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date: 22 October 2017

From this page you can access the internet links found in the Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine, 8th edition, using the menu below. These pages will be updated regularly, although OUP cannot guarantee that all the links will work, as we are not responsible for external content.

Web-based references relating to the disk signs and the key reference symbols, organised by page header Weblinks for Eighth Edition

Chapter 01: Thinking about medicine

Thinking about medicine

  1. 1 Useful known and unknown views of the father of modern medicine, Hippocrates and his teacher Democritus. Author: Grammaticos PC, Diamantis A. Journal: Hell J Nucl Med; 2008 Jan-Apr; 11(1):2-4. PubMed ID: 18392218. [Link]; page 0

(footnote) Do diseases have a prestige hierarchy? A survey among physicians and medical students. Author: Album D, Westin S. Journal: Soc Sci Med; 2008 Jan; 66(1):182-8. PubMed ID: 17850944. [Link]; page 1

(footnote) Oaths for physicians--necessary protection or elaborate hoax? Author: Loewy EH. Journal: MedGenMed; 2007; 9(1):7. PubMed ID: 17435616. [Link]; page 1

(footnote) SARS plague: duty of care or medical heroism? Author: Tai DY. Journal: Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2006 May; 35(5):374-8. PubMed ID: 16830007. [Link]; page 1

(footnote) No link available; page 1

Ideals

  1. 2 Standard drawing of Orion constellation; no link available; page 2

  2. 3 Lancet. 1999 Oct 16;354(9187):1320 Lancet. 1999 Oct 16;354(9187):1331 Modification of attitudes to influence survival from breast cancer. Tucker J [Link]; page 2

  3. 4 ‘Patient-time’, ‘doctor-time’, and ‘institution-time’: perceptions and definitions of time among doctors who become patients. Author: Klitzman R. Journal: Patient Educ Couns; 2007 May; 66(2):147-55. PubMed ID: 17125956. [Link]; page 3

  4. 5 Views and approaches toward risks and benefits among doctors who become patients. Author: Klitzman R. Journal: Patient Educ Couns; 2006 Dec; 64(1-3):61-8. PubMed ID: 16427761. [Link]; page 3

  5. 6 Readability statistics of patient information leaflets in a Speech and Language Therapy Department. Author: Pothier L, Day R, Harris C, Pothier DD. Journal: Int J Lang Commun Disord; 2008 Nov-Dec; 43(6):712-22. PubMed ID: 19016131. [Link]; page 3

Asking questions7 Efficacy of a Cancer Research UK communication skills training model for oncologists: a randomised controlled trial. Author: Fallowfield L, Jenkins V, Farewell V, Saul J, Duffy A, Eves R. Journal: Lancet; 2002 Feb 23; 359(9307):650-6. PubMed ID: 11879860. [Link]; page 4

  1. 8 Enduring impact of communication skills training: results of a 12-month follow-up. Author: Fallowfield L, Jenkins V, Farewell V, Solis-Trapala I. Journal: Br J Cancer; 2003 Oct 20; 89(8):1445-9. PubMed ID: 14562015. [Link]; page 4

  2. 9 Can communication skills training alter physicians’ beliefs and behavior in clinics? Author: Jenkins V, Fallowfield L. Journal: J Clin Oncol; 2002 Feb 1; 20(3):765-9. PubMed ID: 11821459. [Link]; page 4

  3. 10 Enduring impact of communication skills training: results of a 12-month follow-up. Author: Fallowfield L, Jenkins V, Farewell V, Solis-Trapala I. Journal: Br J Cancer; 2003 Oct 20; 89(8):1445-9. PubMed ID: 14562015. [Link]; page 4

  4. 11 Chest pain: communication of symptoms and history in a London emergency department. Author: Farmer SA, Roter DL, Higginson IJ. Journal: Patient Educ Couns; 2006 Oct; 63(1-2):138-44. PubMed ID: 16242896.[Link]; page 4

  5. 12 Open and closed questions. H Goodare [Link]; page 4

  6. 13 Medicine, the arts, and the humanities--lancet 3003 362 93--G Bolton [Link]; page 5

Death

  1. 14 Bill Tice, an incomplete quadriplegic and writer, no link available; page 6

  2. 15 D Payne 2000 BMJ ii 658; no link available page 7

  3. 16 R Smith 2000 A good death--An important aim for health services and for us all--The art of living well and dying well are one--Epicurus [Link]; page 7

  4. 17 How to have a good death. BMJ 2006;332:799 (1 April), doi:10.1136/bmj.332.7544; no link available; page 7

  5. 18 Improving generalist end of life care: national consultation with practitioners, commissioners, academics, and service user groups. Author: Shipman C, Gysels M, White P, Worth A, Murray SA, Barclay S, Forrest S, Shepherd J, Dale J, Dewar S, Peters M, White S, Richardson A, Lorenz K, Koffman J, Higginson IJ. Journal: BMJ; 2008; 337():a1720. PubMed ID: 18829640. [Link]; page 7

  6. 19 Review of Withholding and Withdrawing Life-Prolonging Treatments: Good Practice in Decision Making gets underway; no link available; page 7

  7. 20 Palliative sedation. J of Palliative Medicine 207 vol 10 (2) [Link]; page 7

  8. 21 Pediatric Hospital Medicine: Textbook of Inpatient Management - Google Books Resultby Ronald M. Perkin, James D. Swift, 2007 p65 [Link]; page 7

  9. 22 Is there a ceiling effect of transdermal buprenorphine? Preliminary data in cancer patients. Author: Mercadante S, Ferrera P, Villari P. Journal: Support Care Cancer; 2007 Apr; 15(4):441-4. PubMed ID: 17106658 [Link]; page 7

(footnote) [Pain management in home hospice care] Author: Sakai T, Sato A. Journal: Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 1998 Dec; 25 Suppl 4():539-43. PubMed ID: 9884636. [Link]; page 7

(footnote) No link available; page 7

(footnote) No link available; page 7

(footnote) High dose controlled-release oxycodone in hospice care. Author: Bercovitch M, Adunsky A. Journal: J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother; 2006; 20(4):33-9. PubMed ID: 17182504. [Link]; page 7

(footnote) Midazolam as adjunct therapy to morphine in the alleviation of severe dyspnea perception in patients with advanced cancer. Author: Navigante AH, Cerchietti LC, Castro MA, Lutteral MA, Cabalar ME. Journal: J Pain Symptom Manage; 2006 Jan; 31(1):38-47. PubMed ID: 16442481. [Link]; page 7

(footnote) [Additional doses of oral morphine on demand] Author: Amano N. Journal: Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 1995 Dec; 22 Suppl 4():374-7. PubMed ID: 8849278. [Link]; page 7

(footnote) Oxford Textbook of Palliative Care. p792 [Link]; page 7

(footnote) [The importance of pain control with morphine for terminally ill patient care for at home] Author: Ashino Y, Muto J, Ooigawa K, Kanno A, Inoue H, Kudo S. Journal: Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 1994 Dec; 21 Suppl 4():477-80; discussion 481. PubMed ID: 7528490. [Link]; page 7

(footnote) No link available; page 7

(footnote) Continuous intravenous morphine infusions for terminal pain control: a retrospective review. Author: Stuart GJ, Davey EB, Wight SE. Journal: Drug Intell Clin Pharm; 1986 Dec; 20(12):968-72. PubMed ID: 2434292. [Link]; page 7

(footnote) Pediatric Hospital Medicine By Ronald M. Perkin, James D. Swift, Dale A. Newton, Nick G Anas. 2007. Page 65 [Link]; page 7

(footnote) G Byrns. Terminal Sedation; No link available; page 7

(footnote) No link available; page 7

(footnote) No link available; page 7

(footnote) The Three Counties Cancer Network [Link]; page 7

(footnote) End of Life Curriculum [Link]; page 7

Prescribing drugs

  1. 23 Z Gannon 2008. Compass Investigation. Guardian 2008 April 3 p11, column 4-5 [Link]; page 8

  2. 24 Mentor decision support is an example (we declare an interest): it looks at all the drugs prescribed and matches new symptoms against know side-effects. [Link]; page 8

  3. 25 A practical assessment of physician biopsychosocial performance. Author: Margalit AP, Glick SM, Benbassat J, Cohen A, Margolis CZ. Journal: Med Teach; 2007 Oct; 29(8):e219-26. PubMed ID: 17943605[Link]; page 9

  4. 26 Criticisms of the biopsychosocial model in spine care: creating and then attacking a straw person. Author: Gatchel RJ, Turk DC. Journal: Spine; 2008 Dec 1; 33(25):2831-6. PubMed ID: 19050589 [Link]; page 9

  5. 27 Niall McLaren. ISBN: 9781932690392 Humanizing Madness: Psychiatry and the Cognitive Neurosciences; no link available; page 9

  6. 28 Culture, illness, and the biopsychosocial model. Author: Burkett GL. Journal: Fam Med; 1991 May-Jun; 23(4):287-91. PubMed ID: 2065878 [Link]; page 9

  7. 29 Francesc Borrell-Carrió, Anthony L. Suchman, and Ronald M. Epstein The Biopsychosocial Model 25 Years Later: Principles, Practice, and Scientific Inquiry. Ann Fam Med 2004; 2: 576-582. [Link]; page 9

  8. 30 Practicing a medicine of the whole person: an opportunity for healing. Author: Remen RN. Journal: Hematol Oncol Clin North Am; 2008 Aug; 22(4):767-73, x. PubMed ID: 18638701. [Link]; page 9

Quality, QALYs, and the interpretation of dreams

  1. 31 Trends in Hurricane Impacts in the United States. Roger A. Pielke; No link available; page 10

  2. 32 Milly Song CHINA, NATIONAL, BEIJING, NEWS: Murder On Bus 726? [Link]; page 10

  3. 33 A line Cherry trees in France, along a busy road, was set to be axed as drivers predictably drove into their trunks--but on appeal the trees won, on the grounds of beauty. [No link]” >[Link]; page 10

  4. 34 J Pell 2000 BMJ i 15; no link available; page 10

  5. 35 Hospital pays for banned drugs out of own pocket [Link]; page 10

  6. 36 WHO comments on Nice methodologies—2003; no link available; page 10

  7. 37 The importance of age in allocating health care resources: does intervention-type matter? Author: Johri M, Damschroder LJ, Zikmund-Fisher BJ, Ubel PA. Journal: Health Econ; 2005 Jul; 14(7):669-78. PubMed ID: 15497189. [Link]; page 10

  8. 38 Lancet ed on NICE leadership. 2008 372 601; no link available; page 10

  9. 39 Health Technol Assess. 2003;7(3):1 Systematic review and economic evaluation of the effectiveness of infliximab for the treatment of Crohn’s disease. Clark W [Link]; page 10

  10. 40 Cost Analysis of Primary Total Hip Replacement--O’Shea Kieran; no link available; page 10

  11. 41 Health Protection Agency figures, 2007; no link available; page 10

  12. 42 Drug offers hope to Alzheimer; no link available; page 10

  13. 43 Gerontology -- example of a relative’s comments about going on Memantine; no link available; page 10

  14. 44 J Tudor Hart 2000 BMJ i 18 & 1971 Lancet i 405 & BMJ 2000;320:15-19 [Link]; page 10

(footnote) Drug watchdog to change its cost guidelines [Link]; page 10

  1. 45 See New Zealand analysis of these questions: BMJ 2003 327 1144 [Link]; page 11

  2. 46 Verbal and physical violence towards hospital- and community-based physicians in the Negev: an observational study. Author: Carmi-Iluz T, Peleg R, Freud T, Shvartzman P. Journal: BMC Health Serv Res; 2005; 5():54. PubMed ID: 16102174. [Link]; page 11

  3. 47 Violence against doctors: 2. Effects of violence on doctors working in accident and emergency departments. Author: Zahid MA, Al-Sahlawi KS, Shahid AA, Awadh JA, Abu-Shammah H. Journal: Eur J Emerg Med; 1999 Dec; 6(4):305-9. PubMed ID: 10646918. [Link]; page 11

The elderly patient in hospital

  1. 48 S Ebrahim 1998 bmj i 148; no link available; page 12

  2. 49 R Doll 1997 bmj ii 1030; no link available; page 12

  3. 50 S Ebrahim 1998 bmj i 148; no link available; page 12

  4. 51 Ostir G 2006 Arch Gerontol Geriatr 42 21 [Link]; page 12

  5. 52 Royal College Group 1991 J Roy Col Phys 25 197; no link available; page 12

  6. 53 After J Grimley Evans 1992 Oxford Textbook of Geriatric Medicine, oup 703; no link available; page 12

  7. 54 D Fairweather 1991 J Roy Col Phys 25 105; no link available; page 12

  8. 55 The role of chest radiography in the evaluation of the ‘geriatric giants’--JA Puxty [Link]; page 12

  9. 56 Oxybutynin is preferred to tolterodine for overactive bladder [Link]; page 12

  10. 57 Criticisms of the biopsychosocial model in spine care: creating and then attacking a straw person. Author: Gatchel RJ, Turk DC. Journal: Spine; 2008 Dec 1; 33(25):2831-6. PubMed ID: 19050589 [Link]; page 12

  11. 58 e-bm 1999 4 47 and R Bernabei [Link]; page 13

  12. 59 D Black [Link]; page 13

On being busy: Corrigan’s secret door

  1. 60 Francis Bacon 1985 [Link]; page 14

  2. 61 Doctors’ emotional reactions to recent death of a patient: cross sectional study of hospital doctors. Author: Redinbaugh EM, Sullivan AM, Block SD, Gadmer NM, Lakoma M, Mitchell AM, Seltzer D, Wolford J, Arnold RM. Journal: BMJ; 2003 Jul 26; 327(7408):185. PubMed ID: 12881257. [Link]; page 14

  3. 62 [Stress at work among military doctors: a preliminary study] Author: Knezeviæ B, Beloseviæ L. Journal: Acta Med Croatica; 2006 Sep; 60(4):309-14. PubMed ID: 17048782. [Link]; page 14

  4. 63 Stress in UK intensive care unit doctors. Author: Coomber S, Todd C, Park G, Baxter P, Firth-Cozens J, Shore S. Journal: Br J Anaesth; 2002 Dec; 89(6):873-81. PubMed ID: 12453932. [Link]; page 14

  5. 64 page 37 of John Lourie’s Medical Eponyms; no link available; page 14

  6. 65 As to diseases, make a habit of two things -- to help, or at least to do no harm. written by Hippocrates in Epidemics, Bk. I, Sect. XI (tr. by W.H.S. Jones) [Link]; page 15

  7. 66 Rethinking ward rounds. DK Sokol 2009 BMJ 338:b979. p571 [Link]; page 15

(footnote) Crime and Punishment, Dostoevsky -- [Link]; page 15

(footnote) Problems with Kantian universalizability; no link available; page 15

Troubled, troubling, and troublesome patients

  1. 67 Carl Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, 166; no link available; page 16

  2. 68 Coleridge 1801; Letters, vol 2 p709

Chapter 02: History and examination

History and examination

  1. 1 Des Spence 2008 BMJ 336 1134. The World is Round. [Link]; page 19

Take a historyNo links

Functional enquiry

  1. 2 Why graduate medical schools make sense. Horton R. Lancet; 1998 Mar 14; 351(9105):826-8. PubMed ID: 9519976 [Link]; page 23

Physical examination(footnote) Temperature measurement: comparison of non-invasive methods used in adult critical care. Author: Farnell S, Maxwell L, Tan S, Rhodes A, Philips B. Journal: J Clin Nurs; 2005 May; 14(5):632-9. PubMed ID: 15840078. [Link]; page 24

(footnote) A critical appraisal of 98.6 degrees F, the upper limit of the normal body temperature, and other legacies of Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich. Author: Mackowiak PA, Wasserman SS, Levine MM. Journal: JAMA; 1992 Sep 23-30; 268(12):1578-80. PubMed ID: 1302471. [Link]; page 24

Symptoms and signs: symptoms

  1. 3 Localized cervical pruritus as the presenting symptom of a spinal cord tumor. Author: Magilner D. Journal: Pediatr Emerg Care; 2006 Oct; 22(10):746-7. PubMed ID: 17047476. [Link]; page 26

  2. 4 LD Gillespie. 2003 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 4; No link available; page 26

  3. 5 Brewing controversies: Darwinian perspective on the adaptive and maladaptive effects of caffeine and ethanol as dietary autonomic modulators. Journal: Med Hypotheses; 2006 Jun 9; ():. PubMed ID: 16766135.[Link]; page 27

  4. 6 DH Laurence, ‘Sons and Lovers’; No link available; page 27

  5. 7 Effect of music therapy on the anxiety levels and sleep patterns of abused women in shelters. Author: Hernández-Ruiz E. Journal: J Music Ther; 2005 Summer; 42(2):140-58. PubMed ID: 15913391. [Link]; page 27

Symptoms and signs: signs

  1. 8 CJ Diskin 1999 BMJ 318:1610 [Link]; page 29

  2. 9 Anorexia and Cachexia in Renal Failure—Is Leptin the Culprit? Role of Leptin and Melanocortin Signaling in Uremia-Associated Cachexia. J Clin Invest 115: 1659–1665, 2005 J Am Soc Nephrol 16: 2245-2250, 2005; No link available; page 29

Examination of the handsNo links

Examination of the hands: 210 Image of Beau’s lines cortesy of OUP’s image bank; no link available; page 32

  1. 11 Clinical observation: Beau’s lines on fingernails after deep saturation dives. Author: Schwartz H. Journal: Undersea Hyperb Med; 2006 Jan-Feb; 33(1):5-10. PubMed ID: 16602251. [Link]; page 32

  2. 12 Case report showed Muehrcke’s nails, not Beau’s lines. Matthias Möhrenschlager, dermatologist [Link]; page 32

  3. 13 Image courtesy of OUP’s image bank; no link available; page 32

  4. 14 The Nelson’s syndrome... revisited. Journal: Pituitary; 2005 Aug 17; ():. PubMed ID: 16132203. [Link]; page 32

  5. 15 Dupuytren’s contracture: an update of biomolecular aspects and therapeutic perspectives. Journal: J Hand Surg [Br]; 2005 Sep 14; ():. PubMed ID: 16168532. [Link]; page 32

  6. 16 Digital clubbing. Demonstration with positron emission tomography. Author: Ward RW, Chin R, Keyes JW, Haponik EF. Journal: Chest; 1995 Apr; 107(4):1172-3. PubMed ID: 7705135. [Link]; page 33

  7. 17 Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) play a central role in the pathogenesis of digital clubbing. Author: Atkinson S, Fox SB. Journal: J Pathol; 2004 Jun; 203(2):721-8. PubMed ID: 15141388. [Link]; page 33

  8. 18 The aetiology of clubbing and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Author: Dickinson CJ. Journal: Eur J Clin Invest; 1993 Jun; 23(6):330-8. PubMed ID: 8344332. [Link]; page 33

  9. 19 Digital clubbing and lung cancer. Author: Sridhar KS, Lobo CF, Altman RD. Journal: Chest; 1998 Dec; 114(6):1535-7. PubMed ID: 9872183. [Link]; page 33

  10. 20 Chemotherapy-induced palmer planter erythrodysesthesia. Author: Bhasin S, Sunita, Gupta DK, Kataria SP, Saluja S, Sharma M. Journal: J Assoc Physicians India; 2005 Feb; 53():155-6. PubMed ID: 15847041 [Link]; page 33

The cardiovascular system: history No links

The cardiovascular system: examination No links

The cardiovascular system: examination

  1. 21 Comparison of Automated and Mercury Column Blood Pressure Measurements in Health Care Settings. Journal: J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich); 2000 Mar; 2(2):81-86. PubMed ID: 11416630. [Link]; page 39

  2. 22 Hundreds of things affect a particular blood pressure reading from background noise to how much you touch the patient. In general professional touch lowers blood pressure. [Link]; page 39

  3. 23 The interarm blood pressure difference as predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with hypertension in primary care: cohort study. Author: Clark CE, Campbell JL, Powell RJ. Journal: J Hum Hypertens; 2007 Aug; 21(8):633-8. PubMed ID: 17460712 [Link]; page 39

  4. 24 The inter-arm blood pressure difference and peripheral vascular disease: cross-sectional study. Author: Clark CE, Campbell JL, Powell RJ, Thompson JF. Journal: Fam Pract; 2007 Oct; 24(5):420-6. PubMed ID: 17670807. [Link]; page 39

  5. 25 Prevalence and clinical implications of the inter-arm blood pressure difference: A systematic review. Author: Clark CE, Campbell JL, Evans PH, Millward A. Journal: J Hum Hypertens; 2006 Dec; 20(12):923-31. PubMed ID: 17036043 [Link]; page 39

  6. 26 A study of inter-arm blood pressure differences in primary care. Author: Cassidy P, Jones K. Journal: J Hum Hypertens; 2001 Aug; 15(8):519-22. PubMed ID: 11494088. [Link]; page 39

  7. 27 EFNS guidelines on the diagnosis and management of orthostatic hypotension. Author: Lahrmann H, Cortelli P, Hilz M, Mathias CJ, Struhal W, Tassinari M. Journal: Eur J Neurol; 2006 Sep; 13(9):930-6. PubMed ID: 16930356. [Link]; page 39

  8. 28 Fludrocortisone in the treatment of hypotensive disorders in the elderly. R. M. Hussain [Link]; page 39

  9. 29 Therapeutic experience with fludrocortisone in diabetic postural hypotension. Author: Campbell IW, Ewing DJ, Clarke BF. Journal: Br Med J; 1976 Apr 10; 1(6014):872-4. PubMed ID: 769906. [Link]; page 39

  10. 30 EFNS guidelines on the diagnosis and management of orthostatic hypotension. Author: Lahrmann H, Cortelli P, Hilz M, Mathias CJ, Struhal W, Tassinari M. Journal: Eur J Neurol; 2006 Sep; 13(9):930-6. PubMed ID: 16930356. [Link]; page 39

  11. 31 Pyridostigmine in autonomic failure: can we treat postural hypotension and bladder dysfunction with one drug? Author: Yamamoto T, Sakakibara R, Yamanaka Y, Uchiyama T, Asahina M, Liu Z, Ito T, Koyama Y, Awa Y, Yamamoto K, Kinou M, Hattori T. Journal: Clin Auton Res; 2006 Aug; 16(4):296-8. PubMed ID: 16862395.[Link]; page 39

  12. 32 Ergotamine use in severe diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Author: Toh V, Duncan E, Lewis N, Fichter L, Matthews DR. Journal: Diabet Med; 2006 May; 23(5):574-6. PubMed ID: 16681568. [Link]; page 39

The jugular venous pressure

  1. 33 For futher information on the abdominojugular reflux test, see J Weise 2000 Am J Med 109:59-61 or look at the website below [Link]; page 40

(footnote) Hepatojugular reflux; Jeff Aronson BMJ 1999;318:1172 ( 1 May ) [Link]; page 40

  1. 34 Waterhammer pulse [Link]; page 41

The heart soundsNo links

Cardiac murmurs

  1. 35 Prosthetic Heart Valves at www.eMedicine.com: [Link]; page 45

Peripheral vascular system: examinationNo links

The respiratory system: history

  1. 36 Lung abscess: a neglected cause of life threatening haemoptysis. Author: Philpott NJ, Woodhead MA, Wilson AG, Millard FJ. Journal: Thorax; 1993 Jun; 48(6):674-5. PubMed ID: 8346503. [Link]; page 48

  2. 37 A diagnostic dilemma of right lower lobe collapse caused by pulmonary bilharsiasis. Author: Sersar SI, Abulmaaty RA, Elnahas HA, Moussa SA, Shiha UA, Ghafar WA, Elmotawaly RA. Journal: Heart Lung Circ; 2006 Feb; 15(1):50-2. PubMed ID: 16570371. [Link]; page 49

  3. 38 Rastogi V, Purohit P, Peters BP, Nirwan PS. Pulmonary infection with serratia marcescens. Indian J Med Microbiol 2002;20:167-168 [Link]; page 49

  4. 39 Hydatid cyst fistula into the aorta presenting with massive hemoptysis. Case report and literature review.Journal: J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino); 2001 Aug; 42(4):565-7. PubMed ID: 11455298. [Link]; page 49

  5. 40 Ruptured mycotic pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta. Author: Froeschl M, Wolfsohn A, Beauchesne LM. Journal: Cardiovasc Pathol; 2006 Mar-Apr; 15(2):116-8. PubMed ID: 16533702 [Link]; page 49

  6. 41 [Pulmonary leptospirosis. Two cases] Author: El Ouazzani H, Benomar J, Soualhi M, Bouchentouf R, Bourkadi JE, Iraqi GH. Journal: Rev Pneumol Clin; 2003 Jun; 59(3):155-9. PubMed ID: 13130202. [Link]; page 49

  7. 42 Cat cuddler’s cough. Author: Mathai MG, Ebeo CT, Byrd RP, Fields CL, Roy TM. Journal: Tenn Med; 2001 Mar; 94(3):98-9. PubMed ID: 11242756. [Link]; page 49

  8. 43 Pulmonary Kaposi’s sarcoma revealed by a solitary nodule in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Author: Roux FJ, Bancal C, Dombret MC, Bouvet E, Sautet A, Murciano G, Aubier M. Journal: Am J Respir Crit Care Med; 1994 Apr; 149(4 Pt 1):1041-3. PubMed ID: 8143039. [Link]; page 49

  9. 44 For a review of critical care management of massive haemotysis, see E Jean-Baptiste 2000 Crit Care Med. 2000 May;28(5):1642-7 [Link]; page 49

The respiratory system: examinationNo links

The respiratory system: examination

  1. 45 Alcoholic ketoacidosis presenting with extreme hypoglycemia. Author: Marinella MA. Journal: Am J Emerg Med; 1997 May; 15(3):280-1. PubMed ID: 9148987. [Link]; page 53

  2. 46 Patients with acute hyperventilation presenting to an inner-city emergency department. Author: Saisch SG, Wessely S, Gardner WN. Journal: Chest; 1996 Oct; 110(4):952-7. PubMed ID: 8874251. [Link]; page 53

The respiratory system: important presentations

  1. 47 Professor Eric W. Fonkalsrud [Link]; page 55

  2. 48 Pectus excavatum: historical background, clinical picture, preoperative evaluation and criteria for operation. Author: Kelly RE. Journal: Semin Pediatr Surg; 2008 Aug; 17(3):181-93. PubMed ID: 18582824. [Link]; page 55

  3. 49 Pectus excavatum: pathophysiology and clinical characteristics. Author: Koumbourlis AC. Journal: Paediatr Respir Rev; 2009 Mar; 10(1):3-6. PubMed ID: 19203737. [Link]; page 55

  4. 50 Pectus excavatum: historical background, clinical picture, preoperative evaluation and criteria for operation. Author: Kelly RE. Journal: Semin Pediatr Surg; 2008 Aug; 17(3):181-93. PubMed ID: 18582824. [Link]; page 55

The gastrointestinal system: historyNo links

Gastrointestinal symptoms

  1. 51 Wald A 2007 NEJM 356 1648. Fecal incontinence in adults. [Link]; page 58

  2. 52 [A case of myeloradiculitis as a complication of visceral larva migrans due to Ascaris suum] Author: Yoshida S, Matsui M, Wang HY, Oeda T, Sasaki T, Komure O, Ozawa K, Konisi T, Saida T, Yoshikawa H, Nawa Y. Journal: Rinsho Shinkeigaku; 2004 Mar; 44(3):198-202. PubMed ID: 15233274. [Link]; page 58

  3. 53 Male pelvic floor: history and update. Author: Dorey G. Journal: Urol Nurs; 2005 Aug; 25(4):277-84. PubMed ID: 16225345. [Link]; page 58

  4. 54 Biofeedback is superior to laxatives for normal transit constipation due to pelvic floor dyssynergia. Author: Chiarioni G, Whitehead WE, Pezza V, Morelli A, Bassotti G. Journal: Gastroenterology; 2006 Mar; 130(3):657-64. PubMed ID: 16530506. [Link]; page 58

  5. 55 [A case report. Risperidone induced fecal incontinence as a result of reduced anal sphincter tonus] Author: Lundin F, Rousseau A, Kadowaki A. Journal: Lakartidningen; 2004 Dec 2; 101(49):4006, 4008. PubMed ID: 15633339. [Link]; page 58

  6. 56 Evacuation proctography - should it be part of the assessment of all patients with faecal incontinence? Author: Dench JE, Gooneratne M, Hickey F, Williams NS, Lunniss PJ, Scott M. Journal: Colorectal Dis; 2006 Oct; 8(8):723. PubMed ID: 16970592. [Link]; page 58

  7. 57 Electrical stimulation and pelvic floor muscle training with biofeedback in patients with fecal incontinence: a cohort study of 281 patients. Author: Terra MP, Dobben AC, Berghmans B, Deutekom M, Baeten CG, Janssen LW, Boeckxstaens GE, Engel AF, Felt-Bersma RJ, Slors JF, Gerhards MF, Bijnen AB, Everhardt E, Schouten WR, Bossuyt PM, Stoker J. Journal: Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Aug; 49(8):1149-59. PubMed ID: 16773492.[Link]; page 58

  8. 58 Double-blind cross-over study comparing loperamide, codeine and diphenoxylate in the treatment of chronic diarrhea.Author: Palmer KR, Corbett CL, Holdsworth CD. Journal: Gastroenterology; 1980 Dec; 79(6):1272-5. PubMed ID: 7002706. [Link]; page 58

  9. 59 Wald A 2007 NEJM 356 1648. Fecal incontinence in adults. [Link]; page 58

  10. 60 Evaluation of an extremely flatulent patient: case report and proposed diagnostic and therapeutic approach. Author: Levitt MD, Furne J, Aeolus MR, Suarez FL. Journal: Am J Gastroenterol; 1998 Nov; 93(11):2276-81. PubMed ID: 9820415. [Link]; page 58

  11. 61 Evaluation of an extremely flatulent patient: case report and proposed diagnostic and therapeutic approach. Author: Levitt MD, Furne J, Aeolus MR, Suarez FL. Journal: Am J Gastroenterol; 1998 Nov; 93(11):2276-81. PubMed ID: 9820415. [Link]; page 58

  12. 62 Follow-up of a flatulent patient. Author: Levitt MD. Journal: Dig Dis Sci; 1979 Aug; 24(8):652-4. PubMed ID: 467218. [Link]; page 58

  13. 63 Celiac disease in adults [Link]; page 58

  14. 64 The relationship between oral malodor and volatile sulfur compound-producing bacteria. Journal: Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2006 Nov; 135(5):671-676. PubMed ID: 17071291. [Link]; page 59

  15. 65 [Link]; page 59

The gastrointestinal system: examinationNo links

The gastrointestinal system: examination

  1. 66 Niels Thorkild Rovsing Danish surgeon, born April 26, 1862, Flensborg; died January 14, 1927, Copenhagen. [Link]; page 62

  2. 67 Assessment of peritonism in appendicitis. Author: Golledge J, Toms AP, Franklin IJ, Scriven MW, Galland RB. Journal: Ann R Coll Surg Engl; 1996 Jan; 78(1):11-4. PubMed ID: 8659965. [Link]; page 62

The genitourinary system: history

  1. 68 Uralgia Patient.UK [Link]; page 64

  2. 69 Primary lymphoma of the female urethra. Author: Dell’Atti C, Missere M, Restaino G, Carlino S, Cucci E, Ciuffreda M, Sallustio G. Journal: Rays; 2005 Jul-Sep; 30(3):269-72. PubMed ID: 16512075. [Link]; page 64

  3. 70 [Inverted papilloma of the anterior male urethra. Case report and bibliographic review] Author: Ochoa Undargarain O, Hermida Pérez JA, Ochoa Montes de Oca J. Journal: Arch Esp Urol; 2006 Mar; 59(2):183-6. PubMed ID: 16649525. [Link]; page 64

  4. 71 Abdominal pain and dysuria in pregnancy: urinary tract infection or life threatening haemorrhage? Author: Lamyman MJ, Connor H, Brown R. Journal: Emerg Med J; 2005 Dec; 22(12):918-9. PubMed ID: 16299219.[Link]; page 64

  5. 72 An appendicular mass mimicking a bladder tumour. Author: Johal NS, Kouriefs C, Apthorp L, Plail RO. Journal: Urol Int; 2005; 75(4):371-2. PubMed ID: 16327310. [Link]; page 64

