--consequences of a missing anchor][Link]; page 697

Marfan’s syndrome

  1. 45 Judge DP, Dietz HC. Marfan’s syndrome. Lancet. 2005; 366: 1965-76. [Link]; page 698

  2. 46 Professor Jonathan Trobe [Link]; page 699

Ogilvie’s syndrome

  1. 47 Neostigmine for the Treatment of Acute Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction Ponec R. J N Engl J Med 1999; 341:137-141, Jul 15, 1999 [Link]; page 700

Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome (Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia)

  1. 48 Liver Disease in Patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao NEJM 2000 Volume 343:931-936 [Link]; page 700

Peyronie’s disease

  1. 49 Ralph DJ, Minhas S. The management of Peyronie’s disease. BJU Int. 2004; 93: 208-15. [Link]; page 700

Prinzmetal (variant) angina

  1. 50 Prinzmetal’s angina. Author: Keller KB, Lemberg L. Journal: Am J Crit Care; 2004 Jul; 13(4):350-4. PubMed ID: 15293589. [Link]; page 700

  2. 51 Endothelial function and coronary spastic angina. Author: Kawano H, Ogawa H. Journal: Intern Med; 2005 Feb; 44(2):91-9. PubMed ID: 15750267 [Link]; page 701

  3. 52 Brachytherapy: potential therapy for refractory coronary spasm. Author: Erne P, Jamshidi P, Juelke P, Hafner HP, Thum P, Resink T. Journal: J Am Coll Cardiol; 2004 Oct 6; 44(7):1415-9. PubMed ID: 15464321 [Link]; page 701

  4. 53 Changing characteristics of patients with vasospastic angina in the era of new calcium channel blockers. Author: Ito A, Fukumoto Y, Shimokawa H. Journal: J Cardiovasc Pharmacol; 2004 Oct; 44(4):480-5. PubMed ID: 15454857 [Link]; page 701

(footnote) Prinzmetal’s angina. Author: Keller KB, Lemberg L. Journal: Am J Crit Care; 2004 Jul; 13(4):350-4. PubMed ID: 15293589. [Link]; page 704

Raynaud’s syndrome

  1. 54 Image of raynaud’s phenomonon in SLE [Link]; page 702

Romano-Ward syndrome

  1. 58 No reference available 59 Mechanisms of arsenic-induced prolongation of cardiac repolarization. Author: Ficker E, Kuryshev YA, Dennis AT, Obejero-Paz C, Wang L, Hawryluk P, Wible BA, Brown AM. Journal: Mol Pharmacol; 2004 Jul; 66(1):33-44. PubMed ID: 15213294. [Link]; page 703

  2. 60 MMWR Weekly June 22, 1984 33(24);347-9 Nonfatal Arsenic Poisoning in Three Hmong Patients -- Minnesota [Link]; page 703

Sjogren’s syndrome

  1. 55 Fox RI. Sjogren’s syndrome. Lancet. 2005; 366: 321-31. [Link]; page 702

Stevens-Johnson sydrome

  1. 56 Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: a prospective noncomparative study showing no benefit on mortality or progression. Bachot N Arch Dermatol 2003 Jan;139(1):33-6 [Link]; page 702

  2. 57 Treatment of severe drug reactions: Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis and Hypersensitivity syndrome Pierre-Dominique Ghislain M.D., Jean-Claude Roujeau, M.D. Dermatology Online Journal 8(1): 5 [Link]; page 703

  3. 61 Prof. Thomas Habif www.dermnet.com; page 703 Wegener’s granulomatosis

  4. 62 S Uppal 2001 BMJ 322:89 706

Chapter 18: Radiology

Radiology

  1. 1 The booklet is downloadable from: [Link]” 711

The art of the request No links

Chest x-ray (CXR) No links

Plain abdominal x-ray (AXR)

  1. 2 Pneumatosis intestinalis--a pitfall for surgeons? Author: Braumann C, Menenakos C, Jacobi CA. Journal: Scand J Surg; 2005; 94(1):47-50. PubMed ID: 15865117. [Link] cystic diseases. 717

  2. 3 Porcelain gallbladder: [Link] 717

Computed tomography (CT)

  1. 4 Historical experiments predating commercially available computed tomography. Author: Webb S. Journal: Br J Radiol; 1992 Sep; 65(777):835-7. PubMed ID: 1393429. [Link] 718

  2. 5 Information on the role of CT head perfusion scanning: [Link] 719

  3. 6 Is computed tomography of the body overused? An audit of 2068 attendances in a large acute hospital.Author: Naik KS, Ness LM, Bowker AM, Robinson PJ Journal: Br J Radiol; 1996 Feb; 69(818):126-31. PubMed ID: 8785639. [Link] 719

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) No links

Ultrasound (US)7 Preoperative assessment of the depth of early gastric cancer invasion by transabdominal ultrasound sonography (TUS): a comparison with endoscopic ultrasound sonography (EUS). Author: Ishigami S, Yoshinaka H, Sakamoto F, Natsugoe S, Tokuda K, Nakajo A, Matsumoto M, Okumura H, Hokita S, Aikou T. Journal: Hepatogastroenterology; 2004 Jul-Aug; 51(58):1202-5. PubMed ID: 15239279. [Link]723

Nuclear medicine

  1. 8 [Link]” \o “PIOPED II: Is Spiral CT the Best and Only Test for Suspected Pulmonary Embolism?Chuong Bui A review from Medscape [Link] 725

  2. 9 Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism with various imaging modalities. Author: Srivastava SD, Eagleton MJ, Greenfield LJ. Journal: Semin Vasc Surg; 2004 Jun; 17(2):173-80. PubMed ID: 15185184. [Link]725

Radionuclide imaging in cardiology No links

Cardiac CT and MRI No links

Radiological GI procedures and imaging

  1. 10 Computer-aided detection for virtual colonoscopy. Author: Perumpillichira JJ, Yoshida H, Sahani DV. Journal: Cancer Imaging; 2005 Aug 23; 5(1):11-6. PubMed ID: 16154812. [Link] 729

  2. 11 Meta-analysis: computed tomographic colonography. Author: Mulhall BP, Veerappan GR, Jackson JL. Journal: Ann Intern Med; 2005 Apr 19; 142(8):635-50. PubMed ID: 15838071. [Link] 729

  3. 12 Radio-anatomic study of the pancreatic duct by MR cholangiopancreatography. Author: AubŽ C, Hentati N, Tanguy JY, Fournier HD, Papon X, Lebigot J, Mercier P. Journal: Surg Radiol Anat; 2003 Apr; 25(1):64-9. PubMed ID: 12647024. [Link] 729

  4. 13 Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography as a diagnostic tool for common bile duct stones: a comparison with ERCP and clinical follow-up. Author: Kats J, Kraai M, Dijkstra AJ, Koster K, Ter Borg F, Hazenberg HJ, Eeftinck Schattenkerk M, des Plantes BG, Eddes EH. Journal: Dig Surg; 2003; 20(1):32-7. PubMed ID: 12637802. [Link] 729

Urinary tract imaging

  1. 14 Pseudotumoral adenopathies, an unusual means of detecting systemic amyloidosis] Author: Ben Ghorbel I, Houman MH, Lamloum M, Romdhane NB, Daniel L, M’Timet B, Miled M. Journal: Rev Med Interne; 1999 Nov; 20(11):1037-40. PubMed ID: 10586443. [Link] 731 (footnote) The conception of this chapter owes much to the teaching of Dr. Basil Shepstone 710 Renal cystic diseases. Author: Thomsen HS, Levine E, Meilstrup JW, Van Slyke MA, Edgar KA, Barth JC, Hartman DS. Journal: Eur Radiol; 1997; 7(8):1267-75. PubMed ID: 9377514. [Link] 730