  6. 73 Ureteral stenosis secondary to granulomatous vasculitis. Author: Freitas AP, Filho HC, Gonzalez F, Magalhães F, Pazos MJ, Silva CR, Santiago MB. Journal: J Clin Rheumatol; 2005 Dec; 11(6):311-3. PubMed ID: 16371800. [Link]; page 64

  7. 74 Anterior urethral valves. Author: Mali VP, Prabhakaran K, Loh DS. Journal: Asian J Surg; 2006 Jul; 29(3):165-9. PubMed ID: 16877217. [Link]; page 64

  8. 75 Dhall K, Bhatia K, Sharma SK. Journal: Bull Postgrad Inst Med Educ Res Chandigarh; 1980 Sep; 14(3):167-70. PubMed ID: 12311304. [Link]; page 64

  9. 76 Endemicity of vesical schistosomiasis in the Ebonyi Benue river valley, south eastern Nigeria. Author: Anosike JC, Okere AN, Nwoke BE, Chukwu JU, Nwosu DC, Njoku-Tony RF, Oguwuike TU, Ezike MN, Godwin, Okogun RA, Obasi CU, Ogbusu FI, Onyirioha CU, Ajero CM, Dike MU. Journal: Int J Hyg Environ Health; 2003 Jun; 206(3):205-10. PubMed ID: 12872529. [Link]; page 64

  10. 77 Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Oct;13(5):507-12. Voiding dysfunction. Dorflinger A; no link available; page 65

  11. 78 Developed from: Evaluation of a mental test score for assessment of mental impairment in the elderly. Hodkinson HM. Age Ageing; 1972 Nov; 1(4):233-8. PubMed ID: 4669880 [Link]; page 70

The breast: historyNo links

The thyroid: examinationNo links

The neurological system: history

  1. 79 Can doctors predict patients’ abbreviated mental test scores. Author: Burleigh E, Reeves I, McAlpine C, Davie J. Journal: Age Ageing; 2002 Jul; 31(4):303-6. PubMed ID: 12147569. [Link]; page 70

  2. 80 Developed from: Evaluation of a mental test score for assessment of mental impairment in the elderly.[Link]; page 70

  3. 81 The Mini-Mental State Examination is now subject to copyright owned by PAR. See: [Link]; page 70

  4. 82 Cognitive assessment in elderly patients admitted to hospital: the relationship between the Abbreviated Mental Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Author: Swain DG, O’Brien AG, Nightingale PG. Journal: Clin Rehabil; 1999 Dec; 13(6):503-8. PubMed ID: 10588537. [Link]; page 70

  5. 83 For the Barthel Index see: [Link]; page 70

  6. 84 Heat Stroke; Awareness can prevent heat exhaustion in children Health & Medicine Week. Atlanta: Sep 4, 2006. pg. 830 [Link]; page 71

  7. 85 [Tetanus following an abrasion injury] Author: Blaich A, Hellwig B, Bogdan C. Journal: Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2006 Apr 28; 131(17):979-81. PubMed ID: 16673220. [Link]; page 71

  8. 86 [Rhabdomyolysis in a bodybuilder using steroids] Author: Daniels JM, van Westerloo DJ, de Hon OM, Frissen PH. Journal: Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2006 May 13; 150(19):1077-80. PubMed ID: 16733985. [Link]; page 71

  9. 87 [Two cases of classical polyarteritis nodosa associated with MPO-ANCA] Author: Tanaka M, Matsuo K, Nakamura H, Ishikawa S, Matsuyama K. Journal: Nippon Jinzo Gakkai Shi; 2006; 48(4):371-6. PubMed ID: 16780107. [Link]; page 71

  10. 88 A case report of paraneoplastic neurological syndrome associated with occult breast cancer. Author: Kawasoe T, Yamamoto Y, Okumura Y, Iwase H. Journal: Breast Cancer; 2006; 13(2):202-4. PubMed ID: 16755118. [Link]; page 71

  11. 89 Controlled trials of antibiotic treatment in patients with post-treatment chronic Lyme disease. Author: Klempner MS. Journal: Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis; 2002 Winter; 2(4):255-63. PubMed ID: 12804167. [Link]; page 71

  12. 90 Lower limb dysesthesia--an ominous sign in lumbar fractures. Author: O’Connor PA, McCormack O, Kennedy JG, McCormack D. Journal: Ir Med J; 2003 Apr; 96(4):113-5. PubMed ID: 12793474. [Link]; page 71

  13. 91 Cauda-conus syndrome resulting from neurocysticercosis. Author: Singh NN, Verma R, Pankaj BK, Misra S. Journal: Neurol India; 2003 Mar; 51(1):118-20. PubMed ID: 12865544. [Link]; page 71

  14. 92 Upper plexus thoracic outlet syndrome--case report. Author: Matsuyama T, Okuchi K, Goda K. Journal: Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2002 May; 42(5):237-41. PubMed ID: 12064161. [Link]; page 71

  15. 93 A case of hemeplegic migraine with leptomeningeal angiomatosis. Author: Girija AS, Somanath V. Journal: Neurol India; 2002 Dec; 50(4):522-3. PubMed ID: 12577115. [Link]; page 71

  16. 94 Non-ketotic hyperglycaemia-related paroxysmal bilateral hand paraesthesia misdiagnosed as diabetic neuropathy. Author: Huang CW, Hsieh YJ, Huang CC, Tsai JJ. Journal: Neurol Sci; 2006 Jul; 27(3):180-2. PubMed ID: 16897631. [Link]; page 71

  17. 95 OTM-4. Vol 2. Ch15.16.2.4. p1188; no link available; page 71

  18. 96 Headache after a stay in the Dominican Republic] Author: Rau C, Bialek R, Richter S, Lindner A. Journal: Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2006 Jul 28; 131(30):1656-9. PubMed ID: 16850382. [Link]; page 71

  19. 97 Isolated tremor and disruption of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system: an 18F-dopa PET study. Author: Brooks DJ, Playford ED, Ibanez V, Sawle GV, Thompson PD, Findley LJ, Marsden CD. Journal: Neurology; 1992 Aug; 42(8):1554-60. PubMed ID: 1641153. And see Lancet 2007 369, 1152 [Link]; page 71

  20. 98 Brain. 1999 May;122 ( Pt 5):943-62 A functional neuroimaging study of the variables that generate category-specific object processing differences. Moore C [Link]; page 71

  21. 99 Embolization of a tentorial dural arterio-venous fistula presenting as atypical trigeminal neuralgia. Author: Ott D, Bien S, Krasznai L. Journal: Headache; 1993 Oct; 33(9):503-8. PubMed ID: 8262798. [Link]; page 71

  22. 100 Aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation and arteriovenous fistula in posterior fossa compression syndrome. Author: Mendelowitsch A, Radue EW, Gratzl O. Journal: Eur Neurol; 1990; 30(6):338-42. PubMed ID: 2289511. [Link]; page 71

  23. 101 NEJM Case Reports 21-2006 — A 61-Year-Old Man with Left-Sided Facial Pain. Emad Eskandar, M.D., Fred G. Barker, II, M.D., and James D. Rabinov, M.D. [Link]; page 71

The neurological system: examination

  1. 102 Carotid artery auscultation--anachronism or useful screening procedure? Author: Magyar MT, Nam EM, Csiba L, Ritter MA, Ringelstein EB, Droste DW. Journal: Neurol Res; 2002 Oct; 24(7):705-8. PubMed ID: 12392209. [Link]; page 72

The neurological system: lower limb examinationNo links

Cranial nerve examination

  1. 103 Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. Author: Man PY, Turnbull DM, Chinnery PF. Journal: J Med Genet; 2002 Mar; 39(3):162-9. PubMed ID: 11897814. [Link]; page 77

  2. 104 Oculomotor nerve palsy after surgery for upper basilar artery aneurysms. Author: Horikoshi T, Nukui H, Yagishita T, Nishigaya K, Fukasawa I, Sasaki H. Journal: Neurosurgery; 1999 Apr; 44(4):705-10; discussion 710-1. PubMed ID: 10201294. [Link]; page 77

  3. 105 Trochlear nerve palsy following minor head trauma. A sign of structural disorder. Author: Jacobson DM, Warner JJ, Choucair AK, Ptacek LJ. Journal: J Clin Neuroophthalmol; 1988 Dec; 8(4):263-8. PubMed ID: 2977142. [Link]; page 77

  4. 106 Incidence, associations, and evaluation of sixth nerve palsy using a population-based method. Author: Patel SV, Mutyala S, Leske DA, Hodge DO, Holmes JM. Journal: Ophthalmology; 2004 Feb; 111(2):369-75. PubMed ID: 15019392. [Link]; page 77

  5. 107 MRI neuroimaging study. Porro C 2003. Representation of different trigeminal divisions within the primary and secondary human somatosensory cortex [Link]; page 77

  6. 108 Twelfth-nerve palsy. Analysis of 100 cases. Author: Keane JR. Journal: Arch Neurol; 1996 Jun; 53(6):561-6. PubMed ID: 8660159. [Link]; page 77

  7. 109 Gradenigo syndrome: a case report and review of a rare complication of otitis media. Author: Sherman SC, Buchanan A. Journal: J Emerg Med; 2004 Oct; 27(3):253-6. PubMed ID: 15388211. [Link]; page 77

  8. 110 Acquired palsy of the oculomotor, trochlear and abducens nerves. Author: Tiffin PA, MacEwen CJ, Craig EA, Clayton G. Journal: Eye; 1996; 10 ( Pt 3)():377-84. PubMed ID: 8796166. [Link]; page 77

Cranial nerve lesions of the eye

  1. 111 No link available; page 78

  2. 112 T-cell lymphoma presenting as painful ophthalmoplegia. Author: Lee DS, Woo KI, Chang HR. Journal: Korean J Ophthalmol; 2006 Sep; 20(3):192-4. PubMed ID: 17004636. [Link]; page 78

  3. 113 [Work ability evaluation in neurosarcoidosis--a case report] Author: Milovanoviæ AP, Milovanoviæ J, Torbica N. Journal: Srp Arh Celok Lek; 2006 May-Jun; 134(5-6):238-40. PubMed ID: 16972413. [Link]; page 78

  4. 114 [Optic neuropathies and peripheral oculomotor disorders in patients with AIDS] Author: Torras-Sanvicens J, Arruga-Ginebreda J. Journal: Rev Neurol; 1996 Dec; 24(136):1605-13. PubMed ID: 9064185. [Link]; page 79

  5. 115 Significance of the Argyll Robertson pupil in clinical medicine. Author: Dacso CC, Bortz DL. Journal: Am J Med; 1989 Feb; 86(2):199-202. PubMed ID: 2643871. [Link]; page 79

  6. 116 Paraneoplastic neuropathy with positive anti-Hu] Author: Casas Parera I, Fischman D, Paz L, Lehkuniec E, Muchnik S. Journal: Medicina (B Aires); 1998; 58(2):197-201. PubMed ID: 9706256. [Link]; page 79

  7. 117 [Argyll Robertson in a case of malignant lymphoma with ciliary involvement (author’s transl)] Author: Lapresle J, Man HX. Journal: Rev Neurol (Paris); 1979 Jul-Aug; 135(6-7):515-25. PubMed ID: 531408. [Link]; page 79

Speech and higher mental function

  1. 118 A functional neuroimaging study of the variables that generate category-specific object processing differences. Author: Moore CJ, Price CJ. Journal: Brain; 1999 May; 122 ( Pt 5)():943-62. PubMed ID: 10355678. [Link]; page 81

  2. 119 Gender affects naming latencies for living and nonliving things: implications for familiarity. Author: Laws KR. Journal: Cortex; 1999 Dec; 35(5):729-33. PubMed ID: 10656639. [Link]; page 81

  3. 120 Functional MRI follow-up study of language processes in healthy subjects and during recovery in a case of aphasia. Author: Fernandez B, Cardebat D, Demonet JF, Joseph PA, Mazaux JM, Barat M, Allard M. Journal: Stroke; 2004 Sep; 35(9):2171-6. PubMed ID: 15297629. [Link]; page 81

(footnote) Processing concrete words: fMRI evidence against a specific right-hemisphere involvement. Author: Fiebach CJ, Friederici AD. Journal: Neuropsychologia; 2004; 42(1):62-70. PubMed ID: 14615076. [Link]; page 81

Psychiatric assessment

  1. 121 What’s New? by Katherine Barber, Editor-in-Chief of the Canadian Oxford Dictionary and the Student’s Oxford Canadian Dictionary [Link]; page 83

Method and order for routine examination

  1. 122 An aged man is but a paltry thing,/A tattered coat upon a stick, unless/Soul clap its hands and sing, and louder sing/For every tatter in its mortal dress... WB Yates; Sailing to Bysantium. [Link]; page 84

  2. 123 Download TYM test and notes for marking from: [Link]; page 85

Chapter 03: Cardiovascular medicine

Cardiovascular medicine

  1. 1 Vesalius- and the Anatomy; no link available; page 86

  2. 2 The efficacy and safety of intensive statin therapy: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Author: Josan K, Majumdar SR, McAlister FA. Journal: CMAJ; 2008 Feb 26; 178(5):576-84. PubMed ID: 18299547. [Link]; page 86

  3. 3 J Britton 2000 bmj i 65 [Link]; page 87

  4. 4 Predicting cardiovascular risk in England and Wales. J Hippisley-Cox 2008 BMJ 336 1475 [Link]; page 87

Cardiovascular symptoms(footnote) Musculoskeletal chest wall syndromes in patients with noncardiac chest pain: a study of 100 patients. Author: Wise CM, Semble EL, Dalton CB. Journal: Arch Phys Med Rehabil; 1992 Feb; 73(2):147-9. PubMed ID: 1543409. [Link]; page 88

(footnote) Musculoskeletal causes of chest pain. Author: Jensen S. Journal: Aust Fam Physician; 2001 Sep; 30(9):834-9. PubMed ID: 11676310. [Link]; page 88

(footnote) Ultrasonographic assessment of local steroid injection in Tietze’s syndrome. Author: Kamel M, Kotob H. Journal: Br J Rheumatol; 1997 May; 36(5):547-50. PubMed ID: 9189056. [Link]; page 88

(footnote) Sternal pain [?tenderness]: not always harmless. Hoogendoorn RJ, Brinkman JM, Visser OJ, Paul MA, Wuisman PI. Journal: Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2004 Dec 11; 148(50):2469-74. PubMed ID: 15638192. [Link]; page 88

(footnote) Bone scintigraphy and costochondritis. Author: Massie JD, Sebes JI, Cowles SJ. Journal: J Thorac Imaging; 1993 Spring; 8(2):137-42. PubMed ID: 8315708. [Link]; page 88

(footnote) [Tietze’s syndrome: importance of differential diagnosis and role of CT] Author: Pulcini A, Drudi FM, Porcelli C, Gagliarducci E, Gallinacci E, Minocchi L, Granai AV, Giacomelli L Journal: G Chir; 1994 Apr; 15(4):171-4. PubMed ID: 8086306. [Link]; page 88

  1. 5 S Capewell 2000 BMJ i 951 & [@10947143] [Link]; page 89

ECG—a methodical approachNo links

ECG—abnormalitiesNo links

ECG—additional points

  1. 6 W Berk 1987 J Emerg Med 5 305; no link available; page 94

Exercise ECG testing

  1. 7 No link available; page 102

  2. 8 No link available; page 103

Cardiac catheterization

  1. 9 No link available; page 105

  2. 10 Significant coronary artery stenosis: comparison on per-patient and per-vessel or per-segment basis at 64-section CT angiography. Herzog C, Zwerner PL, Doll JR, Nielsen CD, Nguyen SA, Savino G, Vogl TJ, Costello P, Schoepf UJ. Radiology; 2007 Jul; 244(1):112-20; no link available; page 105

EchocardiographyNo links

Cardiovascular drugs

  1. 11 (75mg/day) mrc 1998 Lancet 251 233; no link available; page 108

  2. 12 Lancet 1997 349 833 & 1994 343 128; no link available; page 108

  3. 13 nejm 1997 336 525; no link available; page 108

  4. 14 Lancet 1997 349 833 & 1994 343 128; no link available; page 108

  5. 15 nejm 1997 336 525; no link available; page 108

  6. 16 Effect of Very High-Intensity Statin Therapy on Regression of Coronary Atherosclerosis The ASTEROID Trial. Steven E. Nissen [Link]; page 109

  7. 17 Royal College of Physicians 2006. Chronic kidney disease in adults. UK guidelines for identification, management and referral. [Link]; page 109

  8. 18 No link available; page 109

Angina pectoris

  1. 19 [No descriptive text] [Link]; page 110

  2. 20 H Bucher 2000 bmj i 73 [Link]; page 110

  3. 21 [Link]; page 110

  4. 22 No link available

  5. 23 Raymond J. Gibbons, Stephan D. Fihn, Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:732-734; no link available; page 111

  6. 24 Bravata DM, Gienger AL, McDonald KM, Sudaram V, Perez MV, Varghese R, et al. Systematic review: the comparative effectiveness of percutaneous coronary interventions and coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:703-16; no link available; page 111

  7. 25 M Massimo 1998 bmj i 88; no link available; page 111

  8. 26 Edward L. Hannan; Chuntao Wu, et. al. Off-Pump Versus On-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: Differences in Short-Term Outcomes and in Long-Term Mortality and Need for Subsequent Revascularization. .Circulation 2007; [Link]; page 111

  9. 27 J Murkin 2000 Stroke 31 707 (cns microemboli risk is proportional to the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass); no link available; page 111

Acute coronary syndromes (ACS)

  1. 28 Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2007;50:2173–95 [Link]; page 112

  2. 29 J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Aug;38(2):478-85 [Link]; page 112

  3. 30 K Fox 1999 bmj 1451 [Link]; page 112

  4. 31 C Junghans 2006 BMJ 333 1080. Risk assessment after Acute Coronary Syndrome [Link]; page 112

Management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS)

  1. 32 1999 Am J Cardiol 1999 84 404[@10468077]; no link available; page 114

  2. 33 Sabatine MS, Cannon CP, Gibson CM, et al, for the CLARITY-TIMI 28 investigators. Addition of clopidogrel to aspirin and fibrinolytic therapy for myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:1179-1189; no link available; page 114

  3. 34 European Heart Journal (2002) 23, 1809–1840 [Link]; page 114

  4. 35 NICE guideline 47 [Link]; page 114

  5. 36 NICE:TA080 Clopidogrel in the treatment of non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome - Quick reference guide; no link available; page 114

  6. 37 NICE Guideline. Prophylaxis for patients who have experienced a myocardial infarction; no link available; page 114

  7. 38 DVLA web site; no link available; page 114

Complications of MI39 NICE: Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) for arrhythmias [Link]; page 116

ArrhythmiasNo links

Narrow complex tachycardia

  1. 40 N Peters 2000 bmj ii 716 [Link]; page 120

  2. 41 Atrial fibrillation associated with alcohol ingestion in adolescence: holiday heart in pediatrics. Author: Koul PB, Sussmane JB, Cunill-De Sautu B, Minarik M. Journal: Pediatr Emerg Care; 2005 Jan; 21(1):38-9 [Link]; page 121

  3. 42 Holiday Heart Syndrome Article Last Updated: Sep 27, 2006 [Link]; page 121

Broad complex tachycardia

  1. 43 Image of ECG courtesy of JML; no link available; page 122

  2. 44 no link available

  3. 45 Brugada Criteria for diagnosing VT [Link]; page 123

Atrial fibrillation (AF) and flutter

  1. 46 NICE CG36: The management of atrial fibrillation [Link]; page 124

  2. 47 Lancet 2000 355 903; no link available; page 124

  3. 48 Serum magnesium in acute myocardial infarction. Relation to arrhythmias. Author: Dyckner T. Journal: Acta Med Scand; 1980; 207(1-2):59-66. PubMed ID: 7368975. [Link]; page 124

  4. 49 Myerson S et al 2005 Emergencies in Cardiology; OUP p142 [Link]; page 124

  5. 50 Cain M 2008 Rhythm control in Atrial Fibrillation--one setback after another (and: AF-CHF trial) NEJM 358 2725 [Link]; page 124

  6. 51 Circumferential pulmonary-vein ablation for chronic atrial fibrillation. Author: Oral H,: N Engl J Med; 2006 Mar 2; 354(9):934-41. PubMed ID: 16510747. [Link]; page 124

  7. 52 Mant J 2007 Warfarin vs aspirin for stroke prevention in elderly with AF....BAFTA study. Lancet 370 2007 493 [Link]; page 125

  8. 53 Warfarin anticoagulation and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Author: Reynolds MW, Fahrbach K, Hauch O, Wygant G, Estok R, Cella C, Nalysnyk L. Journal: Chest; 2004 Dec; 126(6):1938-45. PubMed ID: 15596696. [Link]; page 125

  9. 54 Stanley Nattel &L Opie 2006 Lancet 367 262 [Link]; page 125

  10. 55 Professor Gregory Lip’s list of contraindications to warfarin--Pulse 2006 (jan 19 p32) [Link]; page 125

  11. 56 Death and disability from warfarin-associated intracranial and extracranial hemorrhages. Author: Fang MC, Go AS, Chang Y, Hylek EM, Henault LE, Jensvold NG, Singer DE. Journal: Am J Med; 2007 Aug; 120(8):700-5. PubMed ID: 17679129. [Link]; page 125

  12. 57 Major hemorrhage and tolerability of warfarin in the first year of therapy among elderly patients with atrial fibrillation. Author: Hylek EM, Evans-Molina C, Shea C, Henault LE, Regan S. Journal: Circulation; 2007 May 29; 115(21):2689-96. PubMed ID: 17515465. [Link]; page 125

  13. 58 Gage BF, van Walraven C, Pearce L, et al. (2004); no link available; page 125

  14. 59 Dabigatran versus Warfarin in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2009 Aug 30; ():. PubMed ID: 19717844. [Link]; page 125

  15. 60 J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2000 Jan;11(1):90-4. Right atrial flutter isthmus revisited: normal anatomy favors nonuniform anisotropic conduction. Waki K [Link]; page 125

PacemakersNo links

Heart failure—basic concepts

  1. 61 NICE Chronic Heart Failure Guidance [Link]; page 128

  2. 62 no link available

  3. 63 no link available

  4. 64 Swedberg K, Cleland J, Dargie H, et al; Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic heart failure: executive summary (update 2005): The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J. 2005 May 18. [Link]; page 128

  5. 65 Palliative care for heart failure [Link]; page 128

  6. 66 Yturralde RF, Gaasch WH. Diagnostic criteria for diastolic heart failure. Prog Cardiovasc Dis; 2005 Mar-Apr; 47(5):314-9. [Link]; page 128

  7. 67 NICE: CG5 Chronic heart failure: full guideline [Link]; page 128

  8. 68 Oxford Textbook of Medicine (OTM) 2833; no link available; page 128

  9. 69 OTM (1996) p2502; no link available; page 128

  10. 70 HJ Dargie 1994 bmj i 321; no link available; page 128

  11. 71 The last six months of life for patients with congestive heart failure. Author: Levenson JW, McCarthy EP, Lynn J, Davis RB, Phillips RS. Journal: J Am Geriatr Soc; 2000 May; 48(5 Suppl):S101-9. PubMed ID: 10809463. [Link]; page 128

Heart failure—management72 NICE: Chronic Heart Failure 2003; Guideline 5 [Link]; page 130

  1. 73 Diuretics for heart failure Faris R, Flather MD, Purcell H, Poole-Wilson PA, Coats AJS [Link]; page 130

  2. 74 Lechat Circulation 1998 98 1184 & Lancet 1999 353; no link available; page 130

  3. 75 Cleland 1999 BMJ 1999 318 824; no link available; page 130

  4. 76 Influence of beta-blocker continuation or withdrawal on outcomes in patients hospitalized with heart failure: findings from the OPTIMIZE-HF program. Author: Fonarow GC, Abraham WT, Albert NM, Stough WG, Gheorghiade M, Greenberg BH, O’Connor CM, Sun JL, Yancy CW, Young JB, OPTIMIZE-HF Investigators and Coordinators . Journal: J Am Coll Cardiol; 2008 Jul 15; 52(3):190-9 [Link]; page 130

  5. 77 Pitt B, Zannad F, Remme WJ, et al. The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. N Engl J Med 1999;341:709-717 [Link]; page 130

  6. 78 Packer M, Gheorghiade M, Young JB, et al. for the RADIANCE Study. Withdrawal of digoxin from patients with chronic heart failure treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. N Engl J Med 1993;329:1–7 [Link]; page 130

  7. 79 N Engl J Med; 2004 Nov 11; 351(20):2049-57 [Link]; page 130

  8. 80 Bumetanide and furosemide in heart failure. Author: Brater DC, Day B, Burdette A, Anderson S. Journal: Kidney Int; 1984 Aug; 26(2):183-9. PubMed ID: 6503136. [Link]; page 130

  9. 81 Effects of a nutritional intervention on body composition, clinical status, and quality of life in patients with heart failure. Author: Colín Ramírez E, Castillo Martínez L, Orea Tejeda A, Rebollar González V, Narváez David R, Asensio Lafuente E. Journal: Nutrition; 2004 Oct; 20(10):890-5. PubMed ID: 15474877. [Link]; page 130

  10. 82 Fluid restriction in the management of decompensated heart failure: no impact on time to clinical stability. Author: Travers B, O’Loughlin C, Murphy NF, Ryder M, Conlon C, Ledwidge M, McDonald K. Journal: J Card Fail; 2007 Mar; 13(2):128-32. PubMed ID: 17395053. [Link]; page 130

  11. 83 S Westaby 2000 Lancet 356 901; no link available; page 130

  12. 84 no link available; page 130

  13. 85 BMJ. 2002 October 26; 325(7370): 915–916. PMCID: PMC1124429, BMJ. Palliative care for heart failure.Time to move beyond treating and curing to improving the end of life. Simon Stewart [Link]; page 130

  14. 86 BMJ. 1998 October 10; 317(7164): 961–962.Dying from heart failure: lessons from palliative care. Julia Addington-Hall [Link]; page 130

  15. 87 no link available; page 130

  16. 88 Maisel A N Engl J Med 2002 347 161; no link available; page 131

  17. 89 Fuat A 2006 BJGP 56 3272; no link available; page 131

  18. 90 Lemos J 2003 Lancet 362 316; no link available; page 131

  19. 91 Heart. 2001 Dec;86(6):638 Left ventricular remodelling and brain natriuretic peptide after first myocardial infarction.--Crilley JG [Link]; page 131

Hypertension

  1. 92 S MacMahon 2008. Blood-pressure-related disease is a global health priority. Lancet 371 1480. [Link]; page 132

  2. 93 Lancet 2002;360:1903-13; no link available; page 132

  3. 94 NEJM 2008;58:1887 [Link]; page 132

  4. 95 Latest British Hypertension Society guidelines [Link]; page 133

  5. 96 Nature. 1999 May 20;399(6733):185-6. French geneticists raise worries over use of new genome funds. Butler D. [Link]; page 133

Hypertension—management

  1. 97 Lowering blood pressure to prevent myocardial infarction and stroke: a new preventive strategy; Dr Malcolm Law; 7 June 2006; ReFeR summary; no link available; page 134

  2. 98 JAMA 2002;288:2981-97; no link available; page 134

  3. 99 Hypertension: management of hypertension in adults in primary care (NICE clinical guideline 34). Issue date: June 2006 [Link]; page 134

  4. 100 Hypertension: management of hypertension in adults in primary care [Link]; page 134

  5. 101 Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1999 Oct 30;143(44):2185-90. Hypertensive crisis: definition, pathophysiology and treatment van den Meiracker AH [Link]; page 134

Rheumatic fever

  1. 102 G Stollerman 1995 Lancet 346 391; no link available; page 136

  2. 103 D Kanabar 1996 Lancet ii 1000; no link available; page 136

  3. 104 ACC/AHA 2008 Guideline Update on Valvular Heart Disease: Focused Update on Infective Endocarditis Circulation. 2008;118:887-896 [Link]; page 136

  4. 105 D Albert 1995 Medicine 74 1; no link available; page 136

  5. 106 no link available; page 136

Mitral valve diseaseNo links

Aortic valve disease

  1. 107 C Otto 2000 nejm 343 652 [Link]; page 140

  2. 108 no link available; page 140

  3. 109 C Otto 2000 nejm 343 652 [Link]; page 140

Right heart valve disease

  1. 110 Turk J Pediatr. 1998 Oct-Dec;40(4):613-8. Variable clinical expression of Holt-Oram syndrome in three generations. Ogur G [Link]; page 143

Infective endocarditis (IE)

  1. 111 Prevention of endocarditis. British Heart Foundation FACTFILE number 2 for 2008; no link available; page 144

  2. 112 Acute endocarditis [Link]; page 144

  3. 113 Prevention of endocarditis. British Heart Foundation FACTFILE number 2 for 2008; no link available; page 144

  4. 114 D Durack Am J Med 1994 96 200; no link available; page 144

  5. 115 N Beeching 1994 Infectious Diseases 136 1994 Wolfe; no link available; page 144

  6. 116 NICE 2008 Prophylaxis against endocarditis. [Link]; page 144

Diseases of heart muscleNo links

Pericardial diseases

  1. 117 no link available; page 148

Congenital heart disease

  1. 118 Bicuspid aortic valve: a literature review and its impact on sport activity. Author: De Mozzi P, Longo UG, Galanti G, Maffulli N. Journal: Br Med Bull; 2008; 85():63-85. PubMed ID: 18296454 [Link]; page 150

  2. 119 NICE IP Guidance Number: IPG172: Endovascular closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect [Link]; page 150

  3. 120 Adult congenital heart disease: right ventricular outflow tract lesions. Author: Bashore TM. Journal: Circulation; 2007 Apr 10; 115(14):1933-47 [Link]; page 151

  4. 121 Shabir Bhimji et al. Tetralogy of Fallot, January 12, 2007 [Link]; page 151

  5. 122 Murakami T. Squatting: the hemodynamic change is induced by enhanced aortic wave reflection. Am J Hypertens; 2002 Nov; 15(11):986-8. [Link]; page 151

  6. 123 no link available; page 151

  7. 124 Wang XM, Wu LB, Sun C et.al. Clinical application of 64-slice spiral CT in the diagnosis of the Tetralogy of Fallot. Eur J Radiol; 2007 Nov; 64(2):296-301. [Link]; page 151

Driving and the heart

  1. 125 Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency: At a glance guide to the current medical standards of fitness to drive [Link]; page 152

Chapter 04: Chest medicine

Bedside tests in chest medicine

  1. 2 BMJ 1998;317:1213-1216 Assessing and interpreting arterial blood gases and acid-base balance. Adrian J Williams. [Link]; page 157

Further investigations in chest medicine

  1. 3 Importance of adjusting carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) and carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (KCO) for alveolar volume. Author: Johnson DC. Journal: Respir Med; 2000 Jan; 94(1):28-37. PubMed ID: 10714476. [Link]; page 158

  2. 4 Avrum Spira; Airway Gene Expression; A Novel Diagnostic Test for Lung Cancer in Smokers: Abstract No. 2420; no link available; page 158

  3. 5 Airway Gene Expression: a Novel Diagnostic Test for Lung Cancer in Smokers. Presented at: 97th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; April 1-5, 2006; Washington. Abstract #2420. [Link]; page 158

(footnote) Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis. Doerschuk C 2007 NEJM 356 547 [Link]; page 158

  1. 6 After D Flenley 1987 Med Intl 1 (20) 240; no link available; page 159

  2. 7 After B Harrison in Thoracic Medicine 1981, ed P Emerson, Butterworths, London; and B Harrison 1971 Thorax 26 579; no link available; page 159

Pneumonia

  1. 8 British Thoracic Society Guidelines for the Management of Community Acquired Pneumonia in Adults 2001 GUIDELINES (pdf) Thorax 2001; 56: (suppl IV); no link available; page 160

  2. 9 BTS Update on the management of community acquired pneumonia in adults 2004; no link available; page 160

  3. 10 Thorax 2007 62 287, 348 & 253; no link available; page 160

  4. 11 An update of the BTS guidelines for the management of community acquired pneumonia in adults; no link available; page 161