Neuroimaging No links

Contrast in imaging

  1. 15 Reference not available 735

  2. 16 Gastro-duodenal perforations: conventional plain film, US and CT findings in 166 consecutive patients. Author: Grassi R, Romano S, Pinto A, Romano L. Journal: Eur J Radiol; 2004 Apr; 50(1):30-6. PubMed ID: 15093233. [Link] 735

  3. 17 New method for the detection of intraperitoneal free air by sonography: scissors maneuver. Author: Karahan OI, Kurt A, Yikilmaz A, Kahriman G. Journal: J Clin Ultrasound; 2004 Oct; 32(8):381-5. PubMed ID: 15372444. [Link] 735

Chapter 19: Reference intervals

Reference intervals

  1. 1 Gauss, Karl Friedrich (1777-1855) [Link]; page 737

  2. 2 Medical Statistics [Link]; page 737

  3. 3 Significance Tests and Standard Error of the Mean [Link]; page 737

GentamicinNo links

Some important drug interactions No links

Haematology-reference intervalsNo links

Reference intervals (RI) - biochemistryNo links

Useful addresses (for those in the UK)No links

Chapter 20: Practical Procedures

Emergencies

  1. 1 Advanced Trauma Life Support 1993 Am. Col. Surg. page 767

  2. 2 CPR Guidelines 1997 Resus Council (UK); page 767

Headache: differential diagnosisNo links

Breathlessness: emergency presentations No links

Chest pain: differential diagnosis No links

ComaNo links

The Glasgow coma scale (GCS)

  1. 3 G Teasdale 1974 Lancetii 81 page 776

Shock

  1. 4 RL Paterson J.R.Coll.Surg.Edinb., 45, June 2000, 178-182; page 779

  2. 5 bnf 2000 ii 154 & P Ewan 1997 Prescribes’ J 37(3) 125 779

Anaphylactic shock

  1. 6 and 7 No link available Acute myocardial infarction (footnote) Circulation 1998 Nov 24;98(21):2227-34 Diaz R, Paolasso EA, Piegas LS, Tajer CD, Moreno MG, Corvalan R, Isea JE, Romero G. Metabolic modulation of acute myocardial infarction. The ECLA (Estudios Cardiologicos Latinoamerica) Collaborative Group. English [Link]; page 783

(footnote) Am J Cardiol; 2005 Oct 15; 96(8):1053-8. pubmed ID@16214437, page 783

Acute coronary syndrome-without ST elevation

  1. 8 1 British Thoracic Society 1997 Guidelines Thorax 52(Suppl.) ps1-s21; page 784

  2. 9 1 British Thoracic Society 1997 Guidelines Thorax 52(Suppl.) ps1-s21; page 785

(footnote) N Engl J Med. 2004 Apr 8;350(15):1495-504. Epub 2004 Mar 8. Cannon CP, Braunwald E, McCabe CH, Rader DJ, Rouleau JL, Belder R, Joyal SV, Hill KA, Pfeffer MA, Skene AM; Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 22 Investigators Intensive versus moderate lipid lowering with statins after acute coronary syndromes. English [Link] 785

Severe pulmonary oedema

  1. 10 N Engl J Med; 2004 Nov 11; 351(20):2049-57 [Link]; page 786

  2. 11 N Engl J Med; 2000 Jul 27; 343(4):246-53 pubmed @10911006; page 786

  3. 12 Lancet; 1998 Feb 7; 351(9100):389-93 PubMed ID: 9482291; page 787

Cardiogenic shock No links

Broad complex tachycardia No links

Narrow complex tachycardiaNo links

Acute severe asthma

  1. 13 British Thoracic Scoiety Guidelines Thorax 2003;58:Suppl II; page 794

  2. 14 The BTS/SIGN British Guideline on the Management of Asthma 2005 [Link]; page 795