  5. 12 British Thoracic Society Guidelines for the Management of Community Acquired Pneumonia in Adults 2001 GUIDELINES (pdf) Thorax 2001; 56: (suppl IV); no link available; page 161

  6. 13 BTS Draft guidance on pneumonia 2009 update; no link available; page 161

Specific pneumonias

  1. 14 J Sanford 2000 GAT ISBN 0993775-43-1; no link available; page 162

  2. 15 D Denning 2000 Lancet 355 1640; no link available; page 162

  3. 16 Perspective A New Name (Pneumocystis jiroveci) for Pneumocystis from Humans. James R. [Link]; page 162

  4. 17 Drug Ther Bul 1993 31 93; no link available; page 162

  5. 18 Avian flu: isolation of drug-resistant H5N1 virus. Author: Le QM, Kiso M, Someya K, Sakai YT, Nguyen TH, Nguyen KH, Pham ND, Ngyen HH, Yamada S, Muramoto Y, Horimoto T, Takada A, Goto H, Suzuki T, Suzuki Y, Kawaoka Y. Journal: Nature; 2005 Oct 20; 437(7062):1108. PubMed ID: 16228009. [Link]; page 163

  6. 19 A child with avian influenza A (H5N1) infection. Author: Chokephaibulkit K, Uiprasertkul M, Puthavathana P, Chearskul P, Auewarakul P, Dowell SF, Vanprapar N. Journal: Pediatr Infect Dis J; 2005 Feb; 24(2):162-6. PubMed ID: 15702046. [Link]; page 163

  7. 20 Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Infection in Humans The Writing Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) Consultation on Human Influenza A/H5. NEJM 2005 Volume 353:1374-1385 [Link]; page 163

  8. 21 [Link]; page 163

  9. 22 Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Infection in Humans The Writing Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) Consultation on Human Influenza A/H5. NEJM 2005 Volume 353:1374-1385 [Link]; page 163

  10. 23 Avian influenza A (H5N1) in 10 patients in Vietnam. Author: Tran TH, Nguyen TL, Nguyen TD, Luong TS, Pham PM, Nguyen VC, Pham TS, Vo CD, Le TQ, Ngo TT, Dao BK, Le PP, Nguyen TT, Hoang TL, Cao VT, Le TG, Nguyen DT, Le HN, Nguyen KT, Le HS, Le VT, Christiane D, Tran TT, Menno de J, Schultsz C, Cheng P, Lim W, Horby P, Farrar J, World Health Organization International Avian Influenza Investigative Team . Journal: N Engl J Med; 2004 Mar 18; 350(12):1179-88. PubMed ID: 14985470. [Link]; page 163

  11. 24 British Thoracic Society Guidelines on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome; no link available; page 163

  12. 25 An overview on severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Author: Hui DS. Journal: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis; 2005 Sep; 63(3):149-57. PubMed ID: 16312205. [Link]; page 163

  13. 26 An overview on severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Author: Hui DS. Journal: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis; 2005 Sep; 63(3):149-57. PubMed ID: 16312205. [Link]; page 163

(footnote) Mathematical assessment of Canada’s pandemic influenza preparedness plan. Author: Gumel AB, Nuño M, Chowell G. Journal: Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol; 2008 Mar; 19(2):185-92. PubMed ID: 19352450. [Link]; page 163

Complications of pneumoniaNo links

BronchiectasisNo links

Fungi and the lung

  1. 27 R Doll 1994 BMJ ii 901, 1976 BMJ ii 1525; no link available; page 168

  2. 28 Herbrecht R, N Engl J Med 2002;347:408–415; no link available; page 168

  3. 29 BNF dose of AmpBisome--2006 [Link]; page 168

Lung tumours

  1. 30 NICE Guidance on The Diagnosis and Treatment of Lung Cancer [Link]; page 170

  2. 31 Drug Ther Bul 1997 35 1; no link available; page 170

  3. 32 Image of CXR with secondary from cervical cance. Courtesy of Yale Medical School. Permission from Janet E. Jeddry; Web Editor; ITS Web Services [Link]; page 171

Asthma

  1. 33 2008 British Guideline on the Management of Asthma: Thorax. 2008 May;63 Suppl 4:iv1-121. [Link]; page 172

  2. 34 Individual and family household smoking habits as risk factors for wheezing among adolescents. Author: Morfín-Maciel B, Barragán-Meijueiro Mde L, Nava-Ocampo AA. Journal: Prev Med; 2006 Aug; 43(2):98-100. PubMed ID: 16712911. [Link]; page 172

  3. 35 dult asthma and gastro-oesophageal reflux: the effects of omeprazole therapy on asthma. Author: Teichtahl H, Kronborg IJ, Yeomans ND, Robinson P. Journal: Aust N Z J Med; 1996 Oct; 26(5):671-6. PubMed ID: 8958363. [Link]; page 172

  4. 36 If you want to cure their asthma, ask about their job. Author: Douglas JD. Journal: Prim Care Respir J; 2005 Apr; 14(2):65-71. PubMed ID: 16701700. [Link]; page 172

Management of chronic asthma

  1. 37 2008 British Guideline on the Management of Asthma: Thorax. 2008 May;63 Suppl 4:iv1-121. [Link]; page 174

  2. 38 Integrated breathing and relaxation training (the Papworth Method) for adults with asthma in primary care: a randomised controlled trial. Journal: Thorax; 2007 Jun 15; ():. PubMed ID: 17573445. [Link]; page 174

  3. 39 BTS. Thorax 1997 52 S1–S32 and as amended in 2005; no link available; page 174

  4. 40 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Oct 8;(4):CD006923; no link available; page 174

  5. 41 Drug Ther Bul 1997 35 1; no link available; page 174

  6. 42 NICE guidance 2007 [Link]; page 174

(footnote) BMJ 1997 i 1061 [Link]; page 175

(footnote) EBM 1998 3 24; no link available; page 175

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

  1. 43 Thorax. 2003 Sep;58(9):739 Nutritional enhancement of exercise performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial--Steiner M [Link]; page 176

  2. 44 Beyond the lungs--a new view of COPD. Lancet ed 2007 370 713. [Link]; page 176

  3. 45 BOLD data and E Wouters 2007 Lancet 370 715.COPD: a chronic and overlooked pulmonary disease [Link]; page 176

  4. 46 Thorax. 2003 Sep;58(9):745-51. Thorax. 2003 Sep;58(9):739 Nutritional enhancement of exercise performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial. Steiner M [Link]; page 176

  5. 47 Pneumologie. 2002 Dec;56(12):793-7 N-acetylcystein in the therapy of chronic bronchitis--Reichenberger F [Link]; page 176

  6. 48 National clinical guideline on management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults in primary and secondary care: Thorax 2004; 59 (Suppl 1): i1-i232 [Link]; page 177

  7. 49 Drug Ther Bul 2004 18; no link available; page 177

(footnote) Cochrane review: Combined corticosteroid and long-acting beta-agonist in one inhaler versus separate components for COPD. Date Published 18/10/2007; no link available; page 177

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

  1. 50 Rev Esp Anesthesiol Reanim. 2000 Feb;47(2):57–62. The administration of 20 ppm of inhaled nitric oxide produces a faster response than the inhalation of 5 ppm in adult respiratory distress syndrome Diaz-Reganon Valverde G [Link]; page 178

  2. 51 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004 Oct 18;(4):CD004477 [Link]; page 178

  3. 52 Clin Ther. 2008 May;30(5):787-99 [Link]; page 178

Respiratory failure

  1. 53 BTS guideline for emergency oxygen use in adult patients O’Driscoll et al. Thorax.2008; 63: vi1-vi68 [Link]; page 181

Pulmonary embolism (PE)

  1. 54 BTS Guidelines for the Management of Suspected Acute Pulmonary Embolism, 2003 The British Thoracic Society Standards of Care Committee, Pulmonary Embolism Guideline Development Group Thorax 2003: 48: 470-484 [Link]; page 182

  2. 55 BTS Guidelines for the Management of Spontaneous Pneumothorax M Henry, T Arnold, J Harvey, on behalf of the British Thoracic Society Pleural Disease Group, a subgroup of the British Thoracic Society Standards of Care Committee - Thorax 2003; 58 (Suppl II): ii39 -ii52. [Link]; page 182

Pleural effusion

  1. 56 T Eisen 1995 Lancet 345 1285; no link available; page 184

Sarcoidosis

  1. 57 N Engl J Med. 2007 Nov 22;357(21):2153-65 [Link]; page 186

(footnote) Angiotensin-converting enzyme. I. Activity and correlation with serum lysozyme in sarcoidosis, other chest or lymph node diseases and healthy persons. Author: Grönhagen-Riska C. Journal: Scand J Respir Dis; 1979 Apr; 60(2):83-93. PubMed ID: 220704. [Link]; page 186

(footnote) Sarcoidosis in Merk Manual [Link]; page 186

(footnote) Differences in clinical findings between Caucasians and African Americans with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis. Author: Evans M, Sharma O, LaBree L, Smith RE, Rao NA. Journal: Ophthalmology; 2007 Feb; 114(2):325-33. PubMed ID: 17123620. [Link]; page 186

Interstitial lung disease (ILD)

  1. 58 Interstitial lung disease guideline: the British Thoracic Society in collaboration with the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand and the Irish Thoracic SocietyThorax 2008;63;v1-v58 [Link]; page 188

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)

  1. 59 Eur Respir J. 1994 Apr;7(4):651-6. Mechanisms of increased epithelial lung clearance of DTPA in diffuse fibrosing alveolitis. Labrune S [Link]; page 190

  2. 60 R Damhuis 1995 Lancet 345 1233; no link available; page 190

Industrial dust diseases

  1. 61 E Peppard 2000 NEJM 342 1378 [Link]; page 192

  2. 62 Malignant pleural mesothelioma: current concepts in treatment. Author: Tsiouris A, Walesby RK. Journal: Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2007 Jun; 4(6):344-52. PubMed ID: 17534390 [Link]; page 192

Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome

  1. 63 E Peppard 2000 NEJM 342 1378 [Link]; page 194

  2. 64 Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea/Hypnopnoea Syndrome in Adults ISBN 1 89989334 Published 2003 by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) and endorsed by the British Thoracic Society [Link]; page 194

  3. 65 TA139 Sleep apnoea - continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP): guidance [Link]; page 194

Chapter 05: Endocrinology

Endocrinology

  1. 1 Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed, supplement [Link]; page 196

  2. 2 eMedicine vitiligo. [Link]; page 196

  3. 3 Diagnosis and management of thyrotoxicosis American Family Physician, Sept 15, 1996 by James V. Hennessey; no link available; page 196

  4. 4 Ruptured ectopic pregnancy concealing thyroid storm. Bagtharia S, Goyal V, Chakrabarti R, Utting H. J Obstet Gynaecol; 2007 Feb; 27(2):213-4. PubMed ID: 17454491 [Link]; page 196

  5. 5 Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2003 Mar;59(3):165 The prevention of type 2 diabetes - lifestyle change or pharmacotherapy? A challenge for the 21st century. Simpson RW [Link]; page 197

  6. 6 A Weetman 2003 Autoimmune thyroid disease: propagation and progression Eur J Endo 148 1-9; no link available; page 197

  7. 7 Cancer as an emergent phenomenon in systems radiation biology. Author: Barcellos-Hoff MH. Journal: Radiat Environ Biophys; 2008 Feb; 47(1):33-8. PubMed ID: 18026977 [Link]; page 197

  8. 8 The role of sleep in changing our minds: a psychologist’s discussion of papers on memory reactivation and consolidation in sleep. Author: Cartwright RD. Journal: Learn Mem; 2004 Nov-Dec; 11(6):660-3. PubMed ID: 15576882. [Link]; page 197

Diabetes mellitus (DM): classification and diagnosis

  1. 9 Peer advisers compared with specialist health professionals in delivering a training programme on self-management to people with diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Author: Baksi AK, Al-Mrayat M, Hogan D, Whittingstall E, Wilson P, Wex J. Journal: Diabet Med; 2008 Sep; 25(9):1076-82. PubMed ID: 18937675. [Link]; page 198

  2. 10 E Gale 2003 Lancet 504 Is there really an epidemic of type 2 diabetes? [Link]; page 198

  3. 11 J R Soc Med 2003;96:328-332 2003 The Royal Society of Medicine; Hidden diabetes in the UK: use of capture–recapture methods to estimate total prevalence of diabetes mellitus in an urban population--Geoffrey V Gill MD, Aziz A Ismail PhD, Nicholas J Beeching [Link]; page 198

  4. 12 Alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Japanese: a systematic review. Author: Noda M, Seike N, Kadowaki T. Journal: Asia Pac J Clin Nutr; 2008; 17(4):545-51. PubMed ID: 19114388. [Link]; page 198

  5. 13 Hydrochlorothiazide, but not Candesartan, Aggravates Insulin Resistance and Causes Visceral and Hepatic Fat Accumulation: The Mechanisms for the Diabetes Preventing Effect of Candesartan (MEDICA) Study. Journal: Hypertension; 2008 Dec; 52(6):1030-1037. PubMed ID: 18981327. [Link]; page 198

(footnote) The vascular trigger of type II diabetes mellitus. Author: Lammert E. Journal: Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 Sep; 116 Suppl 1():S21-5. PubMed ID: 18777448. [Link]; page 198

(footnote) Retinopathy in subjects with impaired fasting glucose: the NANSY-Eye baseline report. Author: Tyrberg M, Melander A, Lövestam-Adrian M, Lindblad U. Journal: Diabetes Obes Metab; 2007 Jul 21; ():. PubMed ID: 17645554. [Link]; page 198

  1. 14 No link available; page 199

  2. 15 Retinopathy in subjects with impaired fasting glucose: the NANSY-Eye baseline report. Journal: Diabetes Obes Metab; 2007 Jul 21; ():. PubMed ID: 17645554. [Link]; page 199

  3. 16 Fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c as risk factors for Type 2 diabetes. Author: Inoue K, Matsumoto M, Akimoto K. Journal: Diabet Med; 2008 Oct; 25(10):1157-63. PubMed ID: 19046193. [Link]; page 199

  4. 17 Enalapril reduces the incidence of diabetes in patients with chronic heart failure: insight from the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD). Circulation 2003 107 1291 [Link]; page 199

  5. 18 Gestational diabetes mellitus in a cohort of HIV-1 infected women. Author: González-Tomé MI, Ramos Amador JT, Guillen S, Solís I, Fernández-Ibieta M, Muñoz E, Almeda J, Rojano X, Rojo P, Nieto O, Spanish Cohort of HIV-infected Mother-Infant Pairs . Journal: HIV Med; 2008 Nov; 9(10):868-74. PubMed ID: 18983478. [Link]; page 199

  6. 19 Latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood (LADA): an often misdiagnosed type of diabetes mellitus. Author: Appel SJ, Wadas TM, Rosenthal RS, Ovalle F. Journal: J Am Acad Nurse Pract; 2009 Mar; 21(3):156-9. PubMed ID: 19302691. [Link]; page 199

  7. 20 Epidemiology of Diabetes and Diabetes-Related Complications. Journal: Phys Ther; 2008 Nov; 88(11):1254-1264. PubMed ID: 18801858. [Link]; page 199

  8. 21 Undetected type 2 diabetes in older adults. Journal: Age Ageing; 2008 Nov 13; ():. PubMed ID: 19008303 [Link]; page 199

  9. 22 Screening for type 2 diabetes is feasible, acceptable, but associated with increased short-term anxiety: a randomised controlled trial in British general practice. Author: Park P, Simmons RK, Prevost AT, Griffin SJ. Journal: BMC Public Health; 2008; 8():350. PubMed ID: 18840266. [Link]; page 199

  10. 23 Obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: the Hordaland Health Study. Author: Raeder MB, Bjelland I, Emil Vollset S, Steen VM. Journal: J Clin Psychiatry; 2006 Dec; 67(12):1974-82. PubMed ID: 17194277 [Link]; page 199

  11. 24 Sertraline-induced hyperglycemia: case report. Author: Sansone RA, Sansone LA. Journal: Int J Psychiatry Med; 2003; 33(1):103-5. PubMed ID: 12906348. [Link]; page 199

  12. 25 Gene-environment interaction and the metabolic syndrome. Author: Adamo KB, Tesson F. Journal: Novartis Found Symp; 2008; 293():103-19; discussion 119-27. PubMed ID: 18972748. [Link]; page 199

  13. 26 The metabolic syndrome as a concept of adipose tissue disease. Author: Oda E. Journal: Hypertens Res; 2008 Jul; 31(7):1283-91. PubMed ID: 18957797. [Link]; page 199

  14. 27 Insulin resistance and Alzheimer’s disease: molecular links & clinical implications. Author: Neumann KF, Rojo L, Navarrete LP, Farías G, Reyes P, Maccioni RB. Journal: Curr Alzheimer Res; 2008 Oct; 5(5):438-47. PubMed ID: 18855585. [Link]; page 199

  15. 28 [Relationship of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance with microalbuminuria in senior citizens of rural communities in Japan --the Tanno and Sobetsu study--] Author: Tabeya T, Ohnishi H, Saitoh S, Akasaka H, Mitsumata K, Chiba M, Furugen M, Mori M, Shimamoto K. Journal: Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi; 2008 May; 45(3):302-7. PubMed ID: 18622115. [Link]; page 199

  16. 29 Gallstone disease: from genes to evidence-based therapy. Author: Lammert F, Miquel JF. Journal: J Hepatol; 2008; 48 Suppl 1():S124-35. PubMed ID: 18308417. [Link]; page 199

  17. 30 Metabolic syndrome and cancer risk. Author: Russo A, Autelitano M, Bisanti L. Journal: Eur J Cancer; 2008 Jan; 44(2):293-7. PubMed ID: 18055193 [Link]; page 199

  18. 31 A preliminary study of the effects of Tai Chi and Qigong medical exercise on indicators of metabolic syndrome, glycaemic control, health related quality of life, and psychological health in adults with elevated blood glucose. Journal: Br J Sports Med; 2008 Oct 16; ():. PubMed ID: 18927159. [Link]; page 199

  19. 32 The Effect of Atorvastatin in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study. Journal: J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Oct 21; ():. PubMed ID: 18940877 [Link]; page 199

  20. 33 Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean diet: a healthy cardiovascular diet for weight loss. Journal: Nutr J; 2008 Oct 26; 7(1):30. PubMed ID: 18950537. [Link]; page 199

  21. 34 No link available; page 199

  22. 35 [Coherences Between the Metabolic Syndrome, Depression, Stress and Physical Activity.] Journal: Psychiatr Prax; 2008 Oct 15; ():. PubMed ID: 18924063. [Link]; page 199

  23. 36 [Effects of a telephone intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes] Author: Richter H, Kraft K, Kleinwechter H, Demandt N, Meincke G, Dabelstein A, Weisser B. Journal: Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2008 Oct; 133(43):2203-8. PubMed ID: 18924053 [Link]; page 199

(footnote) No link available; page 199

Treating diabetes mellitus

  1. 37 Glucose control and vascular complications in veterans with type 2 diabetes. W Duckworth. Randomized trial 2009 NEJM 360 129. 19092145. [Link]; page 200

  2. 38 Should patients with type 2 diabetes focus on glycemic control to reduce their cardiovascular risk? Author: Montori VM. Journal: Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2008 Sep; 118(9):502-7. PubMed ID: 18846985. [Link]; page 200

  3. 39 No link available; page 200

  4. 40 Randomized group behavioural trial for diet medification in DM. Public Health Nutr; 200919161649 [Link]; page 200

  5. 41 No link available; page 200

  6. 42 Bariatric surgery in Medicare patients: greater risks but substantial benefits. Journal: Surg Obes Relat Dis; 2008 Aug 30; ():. PubMed ID: 18996764. [Link]; page 200

  7. 43 Not the advice from NICE which says try diet and education alone; but it is the advice of the American Diabetes Association and the 2006 European Association for the study of diabetes. Diabetes care. 2006 29 1963-72; no link available; page 200

  8. 44 Introducing estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) into clinical practice in the UK: implications for the use of metformin. Author: Warren RE, Strachan MW, Wild S, McKnight JA. Journal: Diabet Med; 2007 May; 24(5):494-7. PubMed ID: 17367305. [Link]; page 200

  9. 45 The metabolic effects of once daily extended-release metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes: a multicentre study. Author: Gao H, Xiao W, Wang C, Zhang J, Yang Y, Yang J, Yang W, Hong T. Journal: Int J Clin Pract; 2008 May; 62(5):695-700. PubMed ID: 18412932. [Link]; page 200

  10. 46 Bookmark not defined. Enalapril reduces the incidence of diabetes in patients with chronic heart failure: insight from the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD). Circulation 2003 107 1291 [Link]; page 200

  11. 47 Singh 2008. Meta-analysis shows Pioglitazone does not cause MI and may protect against stroke. Am J Ther; 2008. 506. 19127132 [Link]; page 200

  12. 48 Nateglinide+metformin may be better than glienclamide+metformin. Randomized trial. E Fogari 2009. J Clin Pharm Ther. PubMed ID: 19125899 [Link]; page 200

  13. 49 No link available, page 200

  14. 50 No link available, page 200

  15. 51 No link available, page 200

  16. 52 No link available, page 200

  17. 53 LCKD diets in diabetes. Nutr Metab. 2008 19099589 [Link]; page 201

  18. 54 Insulin treatment for diabetes. 2001 [Link]; page 201

  19. 55 NICE 2008 Type 2 Diabetes [Link]; page 201

  20. 56 Safety and efficacy of glargine compared with NPH insulin for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Author: Bazzano LA, Lee LJ, Shi L, Reynolds K, Jackson JA, Fonseca V. Journal: Diabet Med; 2008 Aug; 25(8):924-32. PubMed ID: 18959605. [Link]; page 201

  21. 57 Less weight gain and hypoglycaemia with once-daily insulin detemir than NPH insulin in intensification of insulin therapy in overweight Type 2 diabetes patients: the PREDICTIVE BMI clinical trial. Author: Fajardo Montañana C, Hernández Herrero C, Rivas Fernández M. Journal: Diabet Med; 2008 Aug; 25(8):916-23. PubMed ID: 18959604 [Link]; page 201

  22. 58 A randomised, 52-week, treat-to-target trial comparing insulin detemir with insulin glargine when administered as add-on to glucose-lowering drugs in insulin-naive people with type 2 diabetes. Author: Rosenstock J, Davies M, Home PD, Larsen J, Koenen C, Schernthaner G. Journal: Diabetologia; 2008 Mar; 51(3):408-16. PubMed ID: 18204830. [Link]; page 201

  23. 59 Long-acting insulin analogues versus NPH human insulin in type 2 diabetes A meta-analysis. Journal: Diabetes Res Clin Pract; 2008 May 19; ():. PubMed ID: 18495286. [Link]; page 201

  24. 60 Dosing accuracy of two insulin pre-filled pens. Author: Asakura T, Seino H, Kageyama M, Yohkoh N. Journal: Curr Med Res Opin; 2008 May; 24(5):1429-34. PubMed ID: 18400146. [Link]; page 201

  25. 61 No link available; page 201

Helping people with established diabetes

  1. 62 The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. NEJM 1993 329 977 and UKPDS Lancet 1998 352; no link available; page 202

  2. 63 No link available; page 202

  3. 64 Aspirin does not help as primary prevention in DM. Belch J. BMJ 2008;337:a1840 [Link]; page 202

  4. 65 Clinical impact of reducing microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Author: Araki S, Haneda M, Koya D, Kashiwagi A, Uzu T, Kikkawa R. Journal: Diabetes Res Clin Pract; 2008 Nov 13; 82 Suppl 1():S54-8. PubMed ID: 18947896. [Link]; page 202

  5. 66 Effect of spironolactone therapy on albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Author: Davidson MB, Wong A, Hamrahian AH, Stevens M, Siraj ES. Journal: Endocr Pract; 2008 Nov; 14(8):985-92. PubMed ID: 19095597. [Link]; page 202

  6. 67 NICE 2008 recommendation: Chronic kidney disease. [Link]; page 202

  7. 68 Rapid reduction of hard exudates in eyes with diabetic retinopathy after intravitreal triamcinolone: data from a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Journal: Acta Ophthalmol; 2008 Sep 10; ():. PubMed ID: 18785964 [Link]; page 202

  8. 69 No link available; page 202

  9. 70 Professor Jonathan D. Trobe [Link]; page 203

  10. 71 Professor Jonathan D. Trobe [Link]; page 203

  11. 72 Professor Jonathan D. Trobe [Link]; page 203

  12. 73 Cost effectiveness of self monitoring of blood glucose in patients with non-insulin treated type 2 diabetes: economic evaluation of data from the DiGEM trial. Author: Simon J, Gray A, Clarke P, Wade A, Neil A, Farmer A, Diabetes Glycaemic Education and Monitoring Trial Group . Journal: BMJ; 2008 May 24; 336(7654):1177-80. PubMed ID: 18420663. [Link]; page 203

(footnote) BMJ 2003 327 1060; no link available; page 203

(footnote) The prevention of progression of arterial disease and diabetes (POPADAD) trial: factorial randomised placebo controlled trial of aspirin and antioxidants in patients with diabetes and asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease. Author: Belch J. BMJ; 2008; 337():a1840. PubMed ID: 18927173 [Link]; page 203

Diabetic neuropathy and diabetic foot care

  1. 74 Warning over diabetes amputations [Link]; page 204

  2. 75 No link available; page 204

  3. 76 Current endovascular management of the ischaemic diabetic foot. Author: Gerassimidis T, Karkos C, Karamanos D, Kamparoudis A. Journal: Hippokratia; 2008 Apr; 12(2):67-73. PubMed ID: 18923656. [Link]; page 204

  4. 77 S Vela 1996 Diab Care [@8842597]; no link available; page 204

  5. 78 CLINICAL REVIEW: Use of antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of chronic painful diabetic neuropathy. Author: Vinik A. Journal: J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Aug; 90(8):4936-45. PubMed ID: 15899953. [Link]; page 204

  6. 79 No link available; page 204

  7. 80 Baclofen as an adjuvant analgesic. Author: Fromm GH. Journal: J Pain Symptom Manage; 1994 Nov; 9(8):500-9. PubMed ID: 7852758. [Link]; page 204

  8. 81 Results of decompression of peripheral nerves in diabetics: a prospective, blinded study. Authors:- Aszmann OC, Kress KM, Dellon AL. [Link]; page 204

  9. 82 Pain forum. Part 2. Neuropathic pain. Author: Kenner DJ. Journal: Aust Fam Physician; 1994 Jul; 23(7):1279-83. PubMed ID: 7520235. [Link]; page 204

  10. 83 Rapidly evolving diabetic mononeuritis multiplex. Favorable outcome after immunosuppressive treatment]; authors:- Awada A, Dehoux E, al Jumah M, al Ayafi H [Link]; page 204

  11. 84 Diabetic amyotrophy: current concepts. Authors:- Sander HW, Chokroverty S. [Link]; page 204

  12. 85 Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for diabetic amyotrophy. Authors:- Ogawa T, Taguchi T, Tanaka Y, Ikeguchi K, Nakano I. [Link]; page 204

  13. 86 Gastroparesis and its management. Stanciu GO [Link]; page 204

  14. 87 No link available; page 204

  15. 88 Letter to his sister Isabelle, July 10, 1891. [Link]; page 205

  16. 89 Medical treatment of Charcot neuroosteoarthropathy. Author: Jostel A, Jude EB. Journal: Clin Podiatr Med Surg; 2008 Jan; 25(1):63-9, vi-vii. PubMed ID: 18165112. [Link]; page 205

(footnote) Metabolic syndrome-a new world-wide definition. A Consensus Statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Author: Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J. Journal: Diabet Med; 2006 May; 23(5):469-80. PubMed ID: 16681555 [Link]; page 205

Hypoglycaemia

  1. 90 High-dose calcium stimulation test in a case of insulinoma masquerading as hysteria. Authors:- Nakamura Y, Doi R, Kohno Y, Shimono D, Kuwamura N, Inoue K, Koshiyama H, Imamura M. [Link]; page 206

  2. 91 Br J Sports Med. 2003 Aug;37(4):356 Insulin as a drug of abuse in body building--Evans P [Link]; page 206

  3. 92 Drug-induced hypoglycemia: A systematic review. Journal: J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Dec 16; ():. PubMed ID: 19088166. [Link]; page 206

  4. 93 Advances in the diagnosis and management of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Journal: Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Feb; 5(2):101-112. PubMed ID: 19165222. [Link]; page 206

  5. 94 What preoperative assessment is necessary for insulinomas? Calculating the degree of waste: analysis of 29 cases. Authors:- Falconi M, Molinari E, Carbognin G, Zamboni G, Bassi C, Pederzoli P. [Link]; page 206

  6. 95 Pitfalls in the surgical treatment of insulinoma. Authors:- Richards ML, Gauger PG, Thompson NW, Kloos RG, Giordano TJ. [Link]; page 206

  7. 96 No link available; page 206

  8. 97 Glycemic control in patients with insulinoma treated with everolimus. Author: Kulke MH, Bergsland EK, Yao JC. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2009 Jan 8; 360(2):195-7. PubMed ID: 19129539. [Link]; page 206

  9. 98 No link available; page 206

  10. 99 Hypoglycemic Disorders: Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008. 19088155. [Link]; page 207

  11. 100 he role of intra-arterial calcium stimulation test with hepatic venous sampling (IACS) in the management of occult insulinomas. Author: Tseng LM, Chen JY, Won JG, Tseng HS, Yang AH, Wang SE, Lee CH. Journal: Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Jul; 14(7):2121-7. PubMed ID: 17431724. [Link]; page 207

  12. 101 Nesidioblastosis [Link]; page 207

  13. 102 Hypoglycaemia in an adult male: a surprising finding in pursuit of insulinoma. Author: Geraghty M, Draman M, Moran D, Muldoon C, Reynolds JV, Cullen MJ. Journal: Surgeon; 2008 Feb; 6(1):57-60. PubMed ID: 18318091. [Link]; page 207

Thyroid function tests (TFTs)

  1. 103 Euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia due to a generalized 5’-deiodinase defect. Author: Kleinhaus N, Faber J, Kahana L, Schneer J, Scheinfeld M. Journal: J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 1988 Apr; 66(4):684-8. PubMed ID: 3346351. [Link]; page 208

  2. 104 Diagnostic confusion attributable to spurious elevation of both total thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone uptake measurements in the setting of autoantibodies: case report and review of related literature. Author: Pietras SM, Safer JD. Journal: Endocr Pract; 2008 Sep; 14(6):738-42. PubMed ID: 18996795. [Link]; page 208

  3. 105 Predictive factors of thyroid carcinoma in non-toxic multinodular goitre. Author: Alexopoulou O, Beguin C, Buysschaert M, Squifflet JP, de Burbure C, De Nayer P, Daumerie C. Journal: Acta Clin Belg; 2004 Mar-Apr; 59(2):84-9. PubMed ID: 15224471. [Link]; page 208

(footnote) Consumptive hypothyroidism caused by paraneoplastic production of type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase. Author: Ruppe MD, Huang SA, Jan de Beur SM. Journal: Thyroid; 2005 Dec; 15(12):1369-72. PubMed ID: 16405410. [Link]; page 208

  1. 106 Tunbridge WM, Vanderpump MP. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2000; 29: 239-53; no link available; page 209

Thyrotoxicosis

  1. 107 Thyrotoxicosis-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Author: Nadkarni PJ, Sharma M, Zinsmeister B, Wartofsky L, Burman KD. Journal: Thyroid; 2008 Oct; 18(10):1111-4. PubMed ID: 18816176. [Link]; page 210

  2. 108 J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Dec;87(12):5435 Thyroid acropachy: report of 40 patients treated at a single institution in a 26-year period--Fatourechi V [Link]; page 210

  3. 109 Peripheral blood leucocytes in thyrotoxicosis (Graves’ disease) as studied by conventional light microscopy. Author: Irvine WJ, Wu FC, Urbaniak SJ, Toolis F. Journal: Clin Exp Immunol; 1977 Feb; 27(2):216-21. PubMed ID: 849652. [Link]; page 210

  4. 110 Graves disease. Brent, G 2008. NEJM 358 2594 [Link]; page 210

  5. 111 Autoimmune thyroid disease: propagation and progression. Weetman AP. [Link]; page 210

  6. 112 J Endocrinol Invest. 2002;25(10 Suppl):16 Toxic multinodular goiter in the elderly--Vitti P [Link]; page 210

  7. 113 Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2003 Feb;36(1):35--Multinodular goiter--Day T [Link]; page 210

  8. 114 Thyroid. 1999 Feb;9(2):173 Severe thyrotoxicosis due to hyperfunctioning liver metastasis from follicular carcinoma: treatment with (131)I and interstitial laser ablation--Guglielmi R [Link]; page 210

  9. 115 No link available; page 210

  10. 116 J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2000;38(3):333 Lithium: thyroid effects and altered renal handling--Oakley P [Link]; page 210

  11. 117 Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland: review of the literature. Author: Bulbuloglu E, Ciralik H, Okur E, Ozdemir G, Ezberci F, Cetinkaya A. Journal: World J Surg; 2006 Feb; 30(2):149-55. PubMed ID: 16425087. [Link]; page 210

  12. 118 A systematic review of drug therapy for Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Author: Abraham P, Avenell A, Park CM, Watson WA, Bevan JS. Journal: Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Oct; 153(4):489-98. PubMed ID: 16189168. [Link]; page 210

  13. 119 Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2002 Oct;108(4):979 Reversible thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy--report of three cases Nowak M [Link]; page 210

  14. 120 Eckstein A, et al. Br J Opthalmol. 2003; 87: 773-6.” >[Link]; page 211

  15. 121 Randomized, single blind trial of intravenous versus oral steroid monotherapy in Graves’ orbitopathy. Author: Kahaly GJ, Pitz S, Hommel G, Dittmar M. Journal: J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Sep; 90(9):5234-40. PubMed ID: 15998777 [Link]; page 211

  16. 122 Graves’ disease and stiff-person (stiff-man) syndrome: case report and literature review. Author: Orija IB, Gupta M, Zimmerman RS. Journal: Endocr Pract; 2005 Jul-Aug; 11(4):259-64. PubMed ID: 16006304. [Link]; page 211

  17. 123 Stiff person syndrome: avoiding misdiagnosis. Author: Andreadou E, Kattoulas E, Sfagos C, Vassilopoulos D. Journal: Neurol Sci; 2007 Mar; 28(1):35-7. PubMed ID: 17385093. [Link]; page 211

  18. 124 G Brent 2008 NEJM 358 2594 [Link]; page 211

Hypothyroidism (myxoedema)

  1. 125 Spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation in a pregnant woman with hypothyroidism. Author: Borna S, Nasery A. Journal: Fertil Steril; 2007 Sep; 88(3):705.e1-3. PubMed ID: 17433320. [Link]; page 212

  2. 126 The problem of exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Author: Batrinos ML. Journal: Hormones (Athens); 2006 Apr-Jun; 5(2):119-25. PubMed ID: 16807224. [Link]; page 212

  3. 127 No link available; page 212

(footnote) Hypothyroidism in coronary heart disease and its relation to selected risk factors. Author: Mayer O, Simon J, Filipovský J, Plásková M, Pikner R. Journal: Vasc Health Risk Manag; 2006; 2(4):499-506. PubMed ID: 17323605. [Link]; page 212

  1. 128 Hypothyroidism in coronary heart disease and its relation to selected risk factors. Author: Mayer O, Simon J, Filipovský J, Plásková M, Pikner R. Journal: Vasc Health Risk Manag; 2006; 2(4):499-506. PubMed ID: 17323605. [Link]; page 213

  2. 129 Subclinical hypothyroidism is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction in elderly women: the Rotterdam Study. Author: Hak AE, Pols HA, Visser TJ, Drexhage HA, Hofman A, Witteman JC. Journal: Ann Intern Med; 2000 Feb 15; 132(4):270-8. PubMed ID: 10681281. [Link]; page 213

  3. 130 Thyrotropin levels and risk of fatal coronary heart disease: the HUNT study. Author: Asvold BO, Bjøro T, Nilsen TI, Gunnell D, Vatten LJ. Journal: Arch Intern Med; 2008 Apr 28; 168(8):855-60. PubMed ID: 18443261. [Link]; page 213

  4. 131 Impact of subclinical thyroid disorders on coronary heart disease, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis. Author: Singh S, Duggal J, Molnar J, Maldonado F, Barsano CP, Arora R. Journal: Int J Cardiol; 2008 Mar 28; 125(1):41-8. PubMed ID: 17434631. [Link]; page 213

  5. 132 Subclinical thyroid dysfunction as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Author: Walsh JP, Bremner AP, Bulsara MK, O’Leary P, Leedman PJ, Feddema P, Michelangeli V. Journal: Arch Intern Med; 2005 Nov 28; 165(21):2467-72. PubMed ID: 16314542. [Link]; page 213

  6. 133 No link available; page 213

  7. 134 Risk for ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in subclinical hypothyroidism. Author: Imaizumi M, Akahoshi M, Ichimaru S, Nakashima E, Hida A, Soda M, Usa T, Ashizawa K, Yokoyama N, Maeda R, Nagataki S, Eguchi K. Journal: J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2004 Jul; 89(7):3365-70. PubMed ID: 15240616. [Link]; page 213

  8. 135 |TSH, ^ T4 or ^T3 Hyperthyroidism [Link]; page 213

  9. 136 Drug Ther Bul 1998 36 1 & Lancet 1997 349 413; no link available; page 213

  10. 137 B Vaidya 2008 BMJ 337 285. doi:10.1136/bmj.a801 [Link]; page 213

  11. 138 Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and mortality: an estimate of relative and absolute excess all-cause mortality based on time-to-event data from cohort studies. Author: Haentjens P, Van Meerhaeghe A, Poppe K, Velkeniers B. Journal: Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Sep; 159(3):329-41. PubMed ID: 18511471. [Link]; page 213

  12. 139 Hoogendoorn EH, den Heijer M, van Dijk APJ, Hermus AR. Subclinical hyperthyroidism: to treat or not to treat? Postgrad Med J. 2004; 80: 394-8.” >[Link]; page 213

Parathyroid hormone and hyperparathyroidism

  1. 140 Image of hyperparathyroidism bone changes in the finger [Link]; page 214

  2. 141 Andersson P, Rydberg E, Willenheimer R. Primary hyperparathyroidism and heart disease - a review. European Heart Journal. 2004; 25: 1776-87.” >[Link]; page 214

  3. 142 No link available; page 214

  4. 143 Cohort study on effec`ts of parathyroid surgery on multiple outcomes...P Vestergaard 2003 BMJ 327 530 [Link]; page 214

  5. 144 Bilezikian JP, Silverberg SJ. Asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. 2004; 350: 1746-51; no link available; page 214

  6. 145 Inabnet WB. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring. World J Surg. 2004; 28: 1212-5. [Link]; page 214

  7. 146 Eur J Endocrinol 2003 Apr;148(4):413-21 Recurrence of hyperparathyroidism; a long-term follow-up after surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism. Hedback G [Link]; page 214

  8. 147 Nice 2006 [Link]; page 214

  9. 148 Bone health and vascular calcification relationships in chronic kidney disease. Journal: Int Urol Nephrol; 2007 Sep 26; ():. PubMed ID: 17899431 [Link]; page 214

  10. 149 Eur J Endocrinol 2003 Apr;148(4):413-21 Recurrence of hyperparathyroidism; a long-term follow-up after surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism. Hedback G [Link]; page 214

  11. 150 Long-term treatment of hypoparathyroidism: a randomized controlled study comparing parathyroid hormone-(1-34) versus calcitriol and calcium. Author: Winer KK, Ko CW, Reynolds JC, Dowdy K, Keil M, Peterson D, Gerber LH, McGarvey C, Cutler GB. Journal: J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2003 Sep; 88(9):4214-20. PubMed ID: 12970289. [Link]; page 214

  12. 151 No link available; page 214

  13. 152 Annu Rev Physiol. 2000;62:377 Multiple endocrine neoplasias--Hoff A [Link]; page 215

  14. 153 J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2000 May;13(5):457 A concise genetic and clinical guide to multiple endocrine neoplasias and related syndromes. Stratakis C [Link]; page 215

  15. 154 No link available; page 215

  16. 155 Dermatitis, glossitis, stomatitis, cheilitis, anemia and weight loss: a classic presentation of pancreatic glucagonoma. Author: Povoski SP, Zaman SA, Ducatman BS, McFadden DW. Journal: W V Med J; 2002 Jan-Feb; 98(1):12-4. PubMed ID: 11941895. [Link]; page 215

  17. 156 J Intern Med. 2003 Jun;253(6):606 Functional studies of the MEN1 gene--Chandrasekharappa S [Link]; page 215

  18. 157 P R Health Sci J. 1998 Dec;17(4):309 Clinical profile of 128 subjects operated for primary hyperparathyroidism--Haddock L [Link]; page 215

  19. 158 Eur J Endocrinol. 2001 Aug;145(2):155 Familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism--a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 variant?--Miedlich S [Link]; page 215

  20. 159 Dermatol Clin. 1995 Jan;13(1):99 Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B (MEN 2B)/MEN 3--Holloway K [Link]; page 215

  21. 160 No link available; page 215

  22. 161 Aust N Z J Ophthalmol. 1995 Nov;23(4):343 Multiple endocrine neoplasia type two B. A case report with light and electron microscopic and immunohistochemical correlation--Koh L [Link]; page 215

  23. 162 Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2001 Sep-Oct;4(5):446 RET(Men2B)-transgene produces sympathoadrenal tumors but does not prevent intestinal aganglionosis in gdnf-/- or gfr alpha-1(-/-) mice--Rajan I [Link]; page 215

  24. 163 Eisenbarth GS, Gottlieb PA. Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes. NEJM. 2004; 350: 2068-79; no link available; page 215

  25. 164 Images of caerebral calcification in hypoparathyroidism. [Link]; page 215

  26. 165 Hyperparathyroidism: Norman Endocrine Surgery Clinic [Link]; page 215

Adrenal cortex and Cushing’s syndrome

  1. 166 Imaging in Cushing’s syndrome. Author: Sahdev A, Reznek RH, Evanson J, Grossman AB. Journal: Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Nov; 51(8):1319-28. PubMed ID: 18209870. [Link]; page 216

  2. 167 No link available; page 216

  3. 168 Gloria Valdés. 2006. doi: 10.1007/s12020-006-0019-y. Association of Adrenal Medullar and Cortical Nodular Hyperplasia. A Report of Two Cases with Clinical and Morpho-Functional Considerations [Link]; page 216

  4. 169 Treatment of severe psychosis due to ectopic Cushing’s syndrome. Author: Bilgin YM, van der Wiel HE, Fischer HR, De Herder WW. Journal: J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Oct; 30(9):776-9. PubMed ID: 17993771. [Link]; page 216

  5. 170 Etxabe J, Vazquez JA. Morbidity and mortality in Cushing’s disease: An epidemiological approach. Clin Endocrinol. 1994; 40: 479-84; no link available; page 216

  6. 171 Outcome of adrenalectomy for Cushing’s syndrome: experience from a tertiary care center. Author: Mishra AK, Agarwal A, Gupta S, Agarwal G, Verma AK, Mishra SK. Journal: World J Surg; 2007 Jul; 31(7):1425-32. PubMed ID: 17534556. [Link]; page 216

  7. 172 Diagnosis and complications of Cushing’s syndrome: a consensus statement. [Link]; page 217

  8. 173 Screening and diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome. Author: de Castro M, Moreira AC. Journal: Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Nov; 51(8):1191-8. PubMed ID: 18209856. [Link]; page 217

  9. 174 No link available; page 217

  10. 175 Imaging in Cushing’s syndrome. Author: Sahdev A, Reznek RH, Evanson J, Grossman AB. Journal: Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Nov; 51(8):1319-28. PubMed ID: 18209870. [Link]; page 217

  11. 176 Stretch marks: treatment using the 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser. Author: Goldman A, Rossato F, Prati C. Journal: Dermatol Surg; 2008 May; 34(5):686-91; discussion 691-2. PubMed ID: 18336578. [Link]; page 217

Addison’s disease (adrenal insufficiency)

  1. 177 AACN Clin Issues Crit Care Nurs. 1992 May;3(2):319 Adrenocortical insufficiency: a medical emergency--Lee LM [Link]; page 218

  2. 178 CM Brosnan 1996 bmj i 1085 [Link]; page 218

  3. 179 Leuk Lymphoma. 1997 Jan;24(3-4):363 Primary adrenal lymphoma associated with adrenal insufficiency: a distinct clinical entity--Pimentel M [Link]; page 218

  4. 180 No link available; page 218

  5. 181 South Med J. 1998 Feb;91(2):208 Prompt differentiation of Addison’s disease from anorexia nervosa during weight loss and vomiting--Adams R [Link]; page 218

  6. 182 Am J Gastroenterol. 1989 Oct;84(10):1302 Gastrointestinal manifestations of Addison’s disease--Tobin M [Link]; page 218

  7. 183 Addison’s disease due to Histoplasma duboisii infection of the adrenal glands. Author: Mudawi HM, Elamin EM, Baraka OZ, El-Hassan AM. Journal: Saudi Med J; 2008 Jun; 29(6):904-6. PubMed ID: 18521476. [Link]; page 218

  8. 184 Replacement therapy for Addison’s disease: recent developments. Author: L¸vås K, Husebye ES. Journal: Expert Opin Investig Drugs; 2008 Apr; 17(4):497-509. PubMed ID: 18363515. [Link]; page 218

  9. 185 Scand J Gastroenterol. 2003 May;38(5):511 High frequency of coeliac disease among patients with autoimmune adrenocortical failure--Myhre A [Link]; page 218

  10. 186 No link available; page 218

(footnote) [Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes] Author: Krysiak R, Okopien B, Boùdys A. Journal: Przegl Lek; 2008; 65(9):393-400. PubMed ID: 19140388. [Link]; page 218

(footnote) The Lancet, Volume 365, Issue 9476, Pages 2058 - 2061, 11 June 2005 [Link]; page 218

  1. 187 State Coroner for Western Australia. Failure to diagnose Addison’s disease. [Link]; page 219

Hyperaldosteronism

  1. 188 Hypokalemic quadriparesis with normotensive primary hyperaldosteronism. Author: Talib A, Mahmood K, Jairamani KL, Samo A, Shakoor A, Ghanghro I, Mehar S. Journal: J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2004 Aug; 14(8):492-3. PubMed ID: 15321042. [Link]; page 220

  2. 189 Diagnostic challenges in adrenocortical carcinoma: recommendations for surveillance after surgical resection of selected adrenal nodules. Author: Fareau GG, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R. Journal: Endocr Pract; 2007 Oct; 13(6):636-41. PubMed ID: 17954420. [Link]; page 220

  3. 190 Ann Surg. 1999 Jun;229(6):755 Clinical experience over 48 years with pheochromocytoma--Goldstein R [Link]; page 220

  4. 191: Eur J Intern Med. 2008 Jan;19(1):60-2. Epub 2007 Sep 19. Links Unexpected metastatic pheochromocytoma - an unusual presentation.Birrenbach T [Link]; page 220

  5. 192: Ann Clin Biochem. 2008 Jan;45(Pt 1):6-10. Links Biochemical detection of phaeochromocytoma: why are we continuing to ignore the evidence?Peaston RT [Link]; page 220

  6. 193 Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of Urinary Free Metanephrines, Vanillyl Mandelic Acid, and Catecholamines and Plasma Catecholamines for Diagnosis of Pheochromocytoma; BOYLE James [Link]; page 220

  7. 194 Elder E, et al. The management of benign and malignant pheochromocytoma and abdominal paraganglioma. EJSO 2003; 29: 278-283; no link available; page 220

  8. 195 Ann Surg. 1999 Jun;229(6):755 Clinical experience over 48 years with pheochromocytoma--Goldstein R [Link]; page 220

(footnote) Shift from Conn’s syndrome to Cushing’s syndrome in a recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma. Author: Barzon L, Masi G, Fincati K, Pacenti M, Pezzi V, Altavilla G, Fallo F, Palù G. Journal: Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Nov; 153(5):629-36. PubMed ID: 16260420. [Link]; page 220

  1. 196 Mulatero P, Dluhy RG, Giacchetti G, Boscaro M, Veglio F, Stewart PM. Diagnosis of primary aldosteronism: from screening to subtype differentiation.Trends Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Apr; 16(3):114-9; no link availble; page 221

  2. 197 1970 Mayo clinic series, 1970. [Link]; page 221

(footnote) Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Author: Brenner ZR, Powers J. Journal: Heart Lung; 2008 Jan-Feb; 37(1):1-7. PubMed ID: 18206521. [Link]; page 221

(footnote) Acute subarachnoid haemorrhage as a precipitant for takotsubo cardiomyopathy: A case report and discussion. Journal: Int J Cardiol; 2007 Dec 10; ():. PubMed ID: 18077020. [Link]; page 221

Hirsutism, virilism, gynaecomastia & impotence/ED198 Mood and sexual function in polycystic ovary syndrome. Author: Janssen OE, Hahn S, Tan S, Benson S, Elsenbruch S. Journal: Semin Reprod Med; 2008 Jan; 26(1):45-52. PubMed ID: 18181082. [Link]; page 222

  1. 199 Drospirenone for the Treatment of Hirsute Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Clinical, Endocrinological, Metabolic Pilot Study. M. Guido. [Link]; page 222

  2. 200 Consensus statement on hirsutism.Martin K. @18252793. [Link]; page 222

  3. 201 Clinical review: Antiandrogens for the treatment of hirsutism: a systematic review and metaanalyses of randomized controlled trials.Swiglo BA. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Apr;93(4):1153-6 [Link]; page 222

  4. 202 Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2008 Nov;7(6):691-702. Links Drug-induced gynecomastia.Eckman A [Link]; page 222

  5. 203 The neurovascular mechanism of clitoral erection: nitric oxide and cGMP-stimulated activation of BKCa channels. FERRANTE S [Link]; page 222

  6. 204 Minimal time to successful intercourse after sildenafil citrate: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial H. Padma-Nathan [Link]; page 222

  7. 205 C McMahon 2006 BMJ 332 589. Treating erectile dysfunction when PDE% inhibitors fail. [Link]; page 222

  8. 206 W Sponsel 2000 nejm 342 1680 [Link]; page 222

  9. 207 No link available; page 222

  10. 208: Curr Urol Rep. 2008 Nov;9(6):506-13.Links Vacuum erection devices to treat erectile dysfunction and early penile rehabilitation following radical prostatectomy.Zippe CD, Pahlajani G [Link]; page 222

  11. 209 No link available; page 222

  12. 210 Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2007 Apr;13(4):352-5. Reconstruction of penile function with tissue engineering techniques. Song LJ; no link available; page 222

  13. 211 H Herrmann 2000 nejm 342 1622 [Link]; page 223

  14. 212 J Endocrinol Invest. 2008 Sep;31(9):799-808.The use of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors with concomitant medications.Corona G [Link]; page 223

  15. 213 Guardian for Nov 15th; page 22, col 5. [Link]; page 223

  16. 214 No link available; page 223

  17. 215 A cross-sectional analysis of testosterone therapies in hypopituitary men on stable pituitary hormone replacement. Journal: Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Sep 25; ():. PubMed ID: 18823394. [Link]; page 223

  18. 216 No link available; page 223

  19. 217 Testosterone therapy in men with moderate severity heart failure: a double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial. Malkin C. Eur Heart J 2006 27 57. 16093267 [Link]; page 223

  20. 218 The effect of testosterone therapy on lower urinary tract symptoms/bladder and sexual functions in men with symptomatic late-onset hypogonadism. Author: Karazindiyanoðlu S, Cayan S. Journal: Aging Male; 2008 Sep; 11(3):146-9. PubMed ID: 18821291. [Link]; page 223

Chapter 06: Gastroenterology

Gastroenterology

  1. 1 Wintering, Sylvia Plath, and Ariel: A Factual Chronology [Link]; page 235

Healthy, enjoyable eating

  1. 2 Nutr J. 2003 May 8;2(1):2. Epub 2003 Consumption of fruits and vegetables in relation to the risk of developing acute coronary syndromes; the CARDIO2000 case-control study--Panagiotakos D; see also [Link]; page 236

  2. 3 Journal of nutrition 2008 138 574 & BMJ 2008 336 566. [Link]; page 236

  3. 4 Dark chocolate boosts antioxidant levels--New Scientist 2003 and Journal reference: Nature (vol 424, p 1013) [Link]; page 236

  4. 5 A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity. Author: Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, McGuckin BG, Brill C, Mohammed BS, Szapary PO, Rader DJ, Edman JS, Klein S. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2003 May 22; 348(21):2082-90. PubMed ID: 12761365. [Link]; page 236

  5. 6 A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity. Author: Samaha FF, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, Chicano KL, Daily DA, McGrory J, Williams T, Williams M, Gracely EJ, Stern L. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2003 May 22; 348(21):2074-81. PubMed ID: 12761364. [Link]; page 236

  6. 7 Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN Diets for Change in Weight and Related Risk Factors Among Overweight Premenopausal Women. The A TO Z Weight Loss Study: A Randomized Trial. [Link]; page 236

  7. 8 Reduced dietary intake of carbohydrates by obese subjects results in decreased concentrations of butyrate and butyrate-producing bacteria in feces. Author: Duncan SH, Belenguer A, Holtrop G, Johnstone AM, Flint HJ, Lobley GE. Journal: Appl Environ Microbiol; 2007 Feb; 73(4):1073-8. PubMed ID: 17189447. [Link]; page 236

  8. 9 Mortality in vegetarians and non-vegetarians: a collaborative analysis of 8300 deaths among 76,000 men and women in five prospective studies.Author: Key TJ, Fraser GE, Thorogood M, Appleby PN, Beral V, Reeves G, Burr ML, Chang-Claude J, Frentzel-Beyme R, Kuzma JW, Mann J, McPherson K.Journal: Public Health Nutr; 1998 Mar; 1(1):33-41. PubMed ID: 10555529. [Link]; page 236

  9. 10 Mortality in British vegetarians. Author: Appleby PN, Key TJ, Thorogood M, Burr ML, Mann J. Journal: Public Health Nutr; 2002 Feb; 5(1):29-36. PubMed ID: 12001975. [Link]; page 236

  10. 11 Mortality in Randomized Trials of Antioxidant Supplements for Primary and Secondary Prevention Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Goran Bjelakovic, MD [Link]; page 236

  11. 12 [Link]; page 236

  12. 14 Omega 3 fatty acids for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Author: Hooper L, Thompson RL, Harrison RA, Summerbell CD, Moore H, Worthington HV, Durrington PN, Ness AR, Capps NE, Davey Smith G, Riemersma RA, Ebrahim SB. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2004; (4):CD003177. PubMed ID: 15495044. [Link]; page 236

  13. 15 Alcohol consumption, serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, and risk of ischaemic heart disease: six year follow up in the Copenhagen male study. Author: Hein HO, Suadicani P, Gyntelberg F. Journal: BMJ; 1996 Mar 23; 312(7033):736-41. PubMed ID: 8605458. [Link]; page 236

  14. 16 The DASH diet enhances the blood pressure response to losartan in hypertensive patients. Author: Conlin PR, Erlinger TP, Bohannon A, Miller ER, Appel LJ, Svetkey LP, Moore TJ. Journal: Am J Hypertens; 2003 May; 16(5 Pt 1):337-42. PubMed ID: 12745193. [Link]; page 236

  15. 17 Fibre (eg in cereals) appears to have a useful effect in premenopausal women. [This needs verifying--work of Prof Janet Cade] [Link]; page 237

  16. 18 Health benefits of dietary fiber. Author: Anderson JW, Baird P, Davis RH, Ferreri S, Knudtson M, Koraym A, Waters V, Williams CL. Journal: Nutr Rev; 2009 Apr; 67(4):188-205. PubMed ID: 19335713. [Link]; page 237

  17. 19 Dietary fibres as ‘prebiotics’: implications for colorectal cancer. Author: Lim CC, Ferguson LR, Tannock GW. Journal: Mol Nutr Food Res; 2005 Jun; 49(6):609-19. PubMed ID: 15864790. [Link]; page 237

  18. 20 US Department of Health and Human Services recommendation; no link available; page 237

  19. 21 Lifelong vegetarianism and risk of breast cancer: a population-based case-control study among South Asian migrant women living in England. Author: Dos Santos Silva I, Mangtani P, McCormack V, Bhakta D, Sevak L, McMichael AJ. Journal: Int J Cancer; 2002 May 10; 99(2):238-44. PubMed ID: 11979439. [Link]; page 237

  20. 22 Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults. Author: Calle EE, Rodriguez C, Walker-Thurmond K, Thun MJ. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2003 Apr 24; 348(17):1625-38. PubMed ID: 12711737. [Link]; page 237

  21. 23 Dieting to reduce body weight for controlling hypertension in adults. Author: Mulrow CD, Chiquette E, Angel L, Cornell J, Summerbell C, Anagnostelis B, Grimm R, Brand MB. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2000; (2):CD000484. PubMed ID: 10796721. [Link]; page 237

  22. 24 Obesity and systemic oxidative stress: clinical correlates of oxidative stress in the Framingham Study. Author: Keaney JF, Larson MG, Vasan RS, Wilson PW, Lipinska I, Corey D, Massaro JM, Sutherland P, Vita JA, Benjamin EJ, Framingham Study . Journal: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol; 2003 Mar 1; 23(3):434-9. PubMed ID: 12615693. [Link]; page 237

  23. 25 Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. Author: Shaw K, O’Rourke P, Del Mar C, Kenardy J. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (2):CD003818. PubMed ID: 15846683. [Link]; page 237

  24. 26 Long-term pharmacotherapy for obesity and overweight. Author: Padwal R, Li SK, Lau DC. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2004; (3):CD004094. PubMed ID: 15266516. [Link]; page 237

The mouth

  1. 27 See ABC of Oral Health. Clinical review series; BMJ; 2000. Eg Swellings and red, white, and pigmented lesions. PubMed ID: 10903660 [Link]; page 238

  2. 28 The white lesion that kills--aneuploid dysplastic oral leukoplakia. Greenspan D, Jordan RC. N Engl J Med; 2004 Apr 1; 350(14):1382-4. [Link]; page 238

  3. 29 Clinical practice. Aphthous ulceration. Scully C. N Engl J Med; 2006 Jul 13; 355(2):165-72. [Link]; page 238

  4. 30 Oral signs and symptoms in relation to disease activity and site of involvement in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Author: Katz J, Shenkman A, Stavropoulos F, Melzer E. Journal: Oral Dis; 2003 Jan; 9(1):34-40. PubMed ID: 12617256. [Link]; page 238

(footnote) Areca nut use: an independent risk factor for oral cancer. Warnakulasuriya S, Trivedy C, Peters TJ. [Link]; page 238

  1. 31 For an exposition on microstomia see: [Link]; page 239

Dysphagia

  1. 32 Treatment of patients with achalasia with botulinum toxin: a multicenter prospective cohort study. Author: Martínek J, Siroký M, Plottová Z, Bures J, Hep A, Spicák J. Journal: Dis Esophagus; 2003; 16(3):204-9. PubMed ID: 14641310. [Link]; page 240

  2. 33 Gastro-oesophageal reflux: the disease of the millennium--Navaratnam R [Link]; page 240

(footnote) Nonpropulsive esophageal contractions and gastroesophageal reflux. Author: Triadafilopoulos G, Castillo T. Journal: Am J Gastroenterol; 1991 Feb; 86(2):153-9. PubMed ID: 1992626. [Link]; page 240

(footnote) Effect of different swallow time intervals on the nutcracker esophagus. Author: Brito EM, Camacho-Lobato L, Paoletti V, Gideon M, Katz PO, Castell DO. Journal: Am J Gastroenterol; 2003 Jan; 98(1):40-5. PubMed ID: 12526934. [Link]; page 240

(footnote) Effect of sildenafil on oesophageal motor function in healthy subjects and patients with oesophageal motor disorders. Author: Eherer AJ, Schwetz I, Hammer HF, Petnehazy T, Scheidl SJ, Weber K, Krejs GJ. Journal: Gut; 2002 Jun; 50(6):758-64. PubMed ID: 12010875 [Link]; page 240

  1. 34 Comparative study of the antiemetic efficacy of ondansetron, propofol and midazolam in the early postoperative period. Author: Unlugenc H, Guler T, Gunes Y, Isik G. Journal: Eur J Anaesthesiol; 2004 Jan; 21(1):60-5. PubMed ID: 14768925. [Link]; page 241

Dyspepsia (indigestion) & peptic ulcer disease (PUD)

  1. 35 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(2):CD001961. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(3):CD001961. Initial management strategies for dyspepsia--Delaney B [Link]; page 242

  2. 36 Merec Bulletin 2006 vol 16 No 3, pages 9-12 [Link]; page 242

  3. 37 Societies Confront GI Risks of Antiplatelets, NSAIDs in Consensus Document October 7, 2008 [Link]; page 242

  4. 38 Eradication of Helicobacter pylori for non-ulcer dyspepsia. Author: Moayyedi P, Soo S, Deeks J, Delaney B, Harris A, Innes M, Oakes R, Wilson S, Roalfe A, Bennett C, Forman D. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (1):CD002096. PubMed ID: 15674892. [Link]; page 242

  5. 39 Functional dyspepsia--managing the conundrum. Longstreth GF. N Engl J Med; 2006 Feb 23; 354(8):791-3. [Link]; page 242

(footnote) rea breath test for Helicobacter pylori detection: present status. Author: Pathak CM, Bhasin DK, Khanduja KL. Journal: Trop Gastroenterol; 2004 Oct-Dec; 25(4):156-61. PubMed ID: 15912972. [Link]; page 242

  1. 40 Pharmaceuticals interfering with breath tests. [Link]; page 243

(footnote) [Bismuth preparations in the treatment of patients with gastric and duodenal ulcer disease] Author: Maev IV, Samsonov AA, Golubev NN. Journal: Klin Med (Mosk); 2008; 86(9):57-63. PubMed ID: 19048841. [Link]; page 243

(footnote) BNF advice [Link]; page 243

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD)

  1. 41 Vakil N, van Zanten SV, Kahrilas P, Dent J, Jones R. The Montreal definition and classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a global evidence-based consensus. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101: 1900-20; no link available; page 244

  2. 42 Vakil N, van Zanten SV, Kahrilas P, Dent J, Jones R. The Montreal definition and classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a global evidence-based consensus. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101: 1900-20; no link available; page 244

  3. 43 Clinical practice. Gastroesophageal reflux disease. Kahrilas PJ. N Engl J Med; 2008 Oct 16; 359(16):1700-7. [Link]; page 244

  4. 44 Medical treatments for the maintenance therapy of reflux oesophagitis and endoscopic negative reflux disease. Author: Donnellan C, Sharma N, Preston C, Moayyedi P. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (2):CD003245. PubMed ID: 15846653. [Link]; page 244

  5. 45 Guidelines Issued for Management of GERD October 28, 2008 [Link]; page 244

  6. 46 Minor diffuse changes such as erythema, oedema and friability are not included, and the term mucosal break is introduced to encompass the old terms erosion and ulceration. [Link]; page 244

Diarrhoea

  1. 47 Dis Colon Rectum. 1995 May;38(5):545 Ulcerative colitis: rectal dilations in a patient with refractory diarrhea. Report of a case--Frieri G [Link]; page 246

  2. 48 The 13C-Hiolein breath test (98% [U-13C] labelled long chain triglyceride mixture (highly labelled triolein) was evaluated as a non-invasive, non-radioactive test for exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Accuracy and clinical validity were good [Link]; page 246

  3. 49 First-line treatment in acute non-dysenteric diarrhoea: clinical comparison of loperamide oxide, loperamide and placebo. UK Janssen Research Group of General Practitioners. Author: Hughes IW. Journal: Br J Clin Pract; 1995 Jul-Aug; 49(4):181-5. PubMed ID: 7547157. [Link]; page 246

  4. 50 Clostridium difficile infection. Kuipers, E. 2008. Lancet 371 1486 [Link]; page 247

  5. 51 Clostridium difficile infection. Kuipers, E. 2008. Lancet 371 1486 [Link]; page 247

Constipation

  1. 52 Iain J D McCallum BMJ 2009. 338:b831 [Link]; page 248

  2. 53 Prof M Kamm 2003 BMJ 327 459 Constipation and its management Options go beyond laxatives and include behavioural treatment as well as new drugs [Link]; page 248