Acute exacerbations of COPD No links

Pneumothorax No links

Tension pneumothorax No links

Pneumonia

  1. 15 BTS Update on the management of community acquired pneumonia in adults 2004 [Link]; page 800

Massive pulmonary embolism (PE)No links

Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

  1. 16 BSG Non-variceal upper GI haemorrhage: guidenlines Gut 2002 51 suppl IV 1-6; page 804

  2. 17 NEJM 2002;347:1594; page 804

  3. 18 1 N White Lancet 1999 353 1965 [Link] viewpoint 1965.html; page 804

  4. 19 TA Rockall Gut 1996;38:316-21; page 805

Meningitis/ Emergency management of encephalitis

  1. 20 Image of glass test for purpura courtesy of the Meningitis Research Foundation [Link] 806

  2. 21 N Engl J Med; 2001 Dec 13; 345(24):1727-33 PubMed ID: 11742046; page 806

  3. 21 The Lancet 2006; 367:397-403 DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)67932-4 Clinical recognition of meningococcal disease in children and adolescents [Link]; page 806

  4. 22 British Infection Society 2005 consensus statement [Link] 807

  5. 23 Fluid therapy for acute bacterial meningitis. Author: Oates-Whitehead R, Maconochie I, Baumer H, Stewart M. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (3):CD004786. PubMed ID: 16034949. [Link]; page 807

  6. 24 P Cowling 2000 BMJ i 247 (a critique of A Pollard 1999 bmj i 1147) [Link]; page 807

  7. 25 eMedicine; Encephalitis [Link] 807

(footnote) British Infection Society 2004 [Link]; page 807

(footnote) Activated protein C [Link] 807

Status epilepticusNo links

Head injuryNo links

Raised intracranial pressure No links

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) No links

Other diabetic emergencies

  1. 26 S Afr Med J. 1995 Mar;85(3):173-6. Hyperosmolar non-ketotic diabetic coma as a cause of emergency hyperglycaemic admission to Baragwanath Hospital. Rolfe M [Link]; page 816

Thyroid emergenciesNo links

Addisonian crisis

No links

Hypopituitary crisis No links

Phaeochromocytoma emergencies No links

Acute renal failure (ARF)-management

  1. 27 Oxford Textbook of Medicine, 3e 3280 820

Acute poisoning – general measures No links

Acute poisoning – specific points No links

Some specific poisons and their antidotes

  1. 28 2 In the uk: 01865 221332/220968/220279; page 827

  2. 29 Help on the web uk gps and other nhs workers and departments may register withtoxbase at for free up-to-date toxicological advice. [Link]; page 827

Salicylate poisoning No links

Paracetemol poisoning No links

Burns

  1. 30 Application of cerium nitrate-silver sulphadiazine allows for postponement of excision and grafting. Author: Vehmeyer-Heeman M, Tondu T, Van den Kerckhove E, Boeckx W. Journal: Burns; 2006 Feb; 32(1):60-3. PubMed ID: 16380214. [Link]; page 830

(footnote) an adult patient with burns,is the Lund and Browder chart better than the Rule of Nines at accurately assessing the area of the wound. July 2005. [Link]; page 831Hypothermia No links

Major disasters No links

Chapter 21: Emergencies

  1. 1 Advanced Trauma Life Support 1993 Am. Col. Surg. page 767

  2. 2 CPR Guidelines 1997 Resus Council (UK); page 767

  3. 3 G Teasdale 1974 Lancetii 81 page 776

  4. 4 RL Paterson J.R.Coll.Surg.Edinb., 45, June 2000, 178-182; page 779

  5. 5 bnf 2000 ii 154 & P Ewan 1997 Prescribes’ J 37(3) 125 779

  6. 8 1 British Thoracic Society 1997 Guidelines Thorax 52(Suppl.) ps1-s21; page 784

  7. 9 1 British Thoracic Society 1997 Guidelines Thorax 52(Suppl.) ps1-s21; page 785