  3. 54 Prof M Kamm 2003 BMJ 327 459 Constipation and its management Options go beyond laxatives and include behavioural treatment as well as new drugs [Link]; page 248

  4. 55 Nahrung 2002 Apr;46(2):96-9 Sorption of copper, zinc and cobalt by oat and oat products. Gorecka D [Link]; page 248

  5. 56 New and emerging treatment options for chronic constipation. Author: Schiller LR. Journal: Rev Gastroenterol Disord; 2004; 4 Suppl 2():S43-51. PubMed ID: 15184816. [Link]; page 248

(footnote) Myths and misconceptions about chronic constipation. Author: Müller-Lissner SA, Kamm MA, Scarpignato C, Wald A. Journal: Am J Gastroenterol; 2005 Jan; 100(1):232-42. PubMed ID: 15654804. [Link]; page 248

  1. 57 Factor analy of orality and anality in selected patient groups. Author: Stone GC, Gottheil E. Journal: J Nerv Ment Dis; 1975 May; 160(5):311-23. PubMed ID: 1151351. [Link]; page 249

  2. 58 Bowel obsession syndrome in a patient with ulcerative colitis. Author: Porcelli P, Leandro G. Journal: Psychosomatics; 2007 Sep-Oct; 48(5):448-50. PubMed ID: 17878507. [Link]; page 249

  3. 59 Prevalence of Constipation. Am J Epidemiol 2004; 159:520-526. [Link]; page 249

  4. 60 Chronic constipation: let’s start from definition, first of all in elderly. [Link]; page 249

Jaundice

  1. 61 Predictive factors for remission and death in 73 patients with autoimmune hepatitis in Japan. Author: Hino T, Kumashiro R, Ide T, Koga Y, Ishii K, Tanaka E, Morita Y, Hisamochi A, Murashima S, Tanaka K, Ogata K, Kuwahara R, Sata M, Autoimmune Hepatitis Study Group . Journal: Int J Mol Med; 2003 Jun; 11(6):749-55. PubMed ID: 12736717. [Link]; page 250

  2. 62 Photograph reproduced with kind permission of Ian Herriot; no link available; page 251

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding: 163 Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. Author: Roberts I, Alderson P, Bunn F, Chinnock P, Ker K, Schierhout G. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2004; (4):CD000567. PubMed ID: 15495001. [Link]; page 252

  1. 64 Use and impact of early endoscopy in elderly patients with peptic ulcer hemorrhage: a population-based analysis. Journal: Gastrointest Endosc; 2009 Mar 27; ():. PubMed ID: 19329112. [Link]; page 252

  2. 65 National survey of UK emergency endoscopy units. Douglass A, Bramble MG, Barrison I. BMJ; 2005 Apr 30; 330(7498):1000-1. PubMed ID: 15764625 [Link]; page 252

  3. 66 Meta-analysis: proton-pump inhibition in high-risk patients with acute peptic ulcer bleeding. Author: Bardou M, Toubouti Y, Benhaberou-Brun D, Rahme E, Barkun AN. Journal: Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2005 Mar 15; 21(6):677-86. PubMed ID: 15771753. Abstract [Link]; page 252

  4. 67 Prospective validation of the Rockall risk scoring system for upper GI hemorrhage in subgroups of patients with varices and peptic ulcers. Author: Sanders DS, Carter MJ, Goodchap RJ, Cross SS, Gleeson DC, Lobo AJ. Journal: Am J Gastroenterol; 2002 Mar; 97(3):630-5. PubMed ID: 11922558. [Link]; page 253

  5. 68 Management Guidelines of Haematemesis and/or Malaena 2004 [Link]; page 253

  6. 69 Endoscopy 2003 Jan;35(1):22 Ulcers and nonvariceal bleeding. Church N [Link]; page 253

  7. 70 Management of acute bleeding from a peptic ulcer. Gralnek IM, Barkun AN, Bardou M. N Engl J Med; 2008 Aug 28; 359(9):928-37 [Link]; page 253

Upper GI bleeding: 2 and bleeding varices

  1. 71 Endoscopic Treatment of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding. Journal: Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol; 2005 Apr; 8(2):153-162. PubMed ID: 15769437. [Link]; page 254

  2. 72 Variceal Bleeding. Journal: Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol; 2002 Dec; 5(6):471-477. PubMed ID: 12408784. [Link]; page 254

  3. 73 Semin Gastrointest Dis 2003 Jan;14(1):34-8 The critically ill liver patient: the variceal bleeder. Arguedas MR [Link]; page 254

  4. 74 Randomized study comparing banding and propranolol to prevent initial variceal hemorrhage in cirrhotics with high-risk esophageal varices. Author: Jutabha R, Jensen DM, Martin P, Savides T, Han SH, Gornbein J. Journal: Gastroenterology; 2005 Apr; 128(4):870-81. PubMed ID: 15825071. [Link]; page 254

  5. 75 Emergency sclerotherapy versus medical interventions for bleeding oesophageal varices in cirrhotic patients. Author: D’Amico G, Pietrosi G, Tarantino I, Pagliaro L. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2002; (1):CD002233. PubMed ID: 11869632. [Link]; page 254

  6. 76 Combination endoscopic band ligation and sclerotherapy compared with endoscopic band ligation alone for the secondary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal hemorrhage: a meta-analysis. Author: Karsan HA, Morton SC, Shekelle PG, Spiegel BM, Suttorp MJ, Edelstein MA, Gralnek IM. Journal: Dig Dis Sci; 2005 Feb; 50(2):399-406. PubMed ID: 15745108. [Link]; page 254

  7. 77 Terlipressin for acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage. Author: Ioannou G, Doust J, Rockey DC. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2003; (1):CD002147. PubMed ID: 12535432. [Link]; page 254

  8. 78 Variceal bleeding: pharmacological treatment and prophylactic strategies. Author: Villanueva C, Balanzó J. Journal: Drugs; 2008; 68(16):2303-24. PubMed ID: 18973395. [Link]; page 254

  9. 79 Somatostatin analogues for acute bleeding oesophageal varices. Author: Gøtzsche PC, Hróbjartsson A. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (1):CD000193. PubMed ID: 15674868. [Link]; page 254

(footnote) Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Author: Ochs A. Journal: Dig Dis; 2005; 23(1):56-64. PubMed ID: 15920326. [Link]; page 254

  1. 80 Does cooling Sengstaken-Blakemore tubes aid insertion? An evidence based approach. Author: Dearden JC, Hellawell GO, Pilling J, Besherdas K, Van Someren N. Journal: Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2004 Nov; 16(11):1229-32. PubMed ID: 15489586 [Link]; page 255

Endoscopy and biopsy

  1. 81 Wolfson Unit for endoscopy at St. Mark’s Hospital [Link]; page 256

  2. 82 Capsule endoscopy: practical applications. Author: Melmed GY, Lo SK. Journal: Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2005 May; 3(5):411-22. PubMed ID: 15880309. [Link]; page 256

Liver failure

  1. 83 Methods for diagnosing hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis: a multidimensional approach. Author: Montagnese S, Amodio P, Morgan MY. Journal: Metab Brain Dis; 2004 Dec; 19(3-4):281-312. PubMed ID: 15554423. [Link]; page 258

  2. 84 Acetylcysteine treatment for non-acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure. Author: Sklar GE, Subramaniam M. Journal: Ann Pharmacother; 2004 Mar; 38(3):498-500. PubMed ID: 14742832. [Link]; page 258

  3. 85 Effects of prolonged oral nutritional support in malnourished cirrhotic patients: results of a pilot study. Author: Cunha L, Happi Nono M, Guibert AL, Nidegger D, Beau P, Beauchant M. Journal: Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2004 Jan; 28(1):36-9. PubMed ID: 15041808. [Link]; page 258

  4. 86 Seizures in alcohol-dependent patients: epidemiology, pathophysiology and management. Author: Hillbom M, Pieninkeroinen I, Leone M. Journal: CNS Drugs; 2003; 17(14):1013-30. PubMed ID: 14594442. [Link]; page 258

  5. 87 The molecular pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. Author: Jalan R, Shawcross D, Davies N. Journal: Int J Biochem Cell Biol; 2003 Aug; 35(8):1175-81. PubMed ID: 12757755. [Link]; page 259

  6. 88 Circulatory function and hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis. Journal: Hepatology; 2005 Jun 23; 42(2):439-447. PubMed ID: 15977202. [Link]; page 259

  7. 89 Hepatorenal syndrome. Author: Guevara M, Ginès P. Journal: Dig Dis; 2005; 23(1):47-55. PubMed ID: 15920325. [Link]; page 259

  8. 90 O’Grady JG, Alexander GJ, Hayllar KM, Williams R. Early indicators of prognosis in fulminant hepatic failure. Gastroenterology. 1989 Aug;97(2):439-45 [Link]; page 259

(footnote) Survival following liver transplantation from non-heart-beating donors. Author: Abt PL, Desai NM, Crawford MD, Forman LM, Markmann JW, Olthoff KM, Markmann JF. Journal: Ann Surg; 2004 Jan; 239(1):87-92. PubMed ID: 14685105. [Link]; page 259

Cirrhosis

  1. 91 Nail images [Link]; page 260

  2. 92 AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2000 Dec;175(6):1677 Discrimination of alcoholic from virus-induced cirrhosis on MR imaging. Okazaki H [Link]; page 260

  3. 93 Viral-induced cirrhosis: grading of severity using MR imaging. Author: Ito K, Mitchell DG, Hann HW, Kim Y, Fujita T, Okazaki H, Honjo K, Matsunaga N. Journal: AJR Am J Roentgenol; 1999 Sep; 173(3):591-6. PubMed ID: 10470885. [Link]; page 260

  4. 94 Addolorato G 2008. Effectiveness and safety of baclofen for maintenance of alcohol absinance in alcohol-dependent patients with liver cirrhosis: a randomised, double-blind controlled study. Lancet 370 1915. [Link]; page 260

  5. 95 [Early diagnosis and improved survival with screening for hepatocellular carcinoma] Author: Youk CM, Choi MS, Paik SW, Ahn BH, Lee JH, Koh KC, Yoo BC, Rhee JC. Journal: Taehan Kan Hakhoe Chi; 2003 Jun; 9(2):116-23. PubMed ID: 12824751. [Link]; page 260

  6. 96 Long-term ursodeoxycholic acid therapy for primary biliary cirrhosis: a follow-up to 12 years. Author: Chan CW, Gunsar F, Feudjo M, Rigamonti C, Vlachogiannakos J, Carpenter JR, Burroughs AK. Journal: Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2005 Feb 1; 21(3):217-26. PubMed ID: 15691295. [Link]; page 260

  7. 97 Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with hepatic cirrhosis: evaluation of a treatment protocol at specialized units. Author: Dinis-Ribeiro M, Cortez-Pinto H, Marinho R, Valente A, Raimundo M, Salgado MJ, Ramalho F, Alexandrino P, Carneiro-de-Moura M. Journal: Rev Esp Enferm Dig; 2002 Aug; 94(8):473-81. PubMed ID: 12486852. [Link]; page 260

  8. 98 Clinical outcome of orthotopic liver transplantation. Author: Berlakovich GA. Journal: Int J Artif Organs; 2002 Oct; 25(10):935-8. PubMed ID: 12456034. [Link]; page 260

  9. 99 Image of spider naevi from OUP image bank; no link available; page 261

  10. 100 Image of ascites from OUP image bank; no link available; page 261

  11. 101 The authors would like to thank Kang Yong Chiang, Singapore, Harish Menon, UK, and Shum Yong Shun, Malaysia, for pointing out the correction to the albumin values from the last edition. [Link]; page 261

  12. 102 Beyond hepatorenal syndrome: glomerulonephritis in patients with liver disease. Author: Lhotta K. Journal: Semin Nephrol; 2002 Jul; 22(4):302-8. PubMed ID: 12118395. [Link]; page 261

(footnote) Simple blood tests can predict compensated liver cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Author: Luo JC, Hwang SJ, Chang FY, Chu CW, Lai CR, Wang YJ, Lee PC, Tsay SH, Lee SD. Journal: Hepatogastroenterology; 2002 Mar-Apr; 49(44):478-81. PubMed ID: 11995477. [Link]; page 261

Hereditary haemochromatosis (HH)

  1. 103 Calculation and interpretation of the hepatic iron index: A brief summary--Michael Torbenson, M.D., Michael Nalesnik, M.D. and Robert Bourne; no link available; page 262

  2. 104 Osteoporosis in hemochromatosis: iron excess, gonadal deficiency, or other factors? Author: Diamond T, Stiel D, Posen S. Journal: Ann Intern Med; 1989 Mar 15; 110(6):430-6. PubMed ID: 2919850. [Link]; page 262

  3. 105 Mineralocorticoid status and endocrine dysfunction in severe hemochromatosis. Author: Hempenius LM, Van Dam PS, Marx JJ, Koppeschaar HP. Journal: J Endocrinol Invest; 1999 May; 22(5):369-76. PubMed ID: 10401711. [Link]; page 262

  4. 106 Haemoglobin AIc in patients on venesection therapy for haemochromatosis (author’s transl)] Author: Eschwege E, Saddi R, Wacjman H, Levy R, Thibult N, Duchateau A. Journal: Diabete Metab; 1982 Jun; 8(2):137-40. PubMed ID: 7106343. [Link]; page 262

  5. 107 Pietrangelo A. Hereditary hemochromatosis--a new look at an old disease. N Engl J Med 2004;350:2383-97 [Link]; page 262

  6. 108 Primary liver cancer and survival in patients undergoing liver transplantation for hemochromatosis. Author: Kowdley KV, Hassanein T, Kaur S, Farrell FJ, Van Thiel DH, Keeffe EB, Sorrell MF, Bacon BR, Weber FL, Tavill AS. Journal: Liver Transpl Surg; 1995 Jul; 1(4):237-41. PubMed ID: 9346573. [Link]; page 262

  7. 109 Prognostic factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in genetic hemochromatosis. Author: Fargion S, Fracanzani AL, Piperno A, Braga M, D’Alba R, Ronchi G, Fiorelli G. Journal: Hepatology; 1994 Dec; 20(6):1426-31. PubMed ID: 7982640. [Link]; page 262

  8. 110 [Successful treatment using iron depletion phlebotomy combined with recombinant erythropoietin after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome complicated by secondary hemochromatosis] Author: Shinjo K, Takeshita A, Naito K, Ohnishi K, Hirabayashi N, Ohno R. Journal: Rinsho Ketsueki; 2001 Jul; 42(7):571-4. PubMed ID: 11524849. [Link]; page 262

(footnote) Utility of hepatic iron index in American patients with hereditary hemochromatosis: a multicenter study. Author: Kowdley KV, Trainer TD, Saltzman JR, Pedrosa M, Krawitt EL, Knox TA, Susskind K, Pratt D, Bonkovsky HL, Grace ND, Kaplan MM. Journal: Gastroenterology; 1997 Oct; 113(4):1270-7. PubMed ID: 9322522. [Link]; page 262

(footnote) Hepatic iron overload: direct HFE (HLA-H) mutation analysis vs quantitative iron assays for the diagnosis of hereditary hemochromatosis. Author: Press RD, Flora K, Gross C, Rabkin JM, Corless CL. Journal: Am J Clin Pathol; 1998 May; 109(5):577-84. PubMed ID: 9576576. [Link]; page 262

(footnote); no link available; page 262

  1. 111 Advances in understanding the molecular basis for the regulation of dietary iron absorption. Author: Fleming RE. Journal: Curr Opin Gastroenterol; 2005 Mar; 21(2):201-6. PubMed ID: 15711214. [Link]; page 263

  2. 112 Milestones in transplantation [Link]; page 263

  3. 113 Liver biopsy in evaluation of complications following liver transplantation. Author: Yu YY, Ji J, Zhou GW, Shen BY, Chen H, Yan JQ, Peng CH, Li HW. Journal: World J Gastroenterol; 2004 Jun 1; 10(11):1678-81. PubMed ID: 15162551. [Link]; page 263

  4. 114 Graft-versus-host disease following living donor liver transplantation. Author: Soejima Y, Shimada M, Suehiro T, Hiroshige S, Gondo H, Takami A, Yasue S, Maehara Y. Journal: Liver Transpl; 2004 Mar; 10(3):460-4. PubMed ID: 15004778. [Link]; page 263

  5. 115 Pretransplant renal dysfunction predicts poorer outcome in liver transplantation. Author: Lafayette RA, Paré G, Schmid CH, King AJ, Rohrer RJ, Nasraway SA. Journal: Clin Nephrol; 1997 Sep; 48(3):159-64. PubMed ID: 9342487. [Link]; page 263

(footnote) Impact of MELD on short-term and long-term outcome following liver transplantation: a European perspective. Author: Nagler E, Vlierberghe HV, Colle I, Troisi R, Hemptinne B. Journal: Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2005 Aug; 17(8):849-56. PubMed ID: 16003135. [Link]; page 263

alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency

  1. 116 Predictors of mortality in alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. Author: Dawkins PA, Dowson LJ, Guest PJ, Stockley RA. Journal: Thorax; 2003 Dec; 58(12):1020-6. PubMed ID: 14645964. [Link]; page 264

  2. 117 Factors associated with advanced liver disease in adults with alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. Author: Bowlus CL, Willner I, Zern MA, Reuben A, Chen P, Holladay B, Xie L, Woolson RF, Strange C. Journal: Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2005 Apr; 3(4):390-6. PubMed ID: 15822045. [Link]; page 264

  3. 118 Giannini EG, Testa R, Savarino V. Liver enzyme alteration: a guide for clinicians. CMAJ 2005;172:367-79. [Link]; page 265

  4. 119 Giannini EG, Testa R, Savarino V. Liver enzyme alteration: a guide for clinicians. CMAJ 2005;172:367-79. [Link]; page 265

  5. 120 Neumann T, Spies C. Use of biomarkers for alcohol use disorders in clinical practice. Addiction 2003;98(Suppl 2):81-91. [Link]; page 265

  6. 121 Manns MP, Vogel A. Autoimmune hepatitis, from mechanisms to therapy. Hepatology 2006;43(Suppl 1):S132-44. [Link]; page 265

  7. 122 Mildly Elevated Liver Transaminase Levels in the Asymptomatic Patient PAUL T. GIBONEY, M.D., Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California [Link]; page 265

  8. 123 Saadeh S, Younossi ZM, Remer EM, Gramlich T, Ong JP, Hurley M, et al. The utility of radiological imaging in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology 2002;123:745-50. [Link]; page 265

  9. 124 Adams LA, Talwalkar JA. Diagnostic evaluation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Clin Gastroenterol 2006;40(Suppl 1):S34-8. [Link]; page 265

  10. 125 Seeto RK, Fenn B, Rockey DC. Ischemic hepatitis: clinical presentation and pathogenesis. Am J Med 2000;109:109-13 [Link]; page 265

  11. 126 Mildly Elevated Liver Transaminase Levels in the Asymptomatic Patient PAUL T. GIBONEY, M.D., Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California [Link]; page 265

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC)

  1. 127 Ursodeoxycholic acid for primary biliary cirrhosis. Author: Gluud C, Christensen E. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2002; (1):CD000551. PubMed ID: 11869580. [Link]; page 266

  2. 128 Sclerosing cholangitis. Author: MacFaul GR, Chapman RW. Journal: Curr Opin Gastroenterol; 2004 May; 20(3):275-80. PubMed ID: 15703653. [Link]; page 266

  3. 129 Bile acids for primary sclerosing cholangitis. Author: Chen W, Gluud C. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2003; (2):CD003626. PubMed ID: 12804480. [Link]; page 267

  4. 130 Sclerosing cholangitis. Author: MacFaul GR, Chapman RW. Journal: Curr Opin Gastroenterol; 2004 May; 20(3):275-80. PubMed ID: 15703653. [Link]; page 267

(footnote) PSC-IBD: a unique form of inflammatory bowel disease associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Author: Loftus EV, Harewood GC, Loftus CG, Tremaine WJ, Harmsen WS, Zinsmeister AR, Jewell DA, Sandborn WJ. Journal: Gut; 2005 Jan; 54(1):91-6. PubMed ID: 15591511. [Link]; page 267

(footnote) The hepatitic/cholestatic ‘overlap’ syndrome: an Italian experience. Author: Muratori L, Cassani F, Pappas G, Guidi M, Mele L, Lorenza V, Lenzi M, Bianchi FB, Muratori P. Journal: Autoimmunity; 2002 Dec; 35(8):565-8. PubMed ID: 12765484. [Link]; page 267

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH)

  1. 131 Overlap syndromes of autoimmune hepatitis: what is known so far. Author: Durazzo M, Premoli A, Fagoonee S, Pellicano R. Journal: Dig Dis Sci; 2003 Mar; 48(3):423-30. PubMed ID: 12757152. [Link]; page 268

  2. 132 Smooth muscle antibodies and type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. Author: Muratori P, Muratori L, Agostinelli D, Pappas G, Veronesi L, Granito A, Cassani F, Terlizzi P, Lenzi M, Bianchi FB. Journal: Autoimmunity; 2002 Dec; 35(8):497-500. PubMed ID: 12765475. [Link]; page 268

  3. 133 Treatment of autoimmune hepatitis. Author: Czaja AJ. Journal: Semin Liver Dis; 2002 Nov; 22(4):365-78. PubMed ID: 12447708. [Link]; page 268

(footnote) Possible pathomechanism of autoimmune hepatitis. Author: Prandota J. Journal: Am J Ther; 2003 Jan-Feb; 10(1):51-7. PubMed ID: 12522521. [Link]; page 268

(footnote) Autoimmune Hepatitis: Revised Scoring System (1999); no link available; page 268

  1. 134 No link available; page 268

  2. 135 Wilson’s disease: a clinical case is presented with neuropsychiatric dominant form and probable physiopathology interpretation with magnetic resonance of the brain] Author: Castañeda-Reyna MA, Ubilluz R, Avalos C, Escalante D. Journal: Rev Neurol; 2002 Apr 16-30; 34(8):745-50. PubMed ID: 12080495. [Link]; page 269

  3. 136 Prognostic factors in patients presenting with severe neurological forms of Wilson’s disease. Author: Prashanth LK, Taly AB, Sinha S, Ravishankar S, Arunodaya GR, Vasudev MK, Swamy HS. Journal: QJM; 2005 Aug; 98(8):557-63. PubMed ID: 16006499. [Link]; page 269

Liver tumours

  1. 137 Selective prognostic impact of serum alpha-fetoprotein level in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: analysis of 543 patients in a single center. Author: Huo TI, Huang YH, Lui WY, Wu JC, Lee PC, Chang FY, Lee SD. Journal: Oncol Rep; 2004 Feb; 11(2):543-50. PubMed ID: 14719097. [Link]; page 270

  2. 138 Current techniques and results of liver resection for colorectal liver metastases. Author: Hamady ZZ, Kotru A, Nishio H, Lodge JP. Journal: Br Med Bull; 2004; 70():87-104. PubMed ID: 15509717. [Link]; page 270

  3. 139 Local/regional and systemic treatments of hepatocellular carcinoma. Author: Beaugrand M, N’kontchou G, Seror O, Ganne N, Trinchet JC. Journal: Semin Liver Dis; 2005; 25(2):201-11. PubMed ID: 15918148. [Link]; page 270

  4. 140 Synergistic interaction between aflatoxin B1 and hepatitis B virus in hepatocarcinogenesis. Author: Kew MC. Journal: Liver Int; 2003 Dec; 23(6):405-9. PubMed ID: 14986813. [Link]; page 270

  5. 141 Issues in screening and surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma. Author: Di Bisceglie AM. Journal: Gastroenterology; 2004 Nov; 127(5 Suppl 1):S104-7. PubMed ID: 15508072. [Link]; page 270

  6. 142 Ann Surg. 2001 Aug;234(2):210 Late development of bile duct cancer in patients who had biliary-enteric drainage for benign disease: a follow-up study of more than 1,000 patients.--Tocchi A [Link]; page 270

  7. 143 Liver fluke infection and cholangiocarcinoma: model of endogenous nitric oxide and extragastric nitrosation in human carcinogenesis. Author: Haswell-Elkins MR, Satarug S, Tsuda M, Mairiang E, Esumi H, Sithithaworn P, Mairiang P, Saitoh M, Yongvanit P, Elkins DB. Journal: Mutat Res; 1994 Mar 1; 305(2):241-52. PubMed ID: 7510035. Abstract [Link]; page 270

  8. 144 Diagnosis and surgical treatment of primary hepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Author: Han SL, Zhu GB, Yao JG, Lan SH, Shao YF. Journal: Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Mar-Apr; 52(62):348-51. PubMed ID: 15816432. [Link]; page 270

  9. 145 Outcome after resection of central cholangiocarcinoma: preliminary experience with 46 patients in a single center. Author: Wahab MA, Sultan A, Elgwalby N, Fathy O, Abo zied M, Aboelenen A, Fouad A, Abd alla T, Kandel T, Elshobary M, Elfiky A, el Ebidy G, Gad el Hak NG, Ezzat F. Journal: Hepatogastroenterology; 2003 Mar-Apr; 50(50):337-41. PubMed ID: 12749216. Abstract [Link]; page 270

(footnote) Hepatitis B viremia is associated with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic carriers. Author: Tang B, Kruger WD, Chen G, Shen F, Lin WY, Mboup S, London WT, Evans AA. Journal: J Med Virol; 2004 Jan; 72(1):35-40. PubMed ID: 14635008. [Link]; page 270

  1. 146 The United Kingdom’s hepatitis B immunisation strategy--where now? Author: Goldberg D, McMenamin J. Journal: Commun Dis Public Health; 1998 Jun; 1(2):79-83. PubMed ID: 9644118. [Link]; page 271

Ulcerative colitis (UC)

  1. 147 [Secondary amyloidosis in ulcerative colitis--successful treatment with colchicine] Author: Menges M, Steffen HM. Journal: Z Gastroenterol; 1996 Nov; 34(11):753-6. PubMed ID: 9045537. [Link]; page 272

  2. 148 Venous thromboembolism in inflammatory bowel disease. Author: Solem CA, Loftus EV, Tremaine WJ, Sandborn WJ. Journal: Am J Gastroenterol; 2004 Jan; 99(1):97-101. PubMed ID: 14687149. [Link]; page 272

  3. 149 Cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer surveillance in ulcerative colitis. Author: Inadomi JM. Journal: Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl; 2003; (237):17-21. PubMed ID: 12797675. [Link]; page 272

  4. 150 Strategies for detecting colon cancer and/or dysplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Author: Mpofu C, Watson AJ, Rhodes JM. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2004; (2):CD000279. PubMed ID: 15106148. [Link]; page 272

  5. 151 Gastrointestinal transit and 5-ASA release from a new mesalazine extended-release formulation. Author: Brunner M, Assandri R, Kletter K, Tschurlovits M, Corrado ME, Villa R, Eichler HG, Müller M. Journal: Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2003 Feb; 17(3):395-402. PubMed ID: 12562452. [Link]; page 272

(footnote) Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli infection in T84 cell monolayers induces increased neutrophil transepithelial migration, which in turn promotes cytokine-dependent upregulation of decay-accelerating factor (CD55), the receptor for Afa/Dr adhesins. Author: Bétis F, Brest P, Hofman V, Guignot J, Kansau I, Rossi B, Servin A, Hofman P. Journal: Infect Immun; 2003 Apr; 71(4):1774-83. PubMed ID: 12654791. [Link]; page 272

(footnote) Budesonide versus prednisolone retention enemas in active distal ulcerative colitis. Author: Löfberg R, Ostergaard Thomsen O, Langholz E, Schiöler R, Danielsson A, Suhr O, Graffner H, Påhlman L, Matzen P, Møller-Petersen JF. Journal: Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 1994 Dec; 8(6):623-9. PubMed ID: 7696452. [Link]; page 272

  1. 152 Rectal aminosalicylate therapy for distal ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis. Author: Marshall JK, Irvine EJ. Journal: Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 1995 Jun; 9(3):293-300. PubMed ID: 7654892. [Link]; page 273

  2. 153 Ileocecal valve-preserving ileostomy after total proctocolectomy--a novel technique for ileostomy. Author: Nio Y, Itakura M, Yamaguchi K, Hirahara N. Journal: Dig Surg; 2004; 21(1):7-9. PubMed ID: 14639037. [Link]; page 273

  3. 154 The diagnosis and treatment of pouchitis in inflammatory bowel disease. Author: Cheifetz A, Itzkowitz S. Journal: J Clin Gastroenterol; 2004 May-Jun; 38(5 Suppl):S44-50. PubMed ID: 15115932. [Link]; page 273

  4. 155 Cyclosporine A for induction of remission in severe ulcerative colitis. Author: Shibolet O, Regushevskaya E, Brezis M, Soares-Weiser K. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (1):CD004277. PubMed ID: 15674937. [Link]; page 273

  5. 156 Infliximab as rescue therapy in severe to moderately severe ulcerative colitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Author: Järnerot G, Hertervig E, Friis-Liby I, Blomquist L, Karlén P, Grännö C, Vilien M, Ström M, Danielsson A, Verbaan H, Hellström PM, Magnuson A, Curman B. Journal: Gastroenterology; 2005 Jun; 128(7):1805-11. PubMed ID: 15940615. [Link]; page 273

  6. 157 Comparative tolerability of treatments for inflammatory bowel disease. Author: Stein RB, Hanauer SB. Journal: Drug Saf; 2000 Nov; 23(5):429-48. PubMed ID: 11085348. [Link]; page 273

  7. 158 Oral 5-aminosalicylic acid for induction of remission in ulcerative colitis. Author: Sutherland L, MacDonald JK. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2003; (3):CD000543. PubMed ID: 12917894. [Link]; page 273

  8. 159 Azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine for maintenance of remission in Crohn’s disease. Author: Prefontaine E, Sutherland LR, Macdonald JK, Cepoiu M. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2009; (1):CD000067. PubMed ID: 19160175. [Link]; page 273

  9. 160 Pathology of indeterminate colitis. Author: Odze RD. Journal: J Clin Gastroenterol; 2004 May-Jun; 38(5 Suppl):S36-40. PubMed ID: 15115930. [Link]; page 273

Crohn’s disease

  1. 161 Perianal Crohn’s disease and infliximab therapy. Author: McNamara DA, Brophy S, Hyland JM. Journal: Surgeon; 2004 Oct; 2(5):258-63. PubMed ID: 15570844. [Link]; page 274

(footnote) Card15 gene overexpression in mononuclear and epithelial cells of the inflamed Crohn’s disease colon. Author: Berrebi D, Maudinas R, Hugot JP, Chamaillard M, Chareyre F, De Lagausie P, Yang C, Desreumaux P, Giovannini M, Cézard JP, Zouali H, Emilie D, Peuchmaur M. Journal: Gut; 2003 Jun; 52(6):840-6. PubMed ID: 12740340. [Link]; page 274

(footnote) Crohn BB, Ginzburg L and Oppenheimer GD; Regional Ileitis: A Pathologic and Clinical Entity. JAMA 1932 (Oct 15) 99:1323-1329. [Link]; page 274

(footnote) Integrating theories of the etiology of Crohn’s disease. On the etiology of Crohn’s disease: questioning the hypotheses. Author: Chamberlin WM, Naser SA. Journal: Med Sci Monit; 2006 Feb; 12:RA27-33. PubMed ID: 16449960. [Link]; page 274

  1. 162 Azathioprine for maintaining remission of Crohn’s disease. Author: Pearson DC, May GR, Fick G, Sutherland LR. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2000; (2):CD000067. PubMed ID: 10796482. [Link]; page 275

  2. 163 D’Haens G, 2008 Early combined immunosuppression...in newly diagnosed Crohn’s disease. 371 660 [Link]; page 275

  3. 164 Enteral nutritional therapy for inducing remission of Crohn’s disease. Author: Zachos M, Tondeur M, Griffiths AM. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2001; (3):CD000542. PubMed ID: 11686966. [Link]; page 275

  4. 165 Methotrexate for induction of remission in refractory Crohn’s disease. Author: Alfadhli AA, McDonald JW, Feagan BG. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (1):CD003459. PubMed ID: 15674908. [Link]; page 275