  8. 10 N Engl J Med; 2004 Nov 11; 351(20):2049-57 [Link]; page 786

  9. 11 N Engl J Med; 2000 Jul 27; 343(4):246-53 pubmed @10911006; page 786

  10. 12 Lancet; 1998 Feb 7; 351(9100):389-93 PubMed ID: 9482291; page 787

  11. 13 British Thoracic Scoiety Guidelines Thorax 2003;58:Suppl II; page 794

  12. 14 The BTS/SIGN British Guideline on the Management of Asthma 2005 [Link]; page 795

  13. 15 BTS Update on the management of community acquired pneumonia in adults 2004 [Link]; page 800

  14. 16 BSG Non-variceal upper GI haemorrhage: guidenlines Gut 2002 51 suppl IV 1-6; page 804

  15. 17 NEJM 2002;347:1594; page 804

  16. 18 1 N White Lancet 1999 353 1965 [Link] viewpoint 1965.html; page 804

  17. 19 TA Rockall Gut 1996;38:316-21; page 805

  18. 20 Image of glass test for purpura courtesy of the Meningitis Research Foundation [Link] 806

  19. 21 N Engl J Med; 2001 Dec 13; 345(24):1727-33 PubMed ID: 11742046; page 806

  20. 21 The Lancet 2006; 367:397-403 DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)67932-4 Clinical recognition of meningococcal disease in children and adolescents [Link]; page 806

  21. 22 British Infection Society 2005 consensus statement [Link] 807

  22. 23 Fluid therapy for acute bacterial meningitis. Author: Oates-Whitehead R, Maconochie I, Baumer H, Stewart M. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (3):CD004786. PubMed ID: 16034949. [Link]; page 807

  23. 24 P Cowling 2000 BMJ i 247 (a critique of A Pollard 1999 bmj i 1147) [Link]; page 807

  24. 25 eMedicine; Encephalitis [Link] 807

  25. 26 S Afr Med J. 1995 Mar;85(3):173-6. Hyperosmolar non-ketotic diabetic coma as a cause of emergency hyperglycaemic admission to Baragwanath Hospital. Rolfe M [Link]; page 816

  26. 27 Oxford Textbook of Medicine, 3e 3280 820

  27. 28 2 In the uk: 01865 221332/220968/220279; page 827

  28. 29 Help on the web uk gps and other nhs workers and departments may register withtoxbase at for free up-to-date toxicological advice. [Link]; page 827

  29. 30 Application of cerium nitrate-silver sulphadiazine allows for postponement of excision and grafting. Author: Vehmeyer-Heeman M, Tondu T, Van den Kerckhove E, Boeckx W. Journal: Burns; 2006 Feb; 32(1):60-3. PubMed ID: 16380214. [Link]; page 830

Web-based references relating to the disc signs in footnotes, organised by page number

Circulation 1998 Nov 24;98(21):2227-34 Diaz R, Paolasso EA, Piegas LS, Tajer CD, Moreno MG, Corvalan R, Isea JE, Romero G. Metabolic modulation of acute myocardial infarction. The ECLA (Estudios Cardiologicos Latinoamerica) Collaborative Group. English [Link]; page 783

Am J Cardiol; 2005 Oct 15; 96(8):1053-8. pubmed ID@16214437, page 783

N Engl J Med. 2004 Apr 8;350(15):1495-504. Epub 2004 Mar 8. Cannon CP, Braunwald E, McCabe CH, Rader DJ, Rouleau JL, Belder R, Joyal SV, Hill KA, Pfeffer MA, Skene AM; Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 22 Investigators Intensive versus moderate lipid lowering with statins after acute coronary syndromes. English [Link] 785

British Infection Society 2004 [Link]; page 807

Activated protein C [Link] 807

an adult patient with burns,is the Lund and Browder chart better than the Rule of Nines at accurately assessing the area of the wound. July 2005. [Link]; page 831