  5. 166 Management of the short bowel syndrome after extensive small bowel resection. Author: Keller J, Panter H, Layer P. Journal: Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol; 2004 Oct; 18(5):977-92. PubMed ID: 15494290. [Link]; page 275

  6. 167 Infliximab maintenance therapy for fistulizing Crohn’s disease. Author: Sands BE, Anderson FH, Bernstein CN, Chey WY, Feagan BG, Fedorak RN, Kamm MA, Korzenik JR, Lashner BA, Onken JE, Rachmilewitz D, Rutgeerts P, Wild G, Wolf DC, Marsters PA, Travers SB, Blank MA, van Deventer SJ. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2004 Feb 26; 350(9):876-85. PubMed ID: 14985485. [Link]; page 275

  7. 168 Efficacy and safety of retreatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody (infliximab) to maintain remission in Crohn’s disease. Author: Rutgeerts P, D’Haens G, Targan S, Vasiliauskas E, Hanauer SB, Present DH, Mayer L, Van Hogezand RA, Braakman T, DeWoody KL, Schaible TF, Van Deventer SJ. Journal: Gastroenterology; 1999 Oct; 117(4):761-9. PubMed ID: 10500056. [Link]; page 275

  8. 169 Health Technol Assess. 2003;7(3):1 Systematic review and economic evaluation of the effectiveness of infliximab for the treatment of Crohn’s disease. Clark W [Link]; page 275

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

  1. 170 The official website for the Rome II criteria; no link available; page 276

  2. 171 [A comparison between Rome III and Rome II criteria in diagnosing irritable bowel syndrome] Author: Wang AJ, Liao XH, Hu PJ, Liu SC, Xiong LS, Chen MH. Journal: Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Aug; 46(8):644-7. PubMed ID: 17967234. [Link]; page 276

  3. 172 Unexplained and underpowered: the relationship between psychosomatic disorders and interpersonal abuse -- a critical review. Author: Romans S, Cohen M. Journal: Harv Rev Psychiatry; 2008 Jan-Feb; 16(1):35-54. PubMed ID: 18306098. [Link]; page 276

  4. 173 Giardia lamblia infections become clinically evident by eliciting symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Author: D’Anchino M, Orlando D, De Feudis L. Journal: J Infect; 2002 Oct; 45(3):169-72. PubMed ID: 12387773. [Link]; page 277

  5. 174 Atopic irritable bowel syndrome: a novel subgroup of irritable bowel syndrome with allergic manifestations. Author: Tobin MC, Moparty B, Farhadi A, DeMeo MT, Bansal PJ, Keshavarzian A. Journal: Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol; 2008 Jan; 100(1):49-53. PubMed ID: 18254482. [Link]; page 277

  6. 175 Bulking agents, antispasmodic and antidepressant medication for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Author: Quartero AO, Meineche-Schmidt V, Muris J, Rubin G, de Wit N. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (2):CD003460. PubMed ID: 15846668. [Link]; page 277

  7. 176 [The Next Consensus for the Irritable Bowel Syndrome has to be Interdisciplinary.] Author: Enck P, Martens U. Journal: Z Gastroenterol; 2008 Feb; 46(2):211-5. PubMed ID: 18253901. [Link]; page 277

  8. 177 Fructose Intolerance in IBS and Utility of Fructose-Restricted Diet. Journal: J Clin Gastroenterol; 2008 Mar; 42(3):233-238. PubMed ID: 18223504 [Link]; page 277

  9. 178 NICE 2008 Irritable bowel syndrome in Adults. [Link]; page 277

  10. 179 The utility of probiotics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review. Author: Brenner DM, Moeller MJ, Chey WD, Schoenfeld PS. Journal: Am J Gastroenterol; 2009 Apr; 104(4):1033-49. PubMed ID: 19277023. [Link]; page 277

  11. 180 Bacillus coagulans significantly improved abdominal pain and bloating in patients with IBS. Author: Hun L. Journal: Postgrad Med; 2009 Mar; 121(2):119-24. PubMed ID: 19332970. [Link]; page 277

  12. 181 Therapeutic Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus-SDC 2012, 2013 in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Journal: Dig Dis Sci; 2008 Feb 15; ():. PubMed ID: 18274900. [Link]; page 277

  13. 182 The relation of passage of gas an abdominal bloating to colonic gas production. Author: Levitt MD, Furne J, Olsson S. Journal: Ann Intern Med; 1996 Feb 15; 124(4):422-4. PubMed ID: 8554251. [Link]; page 277

  14. 183 [The use of bismuth tripotassium dicitrate (De-Nol), a promising line of pathogenetic therapy for irritated bowel syndrome with diarrhea] Author: Iakovenko EP, Agafonova NA, Pokhal’skaia OIu, Kolganova AV, Nazarbekova RS, Ivanov AN, Davletshina IV, Popova EV, Prianishnikova AS, Ovchinnikova NI, Iakovenko AV, Aldiiarova MA, D’iachkoava AV, Gioeva IZ. Journal: Klin Med (Mosk); 2008; 86(10):47-52. PubMed ID: 19069460. [Link]; page 277

  15. 184 Efficacy of tricyclic antidepressants in irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis. Author: Rahimi R, Nikfar S, Rezaie A, Abdollahi M. Journal: World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Apr 7; 15(13):1548-53. PubMed ID: 19340896. [Link]; page 277

  16. 185 Clinical trial: the effect of amitriptyline in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Journal: Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2008 Jan 30; ():. PubMed ID: 18248658 [Link]; page 277

(footnote) Gut-focused hypnotherapy normalizes disordered rectal sensitivity in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Author: Lea R, Houghton LA, Calvert EL, Larder S, Gonsalkorale WM, Whelan V, Randles J, Cooper P, Cruickshanks P, Miller V, Whorwell PJ. Journal: Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2003 Mar 1; 17(5):635-42. PubMed ID: 12641511. [Link]; page 277

(footnote) Hypnotherapy for children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Author: Vlieger AM, Menko-Frankenhuis C, Wolfkamp SC, Tromp E, Benninga MA. Journal: Gastroenterology; 2007 Nov; 133(5):1430-6. PubMed ID: 17919634. [Link]; page 277

(footnote) Long term benefits of hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome. Author: Gonsalkorale WM, Miller V, Afzal A, Whorwell PJ Journal: Gut; 2003 Nov; 52(11):1623-9. PubMed ID: 14570733. [Link]; page 277

Chapter 07: Renal Medicine

Renal medicine

  1. 1 EM image of a glomerulus by Dr Roger Wagner. [Link]; page 284

  2. 2 Identification, management and referral of adults with chronic kidney disease: concise guidelines [Link]; page 285

Urine

  1. 3 Evaluation of Asymptomatic Microscopic Hematuria in Adults [Link]; page 286

  2. 4 Evaluation of Asymptomatic Microscopic Hematuria in Adults [Link]; page 286

  3. 5 Glomerulonephritis--management in general practice. [Link]; page 286

  4. 6 Assessment of Microscopic Hematuria in Adults [Link]; page 286

  5. 7 BMJ 2000 Asymptomatic haematuria [Link]; page 286

  6. 8 Proteinuria in Adults: A Diagnostic Approach [Link]; page 286

  7. 9 NICE clinical guideline 73. Chronic Kidney Disease. Sep 2008 [Link]; page 286

  8. 10 W.B.YEATS. CHOSEN [from A WOMAN YOUNG AND OLD (1933)]. The lot of love is chosen.... I take / That stillness for a theme / Where his heart my heart did seem / And both adrift on the miraculous stream / Where – wrote a learned astrologer– / The Zodiac is changed into a sphere. [Link]; page 287

  9. 11 Finnegans Wake page 185-6. Concordex vesion accessewd 2009. [Link]; page 287

(footnote) Finnegans Wake Codex version. Page 57 & 139 [Link]; page 287

Diuretics and their mechanism of actionNo links

Urine microscopyNo links

Urinary tract infection (UTI)

  1. 12 Andrews SJ, Brooks PT, Hanbury DC, King CM, Prendergast CM, Boustead GB, McNicholas TA. Ultrasonography and abdominal radiography versus intravenous urography in investigation of urinary tract infection in men: prospective incident cohort study. BMJ. 2002; 324(7335): 454-6. [Link]; page 292

  2. 13 Jepson RG, Mihaljevic L, Craig J. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(2):CD001321. [Link]; page 292

  3. 14 Fihn SD. Clinical practice. Acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women. N Engl J Med. 2003; 349: 259-66. [Link]; page 292

  4. 15 Male genital tuberculosis in Siberians. Author: Kulchavenya E, Khomyakov V. Journal: World J Urol; 2006 Feb; 24(1):74-8. PubMed ID: 16429302. [Link]; page 293

  5. 16 Deville WL, Yzermans JC, van Duijn NP, Bezemer PD, van der Windt DA, Bouter LM. The urine dipstick test useful to rule out infections. A meta-analysis of the accuracy. BMC Urol. 2004; 4: 4. [Link]; page 293

  6. 17 Richards D, Toop L, Chambers S, Fletcher L. Response to antibiotics of women with symptoms of urinary tract infection but negative dipstick urine test results: double blind randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2005; 331(7509): 143. [Link]; page 293

  7. 18 Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network Management of suspected urinary tract infection in adults A national clinical guideline July 2006 [Link]; page 293

Glomerulonephritis (GN)

  1. 19 Nephrotic syndrome in adults. Hull RP, Goldsmith DJ. BMJ; 2008 May 24; 336(7654):1185-9 [Link]; page 294

  2. 20 Nakao N, Yoshimura A, Morita H, Takada M, Kayano T, Ideura T. Combination treatment of angiotensin-II receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor in non-diabetic renal disease (COOPERATE): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 361:117-24. [Link]; page 294

  3. 21 Treatment of IgA nephropathy. Author: Matousovic K, Mestecky J, Tomana M, Novak J. Journal: Vnitr Lek; 2008 Mar; 54(3):239-44 [Link]; page 294

  4. 22 Glomerulonephritis Management in general practice; no link available; page 294

  5. 23 Glomerulonephritis, Rapidly Progressive [Link]; page 295

The nephrotic syndrome

  1. 24 Nephrotic syndrome in adults. Hull RP, Goldsmith DJ.BMJ; 2008 May 24; 336(7654):1185-9 [Link]; page 296

  2. 25 Interventions for minimal change disease in adults with nephrotic syndrome.Author: Palmer SC, Nand K, Strippoli GF.Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2008; (1):CD001537. [Link]; page 296

  3. 26 Roccatello D, Baldovino S, Rossi D, Mansouri M, Naretto C, Gennaro M, Cavallo R, Alpa M, Costanzo P, Giachino O, Mazzucco G, Sena LM. Long-term effects of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody treatment of cryoglobulinaemic glomerulonephritis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2004; 19(12): 3054-61. [Link]; page 296

  4. 27 Nephrotic syndrome in adults.Hull RP, Goldsmith DJ. BMJ; 2008 May 24; 336(7654):1185-9. [Link]; page 297

  5. 28 Nephrotic syndrome in adults. Hull RP, Goldsmith DJ.BMJ; 2008 May 24; 336(7654):1185-9 [Link]; page 297

  6. 29 Nephrotic syndrome in adults. Hull RP, Goldsmith DJ. BMJ; 2008 May 24; 336(7654):1185-9. [Link]; page 297

  7. 30 Bakris GL, Williams M, Dworkin L, Elliott WJ, Epstein M, Toto R, Tuttle K, Douglas J, Hsueh W, Sowers J. Preserving renal function in adults with hypertension and diabetes: a consensus approach. National Kidney Foundation Hypertension and Diabetes Executive Committees Working Group. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000; 36(3): 646-61. [Link]; page 297

Acute renal failure (ARF): diagnosis

  1. 31 Acute renal failure. Hilton R. BMJ; 2006 Oct 14; 333(7572):786-90 [Link]; page 299

Chronic renal failure (CRF)

  1. 32 Detection and Evaluation of Chronic Kidney Disease SUSAN SNYDER, M.D., and BERNADETTE PENDERGRAPH, M.D [Link]; page 300

  2. 33 NICE clinical guideline 73. Chronic Kidney Disease. Sep 2008 [Link]; page 300

  3. 34 Detecting chronic kidney disease in older people; what are the implications? Journal: Age Ageing; 2007 Dec 14; ():. PubMed ID: 18083723. [Link]; page 300

  4. 35 CM Clase 2006 BMJ 333 1039 Glomerular fitration rate. [Link]; page 300

  5. 36 CM Clase 2006 BMJ 333 1039 Glomerular fitration rate. [Link]; page 300

  6. 37 BRS/RA INTEGRATED CONFERENCE 2006At What Level Does Quantification of Estimated GFR Cease to Become Useful?. M Kao Department of Renal Medicine, Ninewells Hospital,The level of correlation declined with increasing GFR (r2 value of 0.661 in GFR<60 ml/min/1.73m2, r2 of 0.255 in GFR between 60-90 ml/min/1.73m2 and r2 of 0.068 in GFR >90 ml/min/1.73m2). eGFR progressively underestimated with increasing GFR; no link available; page 300

  7. 38 J Intern Med. 2003 Mar;253(3):335 Extrapolation of reciprocal creatinine plot is not reliable in predicting the onset of dialysis in patients with progressive renal insufficiency--Szeto C [Link]; page 301

Chronic renal failure (management)

  1. 39 NICE clinical guideline 73. Chronic Kidney Disease. Sep 2008 [Link]; page 302

  2. 40 Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization. Author: Go AS, Chertow GM, Fan D, McCulloch CE, Hsu CY. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2004 Sep 23; 351(13):1296-305. [Link]; page 302

  3. 41 G Navis 1997 Lancet 349 1852; no link available; page 302

  4. 42 Bakris GL, Williams M, Dworkin L, Elliott WJ, Epstein M, Toto R, Tuttle K, Douglas J, Hsueh W, Sowers J. Preserving renal function in adults with hypertension and diabetes: a consensus approach. National Kidney Foundation Hypertension and Diabetes Executive Committees Working Group. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000; 36(3): 646-61. [Link]; page 302

  5. 43 K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines on Hypertension and Antihypertensive Agents in Chronic Kidney Disease [Link]; page 302

(footnote) G Tognoni;The Lancet 2007; 369:346-350 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60165-2. Haemoglobin targets: we were wrong, time to move on. [Link]; page 302

(footnote) Once-weekly intravenous paricalcitol in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients. Author: Staniforth ME, Cheng SC, Coyne DW. Journal: Clin Nephrol; 2005 Jun; 63(6):454-60. PubMed ID: 15960147 [Link]; page 302

(footnote) Cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney failure: the role of VDR activators. Author: Wu-Wong JR, Tian J, Nakane M, Ma J, Fey TA, Kroeger P, Fryer RM, Reinhart GA. Journal: Curr Opin Investig Drugs; 2006 Mar; 7(3):206-13. PubMed ID: 16555680 [Link]; page 302

  1. 44 Indications for Percutaneous Renal Biopsy [Link]; page 303

Renal replacement therapy

  1. 45 European Best Practice Guidelines Expert Group on Hemodialysis, European Renal Association. Section I. Measurement of renal function, when to refer and when to start dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2002;17 Suppl 7: 7-15. [Link]; page 304

  2. 46 Nightly dialysis looks a promising alternative for haemodialysis patients. BMJ 2007;335:638 (29 September) [Link]; page 304

  3. 47 Title: Uremia. Author: Meyer TW, Hostetter TH. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2007 Sep 27; 357(13):1316-25. [Link]; page 304

  4. 48 N Engl J Med. 1986 Jan 2;314(1):14 Stopping long-term dialysis. An empirical study of withdrawal of life-supporting treatment--Neu S [Link]; page 304

  5. 49 Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1990 Aug 11;134(32):1549 Voluntary discontinuation of dialysis treatment by chronic dialysis patients--van Nieuwkerk C [Link]; page 304

  6. 50 ASAIO J. 1994 Jul-Sep;40(3):M798-802. End of life issues in ESRD. A study of three decision variables that affect patient attitudes. Rutecki G [Link]; page 304

  7. 51 Webster AC, Playford EG, Higgins G, Chapman JR, Craig J. Interleukin 2 receptor antagonists for kidney transplant recipients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(1):CD003897. [Link]; page 305

Interstitial nephritides and nephrotoxins

  1. 52 Balkan endemic nephropathy Author Marc E De Broe, MD, PhD. Last literature review version: May 2008 [Link]; page 306

  2. 53 Stefanovic V. Balkan endemic nephropathy: a need for novel aetiological approaches. QJM 1998; 91(7): 457-63. [Link]; page 306

  3. 54 Manifestations and diagnosis of analgesic nephropathy Author Marc E De Broe, MD, PhD. Last literature review version: May 2008 [Link]; page 306

  4. 55 Uric acid renal diseases Author Burton D Rose, MD Michael A Becker, MD. last updated: June 2, 2008 [Link]; page 306

  5. 56 Rhabdomyolysis. Lane R, Phillips M. BMJ; 2003 Jul 19; 327(7407):115-6. [Link]; page 307

Renal vascular disease

  1. 57 We don’t know the best way to treat renal artery stenosis [Link]; page 308

  2. 58 Treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-hemolytic uremic syndrome in adults Author Burton D Rose, MD Andre A Kaplan, MD James N George, MD. last updated: June 12, 2008 [Link]; page 308

  3. 59 Kappers-Klunne MC, Wijermans P, Fijnheer R, Croockewit AJ, van der Holt B, de Wolf JT, Lowenberg B, Brand A. Splenectomy for the treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Br J Haematol. 2005; 130(5): 768-76. [Link]; page 308

  4. 60 Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura James N. George, M.D. N Engl J Med; 2006 May 4; 354(18): 1927-35. [Link]; page 308

  5. 61 No link available; page 309

  6. 62 Telmisartan, Ramipril, or Both in Patients at High Risk for Vascular Events N Engl J Med; 2008 Apr 10; 358(15): 1547-59. [Link]; page 309

  7. 63 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 309

Renal tubular disease

  1. 64 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 311

Inherited kidney diseases

  1. 65 Clinical practice. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Grantham JJ. N Engl J Med; 2008 Oct 2; 359(14):1477-85 [Link]; page 312

  2. 66 Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: emerging concepts of pathogenesis and new treatments. Author: Braun WE. Journal: Cleve Clin J Med; 2009 Feb; 76(2):97-104. PubMed ID: 19188475 [Link]; page 312

  3. 67 Polycystic kidney disease. Wilson PD. N Engl J Med; 2004 Jan 8; 350(2):151-64. [Link]; page 312

  4. 68 Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2003 Apr;3(2):215-33. von Hippel-Lindau disease: recent advances and therapeutic perspectives--Richard S [Link]; page 312

  5. 69 Alport Syndrome and Thin Glomerular Basement Membrane Nephropathy: A Practical Approach to Diagnosis. Mark Haas, MD, PhD Arch Pathol Lab Med—Vol 133, February 2009; no link available; page 312

  6. 70 Lancet 1997 349 1770; no link available; page 312

  7. 71 Dr Petty’s 2002 lectures [Link]; page 313

  8. 72 Hemminki K 2004 Data for clinical counselling & cancer genetics. Int J Cancer 108 109; no link available; page 313

  9. 73 PKD foundation [Link]; page 313

Renal manifestations of systemic disease

  1. 74 J Lenzer 2003 BMJ ii 167 [Link]; and [Link]; page 315

Chapter 08: Haematology

Haematology

  1. 1 Image from the Song of Los by william Blake [Link]; page 316

  2. 2 Image of haematologists at work, drawn by OUP for 7th ed; no link available; page 316

  3. 3 Professor Krzysztof Lewandowski [Link]; page 317

Anaemia

  1. 4 Microcytosis, iron deficiency and thalassaemia in a multi-ethnic community: a pilot study. Author: Wonke B, Modell M, Marlow T, Khan M, Modell B. Journal: Scand J Clin Lab Invest; 2007; 67(1):87-95. PubMed ID: 17365986. [Link]; page 318

  2. 5 Microcytosis, iron deficiency and thalassaemia in a multi-ethnic community: a pilot study. Author: Wonke B, Modell M, Marlow T, Khan M, Modell B. Journal: Scand J Clin Lab Invest; 2007; 67(1):87-95. PubMed ID: 17365986. [Link]; page 318

  3. 6 Hill SR, Carless PA, Henry DA, Carson JL, Hebert PC, McClelland DB, Henderson KM. Transfusion thresholds and other strategies for guiding allogeneic red blood cell transfusion. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(2):CD002042. Review. [Link]; page 318

Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA)

  1. 7 Br J cancer 2003;88:988-95; no link available; page 320

  2. 8 BMJ 2006;333:791-793 (14 October), doi:10.1136/bmj.38979.358032.BE .Cases in primary care laboratory medicine Investigating iron status in microcytic anaemia. Michael J Galloway [Link]; page 320

(footnote) Yates JM, Logan EC, Stewart RM. Iron deficiency anaemia in general practice: clinical outcomes over three years and factors influencing diagnostic investigations. Postgrad Med J. 2004; 80: 405-10. [Link]; page 320

(footnote) Hardwick RH, Armstrong CP. Synchronous upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy is an effective method of investigating iron-deficiency anaemia. Br J Surg 1997; 84: 1725-8. [Link]; page 320

  1. 9 Image courtesy of Professor T Habif [no link available]” >[Link]; page 321

  2. 10 Professor Krzysztof Lewandowski [Link]; page 321

  3. 11 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 321

  4. 12 Image courtesy of Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 321

  5. 13 Blood. 2003 Mar 1;101(5):1996-2000. Epub 2002 Oct 24. Mitochondrial ferritin expression in erythroid cells from patients with sideroblastic anemia. [Link]; page 321

  6. 14 No link available; page 321

The peripheral blood film

  1. 15 A medical mystery. Lead poisoning. Author: van der Klooster JM. Journal: Singapore Med J; 2004 Oct; 45(10):497-9. PubMed ID: 15455173. [Link]; page 322

  2. 16 Leukoerythroblastic syndrome associated with visceral leishmaniasis] Author: Portilla Sogorb J, Jover JM, Pertusa S, Cabezas A.Journal: Rev Clin Esp; 1991 Dec; 189(9):447-8. PubMed ID: 1792383. [Link]; page 322

  3. 17 Parvovirus B19 induced red cell aplasia in myelofibrosis. Author: Soutar RL, Birnie DH, Bennett B. Journal: Br J Haematol; 1993 Nov; 85(3):623-4. PubMed ID: 8136287. [Link]; page 322

  4. 18 Ulcerative colitis complicated by a leucoerythroblastic anaemia. Author: Chesner IM, Gozzard DI. Journal: Postgrad Med J; 1982 Oct; 58(684):662-4. PubMed ID: 7177992. [Link]; page 322

  5. 19 Dr. Nivaldo Medeiros [Link]; page 323

  6. 20 Courtesy of Professor Barbara Bain and the Massachusetts Medical Society [Link]; page 323

  7. 21 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 323

  8. 22 [Link]; page 323

  9. 23 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 323

  10. 24 Image of Pappenheimer body Courtesy of the Crookston collection [Link]; page 323

  11. 25 Dr. Nivaldo Medeiros [Link]; page 323

  12. 26 Dr. Nivaldo Medeiros [Link]; page 323

  13. 27 Courtesy of Professor Barbara Bain and the Massachusetts Medical Society [Link]; page 323

  14. 28 Image of cabot ring, courtesy of the Crookston Collection [Link]; page 323

  15. 29 Wadsworth Centre, case presentation, commentary to slide number 138 [Link]; page 323

(footnote) Cabot’s Aphorisms collected by Phil Freed. Quoted by David Segal in Journal of Chronic Diseases. 1963; 16: 443. [Link]; page 323

The differential white cell count

  1. 30 B Bain 1999 nejm 1999 341 1141 and 1060; no link available; page 324

  2. 31 J Leone 2000 nejm 342 442 and 1061 The Spry definition of eosinophilia: counts of 0.55 ´ 109 to 1.5 ´ 109/L `need follow-up’; counts of 1.5 ´ 109 to 10 ´ 109/L `need investigation soon’, and counts of >10 ´ 109/L `need urgent assessment’—including cardiac; no link available; page 324

  3. 32 Rothenberg M 2008. Treatment of Patients with the hypereosinophilic syndrome with mepolizumab. NEJM 358 1215. [Link]; page 324

  4. 33 Courtesy of Prof. Krzysztof Lewandowski [Link]; page 325

  5. 34 Courtesy of Prof. Krzysztof Lewandowski [Link]; page 325

  6. 35 Courtesy of Prof. Krzysztof Lewandowski [Link]; page 325

  7. 36 Courtesy of Prof. Krzysztof Lewandowski [Link]; page 325

  8. 37 Courtesy of Prof. Krzysztof Lewandowski [Link]; page 325

  9. 38 Image of toxic granulation and Barr body, Courtesy of Prof. Tangün [Link]; page 325

  10. 39 Imperial college, London. Toxic granulation. [Link]; page 325

Macrocytic anaemia

  1. 40 [Link]; page 326

  2. 41 Lewis SJ, Ebrahim S, Davey Smith G. Meta-analysis of MTHFR 677C->T polymorphism and coronary heart disease: does totality of evidence support causal role for homocysteine and preventive potential of folate? BMJ. 2005; 331 (7524): 1053. [Link]; page 326

  3. 42 J Durga 2007 Lancet 369 208; no link available; page 326

  4. 43 Courtesy of Professor Barbara Bain and the Massachusetts Medical Society [Link]; page 327

  5. 44 Haematology image Courtesy of Prof. Tangün & Dr Körogˇlu [Link]; page 327

B12 deficiency and pernicious anaemia

  1. 45 Image courtesy of OUP image bank; no link available; page 329

  2. 46 Respiratory Medicine 2005 S Yurt. Two cases of pulmonary tuberculosis with extrapulmonary involvement in tongue and anus [Link]; page 329

  3. 47 Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin 2009; Oral or Intramuscular B12. 47:19-21; doi:10.1136/dtb.2009.01.0002 [Link]; page 329

  4. 48 Update on oral cyanocobalamin (vitamin b(12)) treatment in elderly patients. Author: Andrès E, Vogel T, Federici L, Zimmer J, Kaltenbach G. Journal: Drugs Aging; 2008; 25(11):927-32. PubMed ID: 18947260. [Link]; page 329

An approach to haemolytic anaemia

  1. 49 Coombs Test image [Link]; page 331

Causes of haemolytic anaemia

  1. 50 Management of pregnancies complicated by anti-c isoimmunization. Author: Hackney DN, Knudtson EJ, Rossi KQ, Krugh D, O’Shaughnessy RW. Journal: Obstet Gynecol; 2004 Jan; 103(1):24-30. PubMed ID: 14704240 [Link]; page 332

  2. 51 Coombs Negative AIHA. Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia in the Absence of a Positive DAT Test. E Moore 2008 [Link]; page 332

  3. 52 Thrombosis in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria at a glance: a clinical review. Author: Ziakas PD, Poulou LS, Pomoni A. Journal: Curr Vasc Pharmacol; 2008 Oct; 6(4):347-53. PubMed ID: 18855722. [Link]; page 332

  4. 53 D Weatherall & A Provan 2000 Lancet 355 1169; no link available; page 332

  5. 54 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 333

  6. 55 Courtesy of Professor Barbara Bain and the Massachusetts Medical Society [Link]; page 333

  7. 56 Courtesy of Professor Barbara Bain and the Massachusetts Medical Society [Link]; page 333

  8. 57 Courtesy of Professor Barbara Bain and the Massachusetts Medical Society [Link]; page 333

  9. 58 Courtesy of Professor Barbara Bain and the Massachusetts Medical Society [Link]; page 333

  10. 59 Courtesy of Professor Barbara Bain and the Massachusetts Medical Society [Link]; page 333

  11. 60 Courtesy of Professor Barbara Bain and the Massachusetts Medical Society [Link]; page 333

Sickle-cell anaemia

  1. 61 Adams RJ, McKie VC, Hsu L, et al. Prevention of a first stroke by transfusions in children with sickle cell anemia and abnormal results on transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. N Engl J Med 1998; 339:5-11. [Link]; page 334

  2. 62 Treatment of priapism in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease. Author: Maples BL, Hagemann TM. Journal: Am J Health Syst Pharm; 2004 Feb 15; 61(4):355-63. PubMed ID: 15011763. [Link]; page 334

  3. 63 Zinc supplementation decreases oxidative stress, incidence of infection, and generation of inflammatory cytokines in sickle cell disease patients. Author: Bao B, Prasad AS, Beck FW, Snell D, Suneja A, Sarkar FH, Doshi N, Fitzgerald JT, Swerdlow P. Journal: Transl Res; 2008 Aug; 152(2):67-80. PubMed ID: 18674741. [Link]; page 334

  4. 64 Factors associated with sickle cell disease mortality among hospitalized Angolan children and adolescents. Author: Van-Dunem JC, Alves JG, Bernardino L, Figueiroa JN, Braga C, do Nascimento Mde L, da Silva SJ. Journal: West Afr J Med; 2007 Oct-Dec; 26(4):269-73. PubMed ID: 18705424. [Link]; page 334

  5. 65 Blog of sickle cell disease [Link]; page 334

  6. 66 PS Bellett 1996 e-bm 1 76; no link available; page 334

  7. 67 J Williams nejm 1993 329 472+501; no link available; page 334

(footnote) Charache S, Terrin ML, Moore RD, et al. Effect of hydroxyurea on frequency of painful crises in sickle cell anemia. N Engl J Med 1995; 332: 1317-1322. [Link]; page 334

(footnote) Steinberg MH, Barton F, Castro O, et al. Effect of hydroxyurea on mortality and morbidity in adult sickle cell anemia. JAMA 2003; 289: 1645-1651. [Link]; page 334

  1. 68 Brit. Committee for Standards in Haem. Management of the acute painful crisis in sickle cell disease. 2003. 12614204” >[Link]; page 335

  2. 69 Causes and outcomes of the acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease. National Acute Chest Syndrome Study Group. [Link]; page 335

  3. 70 Vichinsky EP, Neumayr LD, Earles AN, et al. Causes and outcomes of the acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 1855-1865. [Link]; page 335

  4. 71 P Gill 1998 bmj 317 761; no link available; page 335

  5. 72 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 335

  6. 73 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 335

Thalassaemia

  1. 74 Recent developments in iron chelation therapy. Author: Cario H, Janka-Schaub G, Janssen G, Jarisch A, Strauss G, Kohne E. Journal: Klin Padiatr; 2007 May-Jun; 219(3):158-65. PubMed ID: 17525910. [Link]; page 336

  2. 75 A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous zoledronic acid in the treatment of thalassemia-associated osteopenia. Author: Gilfillan CP, Strauss BJ, Rodda CP, Bowden DK, Kean AM, Obaid M, Crawford BA. Journal: Calcif Tissue Int; 2006 Sep; 79(3):138-44. PubMed ID: 16969592. [Link]; page 336

  3. 76 Rund D, Rachmilewitz E.Beta-thalassemia.N Engl J Med 2005; 353(11): 1135-46. [Link]; page 336

  4. 77 Effect of L-carnitine on the physical fitness of thalassemic patients. Author: El-Beshlawy A, El Accaoui R, Abd El-Sattar M, Gamal El-Deen MH, Youssry I, Shaheen N, Hamdy M, El-Ghamrawy M, Taher A. Journal: Ann Hematol; 2007 Jan; 86(1):31-4. PubMed ID: 17031691 [Link]; page 336

  5. 78 A randomized controlled 1-year study of daily deferiprone plus twice weekly desferrioxamine compared with daily deferiprone monotherapy in patients with thalassemia major. Author: Aydinok Y, Ulger Z, Nart D, Terzi A, Cetiner N, Ellis G, Zimmermann A, Manz C. Journal: Haematologica; 2007 Dec; 92(12):1599-606. PubMed ID: 18055982. [Link]; page 336

  6. 79 A cross-sectional study of metabolic and endocrine complications in beta-thalassemia major. Author: Najafipour F, Aliasgarzadeh A, Aghamohamadzadeh N, Bahrami A, Mobasri M, Niafar M, Khoshbaten M. Journal: Ann Saudi Med; 2008 Sep-Oct; 28(5):361-6. PubMed ID: 18779644 [Link]; page 336

  7. 80 A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of testosterone gel treatment versus vehicle control on the facial hair of young men with beta-thalassemia major.Author: Saeedi M, Kosaryan M, Fekri K, Adabi M, Mahdavi MR. Journal: J Dermatolog Treat; 2007; 18(5):271-4. PubMed ID: 17852629. [Link]; page 336

  8. 81 De Sanctis V. Growth and puberty and its management in thalassaemia. Horm Res. 2002; 58 Suppl 1:72-9. [Link]; page 336

  9. 82 One genetic cause of thrombocytopenia is autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (alps) with splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy + other autoimmune features, mentioned here because of its interesting pathogenesis related to faulty apoptosis (programmed cell death of lymphocytes activated via routine infections) due to mutation of the gene known as `Fas’. Apoptosis is essential immunological function, and is regulated by the Fas/Apo-1 receptor (Blood 1997 89 1341); no link available; page 336

  10. 83 Dr. Erwin van den Enden [Link]; page 337

  11. 84 Image of skull x-ray courtesy of the Crookstone collection [Link]; page 337

  12. 85 Haematology image Courtesy of Prof. Tangün & Dr Körogˇlu [Link]; page 337

Bleeding disorders

  1. 86 Acquired hemophilia: a case report. Author: Flisiñski M, Windyga J, Stefañska E, Huszcza S, Donderski R, Manitius J. Journal: Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2008 Apr; 118(4):228-33. PubMed ID: 18575423. [Link]; page 338

An approach to bleeding

  1. 87 Acquired hemophilia: a case report. Author: Flisiñski M, Windyga J, Stefañska E, Huszcza S, Donderski R, Manitius J. Journal: Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2008 Apr; 118(4):228-33. PubMed ID: 18575423. [Link]; page 340

  2. 88 Bleeding time prolonged by daily low-dose aspirin is shortened by one medium dose aspirin. Author: Yokoyama T, Yamasaki F, Yamashita K, Manabe M, Suwa K. Journal: Acta Anaesthesiol Scand; 2008 Oct; 52(9):1226-30. PubMed ID: 18823461. [Link]; page 340

  3. 89 Platelet function tests [Link]; page 341

  4. 90 Can we predict bleeding? Author: Watson HG, Greaves M. Journal: Semin Thromb Hemost; 2008 Feb; 34(1):97-103. PubMed ID: 18393146. [Link]; page 341

  5. 91 A practical concept for preoperative identification of patients with impaired primary hemostasis. Author: Koscielny J, Ziemer S, Radtke H, Schmutzler M, Pruss A, Sinha P, Salama A, Kiesewetter H, Latza R. Journal: Clin Appl Thromb Hemost; 2004 Jul; 10(3):195-204. PubMed ID: 15247976. [Link]; page 341

Blood transfusion and blood products

  1. 92 Handbook of Transfusion Medicine 2001 [Link]; page 342

  2. 93 Safety, efficacy, and cost of intraoperative cell salvage and autotransfusion after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: a randomized trial. Author: Murphy GJ, Rogers CS, Lansdowne WB, Channon I, Alwair H, Cohen A, Caputo M, Angelini GD. Journal: J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2005 Jul; 130(1):20-8. PubMed ID: 15999036. [Link]; page 342

  3. 94 Relative cost of autologous red cell salvage versus allogeneic red cell transfusion during abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Author: Gardner A, Gibbs N, Evans C, Bell R. Journal: Anaesth Intensive Care; 2000 Dec; 28(6):646-9. PubMed ID: 11153290. [Link]; page 342

(footnote) [Yes, we should keep ABO agglutination test within bedside transfusion checks.] Journal: Transfus Clin Biol; 2008 Oct 16; ():. PubMed ID: 18930425 [Link]; page 342

  1. 95 A prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of acetaminophen and diphenhydramine pretransfusion medication versus placebo for the prevention of transfusion reactions.Journal: Transfusion; 2008 Jul 30; ():. PubMed ID: 18673350. [Link]; page 343

(footnote) Jehovah’s Witnesses’ blood policy. Sharp D. Lancet; 2000 Jul 1; 356(9223):8. PubMed ID: 10892756 [Link]; page 343

(footnote) Treatment without consent: a medicolegal precedent. Yate RM, Milling MA, McFadzean W. Lancet; 2000 Jul 1; 356(9223):69. PubMed ID: 10892780 [Link]; page 343

Anticoagulants

  1. 96 Brave new world: The current and future use of novel anticoagulants. Journal: Thromb Res; 2008 Oct 1; ():. PubMed ID: 18835010. [Link]; page 344

Leukaemia and the on-call junior doctor

  1. 97 Role of prophylactic antibiotics in the prevention of infections after chemotherapy: a literature review. Author: Moon S, Williams S, Cullen M. Journal: Support Cancer Ther; 2006 Jul 1; 3(4):207-16. PubMed ID: 18632496. [Link]; page 346

  2. 98 Valganciclovir prevents cytomegalovirus reactivation in patients receiving alemtuzumab-based therapy. Author: O’Brien S, Ravandi F, Riehl T, Wierda W, Huang X, Tarrand J, O’Neal B, Kantarjian H, Keating M. Journal: Blood; 2008 Feb 15; 111(4):1816-9. PubMed ID: 18039954. [Link]; page 346

  3. 99 Tumor lysis syndrome in patients with acute myeloid leukemia: identification of risk factors and development of a predictive model. Author: Montesinos P, Lorenzo I, Martín G, Sanz J, Pérez-Sirvent ML, Martínez D, Ortí G, Algarra L, Martínez J, Moscardó F, de la Rubia J, Jarque I, Sanz G, Sanz MA. Journal: Haematologica; 2008 Jan; 93(1):67-74. PubMed ID: 18166787 [Link]; page 346

  4. 100 Bernard GR, Vincent JL, Laterre PF, et al. Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis. N Engl J Med. 2001; 344: 699-709. [Link]; page 346

  5. 101 Image of DIC/purpura fulminans courtesy of the Crookston Collection [Link]; page 347

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL)

  1. 102 Dickinson HO. The causes of childhood leukaemia. BMJ 2005; 330:1279-80. [Link]; page 348

  2. 103 Interventions for improving communication in cancer. Cochrane Rev; 2008. PubMed ID: 18843635; no link available; page 348

  3. 104 A video game improves behavioral outcomes in adolescents and young adults with cancer: a randomized trial. Author: Kato PM, Cole SW, Bradlyn AS, Pollock BH. Journal: Pediatrics; 2008 Aug; 122(2):e305-17. PubMed ID: 18676516. [Link]; page 348

  4. 105 Patients’ perceptions of having a central venous catheter or a totally implantable subcutaneous port system-results from a randomised study in acute leukaemia. Journal: Support Care Cancer; 2008 May 1; ():. PubMed ID: 18449573. [Link]; page 348

  5. 106 In adults with standard-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the greatest benefit is achieved from a matched sibling allogeneic transplantation in first complete remission, and an autologous transplantation is less effective than conventional consolidation/maintenance chemotherapy in all patients: final results of the International ALL Trial (MRC UKALL XII/ECOG E2993). [Link]; page 348

  6. 107 D Hoelzer 1993 nejm 329 1343; no link availble; page 348

  7. 108 Anemia and survival in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Journal: Haematologica; 2008 Sep 24; ():. PubMed ID: 18815194 [Link]; page 348

  8. 109 A Personalized Approach to Cancer Treatment: How Biomarkers Can Help. PubMed ID: 18801934 [Link]; page 348

  9. 110 A Leonard 2000 bmj ii 433 [Link]; page 348

  10. 111 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 349

  11. 112 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 349

  12. 113 Haematology image Courtesy of Prof. Tangün & Dr Körog¡lu [Link]; page 349

  13. 114 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 349

  14. 115 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 349

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)

  1. 116 Effects of a walking intervention on fatigue-related experiences of hospitalized acute myelogenous leukemia patients undergoing chemotherapy: a randomized controlled trial. Author: Chang PH, Lai YH, Shun SC, Lin LY, Chen ML, Yang Y, Tsai JC, Huang GS, Cheng SY. Journal: J Pain Symptom Manage; 2008 May; 35(5):524-34. PubMed ID: 18280104. [Link]; page 350

  2. 117 Patients with acute myeloid leukemia and RAS mutations benefit most from postremission high-dose cytarabine: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study. Author: Neubauer A, Maharry K, Mrózek K, Thiede C, Marcucci G, Paschka P, Mayer RJ, Larson RA, Liu ET, Bloomfield CD. Journal: J Clin Oncol; 2008 Oct 1; 26(28):4603-9. PubMed ID: 18559876. [Link]; page 350

  3. 118 Acute myeloid leukemia and the position of autologous stem cell transplantation. Author: Breems DA, Löwenberg B. Journal: Semin Hematol; 2007 Oct; 44(4):259-66. PubMed ID: 17961725 [Link]; page 350

  4. 119 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 351

  5. 120 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 351

  6. 121 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 351

  7. 122 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 351

Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML)

  1. 123 Prof G Dighiero 2008 Lancet DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60456 [Link]; page 352

  2. 124 Assessment of fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (the LRF CLL4 Trial): a randomised controlled trial. Author: Catovsky D [Link]; page 352

  3. 125 Controversies in the front-line management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Author: Nabhan C, Shanafelt TD, Kay NE. Journal: Leuk Res; 2008 May; 32(5):679-88. PubMed ID: 18191201 [Link]; page 352

  4. 126 Alemtuzumab for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Author: Robak T. Journal: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2008 Jul; 8(7):1033-51. PubMed ID: 18588450. [Link]; page 352

  5. 127 The role of stem-cell transplantation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia risk-adapted therapy. Author: Giné E, Moreno C, Esteve J, Montserrat E. Journal: Best Pract Res Clin Haematol; 2007 Sep; 20(3):529-43. PubMed ID: 17707838 [Link]; page 352

  6. 128 Chronic myeloid leukaemia. Author: Hehlmann R, Hochhaus A, Baccarani M, European LeukemiaNet . Journal: Lancet; 2007 Jul 28; 370(9584):342-50. PubMed ID: 17662883. [Link]; page 353

  7. 129 Health-related quality of life assessment and reported outcomes in leukaemia randomised controlled trials - a systematic review to evaluate the added value in supporting clinical decision making. Author: Efficace F, Kemmler G, Vignetti M, Mandelli F, Molica S, Holzner B. Journal: Eur J Cancer; 2008 Jul; 44(11):1497-506. PubMed ID: 18555682. [Link]; page 353

  8. 130 Intermittent target inhibition with dasatinib 100 mg once daily preserves efficacy and improves tolerability in imatinib-resistant and -intolerant chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia. Author: Shah NP. [Link]; page 353

  9. 131 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 353

  10. 132 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 353

Hodgkin’s lymphoma 133 New aspects in descriptive, etiologic, and molecular epidemiology of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Author: Landgren O, Caporaso NE. Journal: Hematol Oncol Clin North Am; 2007 Oct; 21(5):825-40. PubMed ID: 17908622. [Link]; page 354

  1. 134 Obesity and risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: a meta-analysis. Author: Larsson SC, Wolk A. Journal: Int J Cancer; 2007 Oct 1; 121(7):1564-70. PubMed ID: 17443495. [Link]; page 354

  2. 135 Risk, cure and complications in advanced hodgkin disease. Author: Horning SJ. Journal: Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program; 2007; 2007():197-203. PubMed ID: 18024630. [Link]; page 354

  3. 136 Patterns of disease progression and outcomes in a randomized trial testing ABVD alone for patients with limited-stage Hodgkin lymphoma. Author: Macdonald DA, Ding K, Gospodarowicz MK, Wells WA, Pearcey RG, Connors JM, Winter JN, Horning SJ, Djurfeldt MS, Shepherd LE, Meyer RM. Journal: Ann Oncol; 2007 Oct; 18(10):1680-4. PubMed ID: 17846017. [Link]; page 354

  4. 137 Lancet 1997 349 34 & 664; no link available; page 354

(footnote) Lymphographic demonstration of cyclic changes in lymph node size during Pel-Epstein fever. Author: Scanlon GT, Castellino RA, Rudders R. Journal: Cancer; 1975 Dec; 36(6):2026-8. PubMed ID: 1203860. [Link]; page 354

  1. 138 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 355

  2. 139 Image of Reed-Sternberg cell, courtesy of the crookston collection [Link]; page 355

  3. 140 Haematology image Courtesy of Prof. Tangün & Dr Körog¡lu [Link]; page 355

  4. 141 Does self-affirmation, cognitive processing, or discovery of meaning explain cancer-related health benefits of expressive writing? Author: Creswell JD, Lam S, Stanton AL, Taylor SE, Bower JE, Sherman DK. Journal: Pers Soc Psychol Bull; 2007 Feb; 33(2):238-50. PubMed ID: 17259584. [Link]; page 355

  5. 142 Implementing an expressive writing study in a cancer clinic. Author: Morgan NP, Graves KD, Poggi EA, Cheson BD. Journal: Oncologist; 2008 Feb; 13(2):196-204. PubMed ID: 18326123 [Link]; page 355

  6. 143 Lived experience of survivors of leukemia or malignant lymphoma. Author: Persson L, Hallberg IR. Journal: Cancer Nurs; 2004 Jul-Aug; 27(4):303-13. PubMed ID: 15292726. [Link]; page 355

  7. 144 Social networks and quality of life for long-term survivors of leukemia and lymphoma. Author: Lim JW, Zebrack B. Journal: Support Care Cancer; 2006 Feb; 14(2):185-92. PubMed ID: 16007454. [Link]; page 355

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

  1. 145 Bendamustine in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and refractory lymphoma. Author: Rummel MJ. Journal: Semin Hematol; 2008 Jul; 45(3 Suppl 2):S7-10. PubMed ID: 18760709. [Link]; page 356

  2. 146 Cost benefit and clinical efficacy of low-dose granulocyte colony-stimulating factor after standard chemotherapy in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Author: Hashino S, Morioka M, Irie T, Shiroshita N, Kawamura T, Suzuki S, Iwasaki H, Umehara S, Kakinoki Y, Kurosawa M, Kahata K, Izumiyama K, Kobayashi H, Onozawa M, Takahata M, Fujisawa F, Kondo T, Asaka M. Journal: Int J Lab Hematol; 2008 Aug; 30(4):292-9. PubMed ID: 18665826. [Link]; page 356

(footnote) The addition of rituximab to front-line therapy with CHOP (R-CHOP) results in a higher response rate and longer time to treatment failure in patients with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma: results of a randomized trial of the German Low-Grade Lymphoma Study Group (GLSG). Journal: Leukemia; 2008 Sep 25; ():. PubMed ID: 18818699. [Link]; page 356

  1. 147 Dr Tom D Thacher [Link]; page 357

  2. 148 Professor Barbara Bain [Link]; page 357

  3. 149 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 357

  4. 150 Haematology image Courtesy of Prof. Tangün & Dr Körog¡lu [Link]; page 357

Pancytopenia, and bone marrow failure

  1. 151 Drugs causing agranulocytosis or low white cell count [Link]; page 358

  2. 152 Treatment of carbimazole-induced agranulocytosis and sepsis with granulocyte colony stimulating factor. Author: Joseph F, Younis N, Bowen-Jones D. Journal: Int J Clin Pract; 2003 Mar; 57(2):145-6. PubMed ID: 12661801 [Link]; page 358

  3. 153 Treatment of severe aplastic anemia with antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporin A with or without G-CSF in adults: a multicenter randomized study in Japan. Author: Teramura M, Kimura A, Iwase S, Yonemura Y, Nakao S, Urabe A, Omine M, Mizoguchi H. Journal: Blood; 2007 Sep 15; 110(6):1756-61. PubMed ID: 17526862. [Link]; page 358

  4. 154 Hematopoiesis 2008; no link available; page 359

The myeloproliferative disorders

  1. 155 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 361

  2. 156 Dr. Nivaldo Medeiros [Link]; page 361

  3. 157 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 361

Myeloma

  1. 158 [Kidney damage in multiple myeloma and other monoclonal gammopathies] Author: Adam Z, Pour L, Krejcí M, Stĕpánková S, Svobodová I, Veselý K, Hájek R. Journal: Vnitr Lek; 2008 Sep; 54(9):847-61. PubMed ID: 18924346. [Link]; page 362

  2. 159 [Light chain deposition disease. Experience in our environment] Author: Martín Herrera C, Suñer Poblet M, Cabrera R, Díaz Pedrero M, Fernández Alonso J. Journal: Nefrologia; 2008; 28(5):539-42. PubMed ID: 18816213. [Link]; page 362

  3. 160 UK myeloma forum and the nordic myeloma study group: guidelines on the diagnosis and management of multiple myeloma 2005. [Link]; page 362

  4. 161 Bortezomib plus melphalan and prednisone for initial treatment of multiple myeloma. Author: San Miguel JF. N Engl J Med; 2008 Aug 28; 359(9):906-17. PubMed ID: 18753647 [Link]; page 362

  5. 162 Palumbo A 2006 Lancet 367 825. Oral melphalan and prednisolone chemotherapy plus thalidomide compared with melphaln and prednisolone alone in elderly patients with multiple myeloma: randomised controlled trial. [Link]; page 362

  6. 163 Prevention of thalidomide- and lenalidomide-associated thrombosis in myeloma. Author: Palumbo A. [Link]; page 362

  7. 164 review of lenalidomide in combination with dexamethasone for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Author: Hideshima T, Raje N, Richardson PG, Anderson KC. Journal: Ther Clin Risk Manag; 2008 Feb; 4(1):129-36. PubMed ID: 18728702 [Link]; page 362

  8. 165 Professor Chrisitne Lawrence [Link]; page 363

  9. 166 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 363

  10. 167 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 363

Paraproteinaemia

  1. 168 J Blade Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance. NEJM 2006 355 26 2765 [Link]; page 364

  2. 169 British Committee for Standards in Haematology guidelines. Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Management of AL Amyloidosis. Br J Haematology 2004; 125: 681-700. [Link]; page 364

  3. 170 Professor Christine Lawrence [Link]; page 365

Plasma viscosity (PV)

  1. 171 Length of sedimentation reaction in undiluted blood (erythrocyte sedimentation rate): variations with sex and age and reference limits. Author: Piva E, Sanzari MC, Servidio G, Plebani M. Journal: Clin Chem Lab Med; 2001 May; 39(5):451-4. PubMed ID: 11434396. [Link]; page 366

  2. 172 Working Party of British Committee for Standards in Haematology 1996 bmj i 430; no link available; page 366

  3. 173 Length of sedimentation reaction in undiluted blood (erythrocyte sedimentation rate): variations with sex and age and reference limits. [Link]; page 366

  4. 174 Newland A, Provan D, Myint S. Preventing severe infection after splenectomy. BMJ 2005; 331: 417. [Link]; page 367

Thrombophilia(footnote) Different effects of oral contraceptives containing different progestogens on protein S and tissue factor pathway inhibitor. Author: van Vliet HA, Bertina RM, Dahm AE, Rosendaal FR, Rosing J, Sandset PM, Helmerhorst FM. Journal: J Thromb Haemost; 2008 Feb; 6(2):346-51. PubMed ID: 18067603. [Link]; page 368

Immunosuppressive drugs No links

Chapter 09: Infectious diseases

Infectious diseases

  1. 1 World Health Assembly 2008. Lancet 371 2008. page 1895 [Link]; page 372, 442

  2. 2 Nature 2005 [issue devoted to climate change: Nov 17 2005 [Link]; page 372

  3. 3 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2008 summarized in Global meltdown: scientists isolate areas most at risk of climate change. [Link]; page 372

  4. 4 AJ McMichael 2006 Lancet 367 859. Climate change and human health: present and future risks [Link]; page 372

  5. 5 Adapting to Climate Change. Anon. 2008. Lancet 371 624 [Link]; page 372

  6. 6 Elinor Moore 2006; HIV is changing the face of tropic medicine. BMJ 2006 333 1280 [Link]; page 373

  7. 7 Elinor Moore 2006; HIV is changing the face of tropic medicine. BMJ 2006 333 1280 [Link]; page 373

Life

  1. 8 Gene expression in Eukaryotes [Link]; page 374

  2. 9 Types of bacteria: after Izabela Kurkiewicz; no link available; page 374

  3. 10 Don Chamberlain. Woodrow Wilson Biology Institute.1995 Viruses and host evolution [Link]; page 374

  4. 11 Kingdom protozoa and its 18 phyla. T Cavalier-Smith [Link]; page 374

  5. 12 Glossary of terms [Link]; page 374

  6. 13 Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995 Mar 28;92(7):2421-3 Of archae and eo: what’s in a name? [Link]; page 374

  7. 14 Distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars among female prostitutes and non-prostitutes in Thailand, and non-prostitutes in Japan during the mid-90s. Author: Yamazaki T, Hagiwara T, Kishimoto T, Sasaki N, Takahashi S, Ishihara O, Wangroongsarb P, Kusum M, Sirivongrangsan P. Journal: Jpn J Infect Dis; 2005 Aug; 58(4):211-3. PubMed ID: 16116252. [Link]; page 375

  8. 15 Chlamydiae: Yechiel Becker; no link available; page 375

Viruses

  1. 16 Image of oral herpes (HSV1) from ormi/oup image bank; no link available; page 376

  2. 17 Enterovirus meningitis in Brazil, 1998-2003. Journal: J Med Virol; 2006 Jan; 78(1):98-104. PubMed ID: 16299728. [Link]; page 376

  3. 18 Current views in HTLV-I-associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Author: Nicot C. Journal: Am J Hematol; 2005 Mar; 78(3):232-9. PubMed ID: 15726602 [Link]; page 376

  4. 19 R Dawood Traveller’s Health, OUP [Link]; page 377

20; no link available; page 377

  1. 21 Vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccines; no link available; page 377

  2. 22 Medical Advis. Service for (uk) Travellers Abroad (020 7631 4408) provides detailed written travel advice for ~£5. Also try Healthline (0839337729), the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (0151 708 9393), and the Royal Geographical Society Expedition Advisory Centre, 1 Kensington Gore, London sw7 2ar; see also doh 1995 Health Information for Overseas Travel. [Link]; page 377

  3. 23 R Dawood Travellers’ Health, oup; no link available; page 377

  4. 24 A randomized, double-blind, multicenter study of rifaximin compared with placebo and with ciprofloxacin in the treatment of travelers’ diarrhea. Author: Taylor DN, Bourgeois AL, Ericsson CD, Steffen R, Jiang ZD, Halpern J, Haake R, Dupont HL. Journal: Am J Trop Med Hyg; 2006 Jun; 74(6):1060-6. PubMed ID: 16760520. [Link]; page 377

Susceptibilities to antibiotics

  1. 25 Cefepime: A Cost-Effective Alternative to Ceftazidime in Adult Patients; Cephalosporins in bone marrow transplant [Link]; page 378

  2. 26 Fourth generation cephalosporins in the antimicrobial chemotherapy of surgical infections. Author: Giamarellou H. Journal: J Chemother; 1999 Dec; 11(6):486-93. PubMed ID: 10678790. [Link]; page 378

  3. 27 Combination therapy with intravenous colistin for management of infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in patients without cystic fibrosis. Author: Kasiakou SK, Michalopoulos A, Soteriades ES, Samonis G, Sermaides GJ, Falagas ME. Journal: Antimicrob Agents Chemother; 2005 Aug; 49(8):3136-46. PubMed ID: 16048915. [Link]; page 378

  4. 28 Susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from patients with lower respiratory infectious diseases to antibiotics (2003); H Goto et al [Link]; page 378

  5. 29 [Resistance of catheter-associated urinary tract infections to antibacterials] Author: Verhaz A, Skrbiã R, Rakita-Musiã M. Journal: Vojnosanit Pregl; 2005 Mar; 62(3):181-7. PubMed ID: 15790045. [Link]; page 378

  6. 30 Prevalence of and risk factors for quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in Ontario. Author: Ota KV, Jamieson F, Fisman DN, Jones KE, Tamari IE, Ng LK, Towns L, Rawte P, Di Prima A, Wong T, Richardson SE. Journal: CMAJ; 2009 Feb 3; 180(3):287-90. PubMed ID: 19188626. [Link]; page 378

  7. 31 Prevalence of and risk factors for quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in Ontario. Author: Ota KV, Jamieson F, Fisman DN, Jones KE, Tamari IE, Ng LK, Towns L, Rawte P, Di Prima A, Wong T, Richardson SE. Journal: CMAJ; 2009 Feb 3; 180(3):287-90. PubMed ID: 19188626. [Link]; page 378

  8. 32 Antibiotic resistance in outpatient urinary isolates: final results from the North American Urinary Tract Infection Collaborative Alliance (NAUTICA). Author: Zhanel GG, Hisanaga TL, Laing NM, DeCorby MR, Nichol KA, Palatnik LP, Johnson J, Noreddin A, Harding GK, Nicolle LE, Hoban DJ, NAUTICA Group . Journal: Int J Antimicrob Agents; 2005 Nov; 26(5):380-8. PubMed ID: 16243229. [Link]; page 378

  9. 33 The current state of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli in north america. Author: Nicasio AM, Kuti JL, Nicolau DP. Journal: Pharmacotherapy; 2008 Feb; 28(2):235-49. PubMed ID: 18225969. [Link]; page 378

  10. 34 [Resistance of catheter-associated urinary tract infections to antibacterials] Author: Verhaz A, Skrbiã R, Rakita-Musiã M. Journal: Vojnosanit Pregl; 2005 Mar; 62(3):181-7. PubMed ID: 15790045. [Link]; page 378

  11. 35 [No descriptive text] [Link]; page 378

  12. 36 [No descriptive text] [Link]; page 378

  13. 37 Comparison of antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates from Shanghai and Hong Kong. Author: Ling TK, Ying CM, Lee CC, Liu ZK. Journal: Med Princ Pract; 2005 Sep-Oct; 14(5):338-41. PubMed ID: 16103700. [Link]; page 378

  14. 38 Prevalence of and risk factors for quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in Ontario. Author: Ota KV, Jamieson F, Fisman DN, Jones KE, Tamari IE, Ng LK, Towns L, Rawte P, Di Prima A, Wong T, Richardson SE. Journal: CMAJ; 2009 Feb 3; 180(3):287-90. PubMed ID: 19188626. [Link]; page 378

  15. 39 H Giamarellou 1999 J Chemother 11 486 [@10678790]; see also BNF 2000 ii 258; no link available; page 379

  16. 40 Changes in antibiotic resistance of the most common Gram-negative bacteria isolated in intensive care units. Author: Makedou KG, Tsiakiri EP, Bisiklis AG, Chatzidimitriou M, Halvantzis AA, Ntoutsou K, Alexiou-Daniel S. Journal: J Hosp Infect; 2005 Jul; 60(3):245-8. PubMed ID: 15890431. [Link]; page 379

  17. 41 An evidence-based evaluation of important aspects of empirical antibiotic therapy in febrile neutropenic patients. Author: Glasmacher A, von Lilienfeld-Toal M, Schulte S, Hahn C, Schmidt-Wolf IG, Prentice A. Journal: Clin Microbiol Infect; 2005 Oct; 11 Suppl 5():17-23. PubMed ID: 16138815. [Link]; page 379, 442

  18. 42 Biliary tract infections: a guide to drug treatment. Author: Westphal JF, Brogard JM. Journal: Drugs; 1999 Jan; 57(1):81-91. PubMed ID: 9951953 [Link]; page 379

Antibiotics: others

  1. 43 Prevalence of and risk factors for quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in Ontario. Author: Ota KV, Jamieson F, Fisman DN, Jones KE, Tamari IE, Ng LK, Towns L, Rawte P, Di Prima A, Wong T, Richardson SE. Journal: CMAJ; 2009 Feb 3; 180(3):287-90. PubMed ID: 19188626. [Link]; page 380

Blind  for presumed septicaemia, pneumonia etc

  1. 44 2008. Improving early management of bloodstream infection: a quality improvement project. Jane Minton. BMJ 2008;336:440-443 (23 February), doi:10.1136/bmj.39454.634502 [Link]; page 382

  2. 45 The reliability of the microscopic diagnosis of malaria in the field and in the laboratory. Author: Collier JA, Longmore JM. Journal: Ann Trop Med Parasitol; 1983 Apr; 77(2):113-7. PubMed ID: 6192774. [Link]; page 383

  3. 46 Sensitivity of 93.3%, specificity 98.3%, a positive predictive value of 95.6%, and a negative predictive value of 97.4%—I Cropley 2000 BMJ ii 484 [Link]; page 383

Drug abuse and infectious diseases

  1. 47 Street drug terminology and slang [Link]; page 385

  2. 48 Street drug terminology and slang [Link]; page 385

  3. 49 Erowid Experience Vaults: MDA effects. [Link]; page 385

Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO)

  1. 50 G Flaubert 1913 Dictionary of Received Ideas; no link available; page 386

  2. 51 Approach to the Adult Patient with Fever of Unknown Origin ALAN R. ROTH, D.O., and GINA M. BASELLO, D.O., Jamaica Hospital Medical Center [Link]; page 386

  3. 52 P Chandrasekar 1994 Arch Int Med 154 841; no link available; page 386

  4. 53 P Chandrasekar 1994 Arch Int Med 154 841; no link available; page 386

  5. 54 Rickettsial infections and fever, Vientiane, Laos. Author: Phongmany S, White NJ, Journal: Emerg Infect Dis; 2006 Feb; 12(2):256-62. PubMed ID: 16494751 [Link]; page 386

  6. 55 J Drenth 2000 bmj i 1091 [Link]; page 386

  7. 56 [Link]; page 386

  8. 57 Fever and thromboembolic disease in acute spinal cord injury. Author: Weingarden SI, Weingarden DS, Belen J. Journal: Paraplegia; 1988 Feb; 26(1):35-42. PubMed ID: 3353124 [Link]; page 386

  9. 58 Multicentric Castleman’s disease associated with glomerular microangiopathy and MPGN-like lesion: does vascular endothelial cell-derived growth factor play causative or protective roles in renal injury? Author: Seida A, Wada J, Morita Y, Baba M, Eguchi J, Nishimoto N, Okino T, Ichimura K, Yoshino T, Makino H. Journal: Am J Kidney Dis; 2004 Jan; 43(1):E3-9. PubMed ID: 14712466 [Link]; page 386

  10. 59 Case 3-1998— A 31-Year-Old Woman with a Pleural Effusion, Ascites, and Persistent Fever Spikes Ellen E. Sheets [Link]; page 386

  11. 60 Visceral leishmaniasis. Author: Stefaniak J, Paul M, Kacprzak E, Skoryna-Karcz B. Journal: Przegl Epidemiol; 2003; 57(2):341-8. PubMed ID: 12910604. [Link]; page 386

  12. 61 Legionnaires’ disease with severe hypoxemia and saddleback fever. Author: Shankar PS, Anderson CL, Scott JH. Journal: Postgrad Med; 1981 Apr; 69(4):87-92. PubMed ID: 7010336. [Link]; page 386

  13. 62 H Horowitz 1998 Lancet 351 650; no link available; page 386

  14. 63 [Clinical-therapeutic considerations in a case of miliary tuberculosis in an indonesian girl] Author: Ajassa C, Angelici AM, Rendina E, Trinchieri V, Berardelli G, Bellagamba R, Catania N, Falciano M, Mascellino MT, Causo T. Journal: Riv Eur Sci Med Farmacol; 1993 May-Aug; 15(3-4):175-80. PubMed ID: 7761666. [Link]; page 386

  15. 64 Jeffrey Dukes 2003. Burning buried sunshine; human consumption of ancient solar energy. [Link]; page 387

  16. 65 Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response (2003) Board on Global Health (BGH), Institute of Medicine (IOM) pages 60, 79 and 83 [Link]; page 387

  17. 66 Chretien J, 2007. Lancet 370 1805. Chikungunya in Europe: what’s next? [Link]; page 387

  18. 67 World sees an explosion in new infectious diseases By SETH BORENSTEIN Knight Ridder Newspapers [Link]; page 387

  19. 68 J Clin Virol 2003 Apr;26(3):265 Nipah virus outbreak in Malaysia. Chua KB [Link]; page 387

  20. 69 Origin and evolution of viruses: Escaped DNA/RNA sequences as evolutionary accelerators and natural biological weapons. Journal: Med Hypotheses; 2005 Aug 2; ():. PubMed ID: 16084025. [Link]; page 387

(footnote) First detection of enterovirus 71 from an acute flaccid paralysis case with residual paralysis in Iran. Journal: J Clin Virol; 2008 Apr 8; ():. PubMed ID: 18403258. [Link]; page 387

(footnote) Deaths in children during an outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease in Peninsular Malaysia--clinical and pathological characteristics. Author: Shekhar K, Lye MS, Norlijah O, Ong F, Looi LM, Khuzaiah R, Marzuki I, Hussein I, Wong SL, Mohan J, Sinniah M, Abu Bakar S. Journal: Med J Malaysia; 2005 Aug; 60(3):297-304. PubMed ID: 16379183. [Link]; page 387

Diagnosing the tropical traveller

  1. 70 [Changing patterns of communicable diseases in Korea] Author: Lim HS. Journal: J Prev Med Pub Health; 2005 May; 38(2):117-24. PubMed ID: 16315747 [Link]; page 388

  2. 71 Baillieres Clin Rheumatol 1995 Feb;9(1):145 Viral infections: alpha-viral arthropathy. McGill P [Link]; page 388

  3. 72 J Clin Microbiol 2002 Jul;40(7):2323 Rapid detection and quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg viruses, Lassa virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Drosten C [Link]; page 388

  4. 73 DI Simpson 1995 Lancet 345 1252; no link available; page 388

  5. 74 Illness after International Travel Edward T. Ryan, M.D., Mary E. Wilson, M.D., and Kevin C. Kain, M.D. NEJM 2002 [Link]; page 389

  6. 75 Duszynski, D.W., W.D. Wilson, S.J. Upton, and N.D. Levine. 1999. Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in the Primates and the Scandentia. International Journal of Primatology 20 (5): 761-797; no link available; page 389

  7. 76 Image of Isospora belli courtesy of Donald Duszynski [personal communication: 20-09-2005]; no link available; page 389

Gastroenteritis

  1. 77 J Bartlett. The New Clostridium difficile —What Does It Mean? NEJM 2005 editorial [Link]; page 390

  2. 78 Human behaviour and the epidemiology of parasitic zoonoses. Author: Macpherson CN. Journal: Int J Parasitol; 2005 Oct; 35(11-12):1319-31. PubMed ID: 16102769. [Link]; page 390

  3. 79 A possible role of crows in the spread of diarrhoeal diseases in Aden. Author: al-Sallami S. Journal: J Egypt Public Health Assoc; 1991; 66(3-4):441-9. PubMed ID: 1791416. [Link]; page 390

  4. 80 CDC. Norovirus: technical fact sheet. [Link]; page 390

  5. 81 [Norovirus infections in Germany] Author: Koch J, Schneider T, Stark K, Schreier E. Journal: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz; 2006 Mar; 49(3):296-309. PubMed ID: 16463050. [Link]; page 390

  6. 82 Infection control newsletter. Norwalk virus. [Link]; page 390

  7. 83 A randomized controlled trial of the concrete biosand filter and its impact on diarrheal disease in Bonao, Dominican Republic. Author: Stauber CE, Ortiz GM, Loomis DP, Sobsey MD. Journal: Am J Trop Med Hyg; 2009 Feb; 80(2):286-93. PubMed ID: 19190228. [Link]; page 390

  8. 84 image of cryptosporidium courtesy of professor S Upton of Kansas University [Link]; page 390

  9. 85 J Med Virol. 2001 Dec;65(4):644-8. Amendola A. Influenza vaccination of HIV-1-positive and HIV-1-negative former intravenous drug users. [Link]; page 391

  10. 86 Weekly epidemiological record 23 JANUARY 2004, 79th YEAR No. 4, 2004, 79, 25–40 [Link]; page 391

Approach to a patient with nosocomial fever

  1. 87 MJA Practice Essentials Infectious Diseases [Link]; page 392

  2. 88 Issue: March 2008 • Vol 54 • No 3 When to suspect nosocomial fever: A practical approach to diagnosis [Link]; page 392

  3. 89 BRIEF REPORT: Incidence, Etiology, Risk Factors, and Outcome of Hospital-acquired Fever A Systematic, Evidence-based Review [Link]; page 392

  4. 90 Prevention of hospital-acquired infections A practical guide 2nd edition World Health Organization Department of Communicable Disease, Surveillance and Response [Link]; page 393

  5. 91 An approach to the patient suspected of having a hospital-acquired infection.PD Gopalan The Southern African Journal of Epidemiology and Infection 2005; 20 (2): 46-48 [Link]; page 393

Malaria ND: biology, clinical features & prevention

  1. 92 [WHO malaria factsheet] [Link]; page 394

  2. 93 Antiprotozoal Agents By Prof. A.H. Chishti [Link]; page 394

  3. 94 African Health Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 3, September, 2005, pp. 238-245. Relationship between malaria infection intensity and rainfall pattern in Entebbe peninsula, Uganda. Odongo-Aginya E [Link]; page 394

  4. 95 Knowlesi malaria: newly emergent and of public health importance? Author: Cox-Singh J, Singh B. Journal: Trends Parasitol; 2008 Sep; 24(9):406-10. PubMed ID: 18678527. [Link]; page 394

  5. 96 Malaria James M. Crutcher. Stephen L. Hoffman [Link]; page 394

  6. 97 H Gilles 1991 Management of Severe & Complicated Malaria, WHO; no link available; page 394

  7. 98 N White 1993 Tr Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 87 436 & 1996 335 800; no link available; page 394

  8. 99 The US President’s Malaria Initiative 2008. Sam Loewenberg. Lancet 2007 370 1893 [Link]; page 395

  9. 100 A malaria fingerprint in the human genome? J Daily 2008 NEJM 358 1855 [Link]; page 395

  10. 101 Image of malaria parasites after the Gertrude Nicholson paintings in Oatney G. The Primate Malarias; US Dept. of Health; no link available; page 395

  11. 102 Image of vivax gametocyte supplied by author [JML]; Field’s stain [author’s technique] x 1000 The reliability of the microscopic diagnosis of malaria in the field and in the laboratory. Author: Collier JA, Longmore JM. Journal: Ann Trop Med Parasitol; 1983 Apr; 77(2):113-7. PubMed ID: 6192774; no link available; page 395

  12. 103 Image of Schner’s dots courtesy of Prof S Upton, Kansas University [Link]; page 395

  13. 104 Plasmodium malariae ring form by kind permission of Prof S Upton [Link]; page 395

  14. 105 Falciparum Gametocytes--by kind permission of Prof S Upton Kansas University [Link]; page 395

  15. 106 Image of Ronald Ross by kind permission of Prof S Upton of Kanas University [Link]; page 395

Malaria: treatment

  1. 107 [No descriptive text] [Link]; page 396

  2. 108 150mg chloroquine base = 250mg chloroquine phosphate (po) = 200mg chloroquine sulfate (iv); no link available; page 396

  3. 109 Get expert help: tel 0151 7089393; no link available; page 396

  4. 110 Artemether-lumefantrine (six-dose regimen) for treating uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Author: Omari AA, Gamble C, Garner P. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (4):CD005564. PubMed ID: 16235412. [Link]; page 396

  5. 111 Artemether-lumefantrine (six-dose regimen) for treating uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Author: Omari A, Gamble C, Garner P, Omari A. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (4):CD005564. PubMed ID: 16235412. [Link]; page 396

  6. 112 Introducing FACT Project Two Fixed-Dose Combination Therapies Artesunate/ Amodiaquine and Artesunate/Mefloquine [Link]; page 396

  7. 113 Atovaquone-proguanil for treating uncomplicated malaria. Author: Osei-Akoto A, Orton L, Owusu-Ofori S, Osei-Akoto A. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (4):CD004529. PubMed ID: 16235366. [Link]; page 396

  8. 114 phls 1997 Com Dis Rep Rev 7:R 137 & JB Lell 1998 Lancet 351 709; no link available; page 396

  9. 115 Guidelines for malaria prevention in travelers from the united kingdom [Link]; page 396

(footnote) Efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine dispesible tablets in African children with uncomplicated malaria. Lancet 2008 372 1819 [Link]; page 396

  1. 116 N White Lancet 1999 353 1965 [Link]; page 397

  2. 117 Mayo Clin Proc. 1999 Nov;74(11):1161-75. Antiparasitic agents. Rosenblatt JE. [Link]; page 397

  3. 118 1 J Sandford 2000 Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy, 91 & 96 isbn 0-933775-43-1; no link available; page 397

(footnote) Artesunate vs quinine for treatment of severe falciparum malaria: a randomized trial. N White Lancet 2005 366 717; no link available; page 397

Tuberculosis (TB) ND119 Predictors of incident tuberculosis among HIV-1-infected women in Tanzania. Author: Venkatesh PA, Bosch RJ, McIntosh K, Mugusi F, Msamanga G, Fawzi WW. Journal: Int J Tuberc Lung Dis; 2005 Oct; 9(10):1105-11. PubMed ID: 16229221. [Link]; page 398

  1. 120 Clinical Guideline 33 Tuberculosis: clinical diagnosis and management of tuberculosis, and measures for its prevention and control Issue date: Mar 2006 [Link]; page 398

  2. 121 [Advantages and drawbacks of in vitro Interferon-gamma/T cell assays compared to the Mantoux test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis.]Journal: Arch Pediatr; 2007 Jan 8; ():. PubMed ID: 17215112. [Link]; page 398

  3. 122 Clinical Guideline 33 Tuberculosis: clinical diagnosis and management of tuberculosis, and measures for its prevention and control Issue date: Mar 2006 [Link]; page 398

  4. 123 The Lancet 2005; 365:1206-1209. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)74788-7 Can DOTS control multidrug-resistant tuberculosis? Marcos A Espinal [Link]; page 398

  5. 124 British Thoracic Society Guidelines on Chemotherapy and Management of TB in the UK 1998 Thorax 53:536-548; no link available; page 399

  6. 125 Comparison of diagnostic criteria of tuberculous meningitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected children. Author: van der Weert EM, Hartgers NM, Schaaf HS, Eley BS, Pitcher RD, Wieselthaler NA, Laubscher R, Donald PR, Schoeman JF. Journal: Pediatr Infect Dis J; 2006 Jan; 25(1):65-9. PubMed ID: 16395106. [Link]; page 399

  7. 126 [ISONIAZID INDUCED NEUROPATHY: CONSIDER PREVENTION.] Journal: Rev Mal Respir; 2005 Nov 22; ():. PubMed ID: 16444133. [Link]; page 399

  8. 127 Effect of antituberculosis drug resistance on response to treatment and outcome in adults with tuberculous meningitis. Author: Thwaites GE, Lan NT, Dung NH, Quy HT, Oanh do TT, Thoa NT, Hien NQ, Thuc NT, Hai NN, Bang ND, Lan NN, Duc NH, Tuan VN, Hiep CH, Chau TT, Mai PP, Dung NT, Stepniewska K, White NJ, Hien TT, Farrar JJ. Journal: J Infect Dis; 2005 Jul 1; 192(1):79-88. PubMed ID: 15942897. [Link]; page 399

  9. 128 NEJM 351 1741 2004 & GAT Sanford 2006 p 88 [Link]; page 399

  10. 129 Serial MRI to determine the effect of dexamethasone on the cerebral pathology of tuberculous meningitis: an observational study. Author: Thwaites GE, Macmullen-Price J, Tran TH, Pham PM, Nguyen TD, Simmons CP, White NJ, Tran TH, Summers D, Farrar JJ. Journal: Lancet Neurol; 2007 Mar; 6(3):230-6. PubMed ID: 17303529. [Link]; page 399

  11. 130 Clinical and radiological features of symptomatic central nervous system tuberculomas. Author: Unal A, Sutlas PN. Journal: Eur J Neurol; 2005 Oct; 12(10):797-804. PubMed ID: 16190918. [Link]; page 399

  12. 131 Management of intracranial pressure in tuberculous meningitis. Author: Murthy JM. Journal: Neurocrit Care; 2005; 2(3):306-12. PubMed ID: 16159082. [Link]; page 399

  13. 132 Factors influencing the presentation and outcome of tuberculous meningitis in childhood. Author: Faella FS, Pagliano P, Attanasio V, Rossi M, Rescigno C, Scarano F, Conte M, Fusco U. Journal: In Vivo; 2006 Jan-Feb; 20(1):187-91. PubMed ID: 16433051. [Link]; page 399

  14. 133 See GAT Sanford 2006 page 137 [Link]; page 399

Herpes virus infections

  1. 134 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2006 MMWR 2006;55(No. RR-11) [Link]; page 400

  2. 135 F Aoki 2006 Clin Infect Dis 42 8; no link available; page 400

  3. 136 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2006 MMWR 2006;55(No. RR-11) [Link]; page 400

  4. 137 Purpura fulminans in a child as a complication of chickenpox infection. Author: Campanelli A, Kaya G, Ozsahin AH, La Scala G, Jacquier C, Stauffer M, Boehlen F, de Moerloose P, Saurat JH. Journal: Dermatology; 2004; 208(3):262-4. PubMed ID: 15118384. [Link]; page 400

  5. 138 [Complications of chickenpox] Author: Arredondo JL, Mendoza E, Hernández M, Calderón E. Journal: Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex; 1978 Jan-Feb; 35(1):177-7. PubMed ID: 619925. Abstract: [Link]; page 400

  6. 139 Double-blind, randomized, acyclovir-controlled, parallel-group trial comparing the safety and efficacy of famciclovir and acyclovir in patients with uncomplicated herpes zoster. Shen MC, Lin HH, Lee SS, Chen YS, Chiang PC, Liu YC. J Microbiol Immunol Infect; 2004 Apr; 37(2):75-81. [Link]; page 400

  7. 140 Herpes zoster (shingles) and postherpetic neuralgia. Author: Sampathkumar P, Drage LA, Martin DP. Journal: Mayo Clin Proc; 2009 Mar; 84(3):274-80; no link available; page 400

  8. 141 Shingles vaccination is likely to be cost effective at age 65 or 70. Author: Dobson R. Journal: BMJ; 2009; 338():b944. [Link]; page 400

  9. 142 [Acute cerebellar ataxia associated with infectious mononucleosis--a case report and review of the literature] Author: Yabuki S, Kazahaya Y, Ikeda K. Journal: No To Shinkei; 1983 Apr; 35(4):337-42. PubMed ID: 6307327. [Link]; page 401

  10. 143 Bilateral facial nerve palsy associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection with a review of the literature. Author: Terada K, Niizuma T, Kosaka Y, Inoue M, Ogita S, Kataoka N. Journal: Scand J Infect Dis; 2004; 36(1):75-7. PubMed ID: 15000569. [Link]; page 401

  11. 144 What causes prolonged fatigue after infectious mononucleosis: and does it tell us anything about chronic fatigue syndrome? White PD. J Infect Dis; 2007 Jul 1; 196(1):4-5 [Link]; page 401

  12. 145 Predictions and associations of fatigue syndromes and mood disorders that occur after infectious mononucleosis Peter D White, Janice M Thomas, Hillar O Kangro, William D A Bruce-Jones, et al. The Lancet. London: Dec 8, 2001.Vol.358, Iss. 9297; pg. 1946 [Link]; page 401

  13. 146 A case of severe chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection with T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Author: Cho HS, Kim IS, Park HC, Ahn MJ, Lee YY, Park CK. Journal: Korean J Intern Med; 2004 Jun; 19(2):124-7. PubMed ID: 15366645 [Link]; page 401

  14. 147 Pancytopenia and ‘capillary leak syndrome’ with infectious mononucleosis. Author: Koppes GM, Ratkin GA, Coltman CA. Journal: South Med J; 1976 Feb; 69(2):145-8. PubMed ID: 175508. [Link]; page 401

  15. 148 Fatal hepatitis during Epstein-Barr virus reactivation. Author: Cacopardo B, Nunnari G, Mughini MT, Tosto S, Benanti F, Nigro L. Journal: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci; 2003 Jul-Aug; 7(4):107-9. PubMed ID: 15068233. [Link]; page 401

  16. 149 Chronic interstitial lung disease with lung fibrosis in a girl: uncommon sequelae of Epstein-Barr virus infection. Author: Ankermann T, Claviez A, Wagner HJ, Krams M, Riedel F. Journal: Pediatr Pulmonol; 2003 Mar; 35(3):234-8. PubMed ID: 12567394. [Link]; page 401

  17. 150 Gavin Spickett ID consulatant at Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle, Pulse 2005 vol 65 [sept 3] no 34, p51 [Link]; page 401

  18. 151 Lancet. 1982 Feb 20;1(8269):455. Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting as infectious mononucleosis with a false positive monospot test. Hendry BM, Longmore JM. [Link]; page 401

  19. 152 [Epstein-Barr virus infections in adults: a diagnostic challenge] Author: Goltzman G, Nagornov S, Horwitz M, Rapoport MJ. Journal: Harefuah; 2000 Apr 16; 138(8):640-3, 711. PubMed ID: 10883203. [Link]; page 401

  20. 153 Epstein-Barr viral load assessment in immunocompetent patients with fulminant infectious mononucleosis. Author: van Laar JA, Buysse CM, Vossen AC, Hjálmarsson B, van Den Berg B, van Lom K, Deinum J. Journal: Arch Intern Med; 2002 Apr 8; 162(7):837-9. PubMed ID: 11926861 [Link]; page 401

  21. 154 Steroids for symptom control in infectious mononucleosis Candy B, Hotopf M Cochrane review 2009 [Link]; page 401

  22. 155 Epstein-Barr virus-associated familial Hodgkin lymphoma: paediatric onset in three of five siblings. Author: Kamper PM, Kjeldsen E, Clausen N, Bendix K, Hamilton-Dutoit S, d’Amore F. Journal: Br J Haematol; 2005 Jun; 129(5):615-7. PubMed ID: 15916683 [Link]; page 401

  23. 156 [Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphomas in patients with inflammatory bowel disease] Author: Juffermans NP, Jager A, Kersten MJ, van Oers MH, Hommes DW. Journal: Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2005 Aug 13; 149(33):1859-63. PubMed ID: 16128185 [Link]; page 401

  24. 157 Unusual evolution of an Epstein-Barr virus-associated leiomyosarcoma occurring after liver transplantation. Author: Brichard B, Smets F, Sokal E, Clapuyt P, Vermylen C, Cornu G, Rahier J, Otte JB. Journal: Pediatr Transplant; 2001 Oct; 5(5):365-9. PubMed ID: 11560757 [Link]; page 401

  25. 158 Recombinant gp350 vaccine for infectious mononucleosis: a phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an Epstein-Barr virus vaccine in healthy young adults. Sokal EM, Hoppenbrouwers K, Vandermeulen C, Moutschen M, Léonard P, Moreels A, Haumont M, Bollen A, Smets F, Denis M. J Infect Dis; 2007 Dec 15; 196(12):1749-53 [Link]; page 401

  26. 159 Glomerulonephritis in a patient with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. Author: Kano K, Yamada Y, Sato Y, Arisaka O, Ono Y, Ueda Y. Journal: Pediatr Nephrol; 2005 Jan; 20(1):89-92. PubMed ID: 15503175. [Link]; page 401

  27. 160 Virological and immunological characteristics of a 19-year-old Japanese female with fatal outcome with Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome. Author: Sato S, Kawashima H, Oshiro H, Hasegawa D, Kashiwagi Y, Takekuma K, Hoshika A. Journal: J Clin Virol; 2004 Nov; 31(3):235-8. PubMed ID: 15465418. [Link]; page 401

  28. 161 EBV associated hemophagocytic syndrome accompanied by central pontine myelinolysis. Author: Uehara E, Tasaka T, Matsuhashi Y, Fujita M, Tamura T, Kuwajima M, Nagai M, Ishida T. Journal: Leuk Lymphoma; 2002 Oct; 43(10):2047-50. PubMed ID: 12481907. [Link]; page 401

Influenza

  1. 162 J Millar 2000 bmj ii 736 [Link]; page 402

  2. 163 J Millar 2000 bmj ii 736 [Link]; page 402

  3. 164 Bonten M 2006 bMJ 332 248 Antibiotics in pandemic flu &: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitalized adults and children without known risk factors. Author: Gorak EJ, Yamada SM, Brown JD. Journal: Clin Infect Dis; 1999 Oct; 29(4):797-800. PubMed ID: 10589891 [Link]; page 402

  4. 165 Amantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir for the treatment of influenza Review of NICE technology appraisal guidance 58 Issue date: February 2009 [Link]; page 402

  5. 166 FDA considers Tamiflu safety in children. 18 November 2005 [Link]; page 402

  6. 167 Amantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir for the treatment of influenza Review of NICE technology appraisal guidance 58 Issue date: February 2009 [Link]; page 402

  7. 168 Manufacturer’s data (2000) & mist 1998 Lancet 352 1877; no link available; page 402

  8. 169 Flu vaccination fact-sheet UK department of health 2005 [Link]; page 402

  9. 170 Oseltamivir, amantadine (review) and zanamivir for the prophylaxis of influenza Issue date: September 2008 [Link]; page 402

  10. 171 T Jefferson 2005 Efficacy and effectiveness of influenza vaccines in elderly people: a systematic review. Lancet 2005 366 1165 [Link]; page 402

  11. 172 Algorith for prescribing Oseltamivir for prophylaxis against influenza. DoH Feb 2006 after Emma Richardson at RT PCT [Link]; page 402

  12. 173 Influenza Virus Resistance to Antiviral Agents: A Plea for Rational Use. Journal: Clin Infect Dis; 2009 Mar 26; ():. PubMed ID: 19323631. [Link]; page 402

  13. 174 Effectiveness of an herbal preparation containing echinacea, propolis, and vitamin C in preventing respiratory tract infections in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. Author: Cohen HA, Varsano I, Kahan E, Sarrell EM, Uziel Y. Journal: Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med; 2004 Mar; 158(3):217-21. PubMed ID: 14993078. [Link]; page 402

  14. 175 Effect of treatment with zinc gluconate or zinc acetate on experimental and natural colds. Author: Turner RB, Cetnarowski WE. Journal: Clin Infect Dis; 2000 Nov; 31(5):1202-8. PubMed ID: 11073753 [Link]; page 402

  15. 176 Zinc gluconate lozenges for treating the common cold. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Author: Mossad SB, Macknin ML, Medendorp SV, Mason P. Journal: Ann Intern Med; 1996 Jul 15; 125(2):81-8. PubMed ID: 8678384 [Link]; page 402

  16. 177 Use of masks by health-workers in flu pandemics: WHO; Nov 2005. [Link]; page 403

  17. 178 KIEV, Dec 3 (Reuters); no link available; page 403

  18. 179 Smith R 2007 BMJ 334 1341. Social Measures may control pandemic flu. [Link]; page 403

Toxoplasmosis

  1. 180 Antigenaemia and antibody response to Toxoplasma gondii in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Author: Malla N, Sengupta C, Dubey ML, Sud A, Dutta U. Journal: Br J Biomed Sci; 2005; 62(1):19-23. PubMed ID: 15816207 [Link]; page 404

  2. 181 [Congenital toxoplasmosis: possibilities for laboratory diagnosis] Author: Cermáková Z, Prásil P, Rysková O. Journal: Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol; 2005 Apr; 54(2):75-7. PubMed ID: 16050546 [Link]; page 404

  3. 182 GATSanford 2000 page 90; no link available; page 404

  4. 183 [No descriptive text] [Link]; page 404

  5. 184 Seroprevalence and risk factors of human cytomegalovirus infection in the eastern Chinese population. Journal: Arch Virol; 2009 Mar 5; ():. PubMed ID: 19263193. [Link]; page 404

  6. 185 GAT Sanford 2000 page 90; no link available; page 404

  7. 186 Image of toxoplama lifecycle redrawn from Fernando Monroy [Link]; page 405

  8. 187 J Flegr 1996 J Parasitology 113:49 [Link]; page 405

  9. 188 RE Holliman 1997 35:105 [Link]; page 405

  10. 189 Image of congenital toxoplasmosis courtesy of Prof J Trobe [Link]; page 405

  11. 190 Image of toxoplasma retinitis courtesy of Prof J Trobe [Link]; page 405

  12. 191 Image of CMV retinitis courtesy of Prof J Trobe [Link]; page 405

Viral hepatitis

  1. 192 Entecavir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B Review date: February 2009 [Link]; page 406

  2. 193 Adefovir dipivoxil and peginterferon alfa-2a for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B February 2007 [Link]; page 406

  3. 194 Telbivudine for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B Review date: February 2009 [Link]; page 406

  4. 195 H Yang 2002 NEJM 347:168-174 [Link]; page 406

  5. 196 The HPA says 200,00 infections in England & Wales. Prof William Rosenberg says 466,000--but could be as high as 1 million. See Doctor 2006 4 April p 13; no link available; page 406

  6. 197 Safety and efficacy of a recombinant hepatitis E vaccine. Author: Shrestha MP, Scott RM, Joshi DM, Mammen MP, Thapa GB, Thapa N, Myint KS, Fourneau M, Kuschner RA, Shrestha SK, David MP, Seriwatana J, Vaughn DW, Safary A, Endy TP, Innis BL. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2007 Mar 1; 356(9):895-903. PubMed ID: 17329696. [Link]; page 406

  7. 198 Peginterferon alfa and ribavirin for the treatment of mild chronic hepatitis C Review date: November 2007 [Link]; page 407

  8. 199 Awad T, Thorlund K, Hauser G,Mabrouk M, Stimac D, Gluud C. Pegylated interferon alpha 2b for chronic hepatitisC. CochraneDatabase of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 1. Art.No.:CD007608 [Link]; page 407

  9. 200 Peginterferon alfa and ribavirin for the treatment of mild chronic hepatitis C Review date: November 2007 [Link]; page 407

  10. 201 Chronic hepatitis C in patients with HIV/AIDS: a new challenge in antiviral therapy. Journal: J Antimicrob Chemother; 2005 Nov 24; ():. PubMed ID: 16308419. [Link]; page 407

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

  1. 202 Robinson M 2008. Forging solutions to health worker migration. Lancet 371 691 [Link]; page 408

  2. 203 Health Protection Agency 2009 New HIV diagnoses in the United Kingdom: an update to the end of December 2008 [Link]; page 408

  3. 204 Oral sex may be important risk factor for HIV infection; Scott Gottlieb. BMJ 2000;320:400 ( 12 February ) [Link]; page 408

  4. 205 HIV transmission among men who have sex with men through oral sex; V L Gilbart. Sex Transm Infect 2004;80:324 [Link]; page 408

  5. 206 The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved a new rapid HIV diagnostic test kit that provides results with 99.6 percent accuracy in as little as 20 minutes. [Link]; page 408

  6. 207 Wright AA 2006 NEJM 354 448 Home Testing for HIV [Link]; page 408

  7. 208 In one study in Ugands, the time to death was 6.9yrs for subtype D, vs 8.8yrs for type A [Link]; page 408

  8. 209 Sources of AIDS awareness among women in India. Author: Pallikadavath S, Sreedharan C, Stones RW. Journal: AIDS Care; 2006 Jan; 18(1):44-8. PubMed ID: 16282075. [Link]; page 408

  9. 210 Hamill M, 2007 BMJ 334 1352; Time to move towards opt-out testing for HIV in the UK. [Link]; page 408

  10. 211 J Tane 2009. Virginity pledge ineffective against teen sex. BMJ 2009 338 69 [Link]; page 408

  11. 212 AIDS activists take over Family Research Council to Protest Abstinence-Only Programs [Link]; page 408

  12. 213 Male circumcision for the prevention of HSV-2 and HPV infections and syphilis. Author: Tobian AA, Serwadda D, Quinn TC, Kigozi G, Gravitt PE, Laeyendecker O, Charvat B, Ssempijja V, Riedesel M, Oliver AE, Nowak RG, Moulton LH, Chen MZ, Reynolds SJ, Wawer MJ, Gray RH. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2009 Mar 26; 360(13):1298-309. PubMed ID: 19321868. [Link]; page 408

  13. 214 Male Circumcision Thwarts HIV Infection. Jon Cohen. Science. Washington: Aug 5, 2005.Vol.309, Iss. 5736; pg. 860, 1 pgs [Link]; page 408

  14. 215 Advances in the treatment of tuberculosis. Author: Zhang Y. Journal: Clin Pharmacol Ther; 2007 Nov; 82(5):595-600. PubMed ID: 17898708. [Link]; page 409

  15. 216 Lancet editorial 2008. The rise and spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis. The Lancet, Volume 371, Number 9614, 1 March 2008 [Link]; page 409

  16. 217 Ong 1992 bmj i 1567; no link available; page 409

  17. 218 The Lancet 2006; 367:944-945 DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68387-6 Safety, effectiveness, and outcomes of concomitant use of highly active antiretroviral therapy with drugs for tuberculosis in resource-poor settings. Prof Anthony D Harries [Link]; page 409

  18. 219 The Lancet 2006; 367:944-945 DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68387-6 Safety, effectiveness, and outcomes of concomitant use of highly active antiretroviral therapy with drugs for tuberculosis in resource-poor settings. Prof Anthony D Harries [Link]; page 409

  19. 220 ED Chan 2002 BMJ 325:1282-1286 [Link]; page 409

  20. 221 Impact of tuberculosis preventive therapy on tuberculosis and mortality in HIV-infected children. Author: Gray DM, Zar H, Cotton M. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2009; (1):CD006418. PubMed ID: 19160285. [Link]; page 409

  21. 222 E Ong 1992 bmj i 1567; no link available; page 409

  22. 223 G Yamey 2003 BMJ 326:606 [Link]; page 409

  23. 224 P Brown 2000 BMJ 320:821 [Link]; page 409

  24. 225 M Iseman 1993 NEJM 329: 784. See also: British Thoracic Society Guidelines for TB Treatment: Thorax 1998 53 536-48; no link available; page 409

  25. 226 A Catanzaro and P Wenger 1995 Lancet 345 204 & 235; no link available; page 409

  26. 227 Lancet editorial 2008. The rise and spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis. The Lancet, Volume 371, Number 9614, 1 March 2008 [Link]; page 409

  27. 228 Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Korea: risk factors and treatment outcomes among patients at a tertiary referral hospital. Author: Jeon CY, Hwang SH, Min JH, Prevots DR, Goldfeder LC, Lee H, Eum SY, Jeon DS, Kang HS, Kim JH, Kim BJ, Kim DY, Holland SM, Park SK, Cho SN, Barry CE, Via LE. Journal: Clin Infect Dis; 2008 Jan 1; 46(1):42-9. PubMed ID: 18171212. [Link]; page 409

  28. 229 Detention and the evolving threat of tuberculosis: evidence, ethics, and law. Author: Coker R, Thomas M, Lock K, Martin R. Journal: J Law Med Ethics; 2007 Winter; 35(4):609-15, 512. PubMed ID: 18076512 [Link]; page 409

  29. 230 Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: implications for the HIV epidemic and antiretroviral therapy rollout in South Africa. Author: Andrews JR, Shah NS, Gandhi N, Moll T, Friedland G, Tugela Ferry Care and Research (TF CARES) Collaboration . Journal: J Infect Dis; 2007 Dec 1; 196 Suppl 3():S482-90. PubMed ID: 18181698. [Link]; page 409

(footnote) replicating M. tuberculosis. Leonid Heifets [Link]; page 409

(footnote) Risk-based screening for latent tuberculosis infection. Author: Haley CA, Cain KP, Yu C, Garman KF, Wells CD, Laserson KF. Journal: South Med J; 2008 Feb; 101(2):142-9. PubMed ID: 18364613. [Link]; page 409

(footnote) Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection [Link]; page 409

(footnote); no link available; page 409

(footnote) Vikram Paralkar 2008 NEJM 358 1092. Worlds apart--Tuberculosis in India and the United States [Link]; page 409

Complications of HIV infection

  1. 231 For an excellent review of prophylaxis against opportunistic infections in HIV, see JA Kovacs 2000 NEJM 342:1416 [Link]; page 410

  2. 232 JA Kovacs 2000 NEJM 324:1416 [Link]; page 410

  3. 233 Effectiveness of twice-weekly pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine as primary prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with advanced HIV infection. Author: Schürmann D, Bergmann F, Albrecht H, Padberg J, Wünsche T, Grünewald T, Schürmann M, Grobusch M, Vallée M, Ruf B, Suttorp N. Journal: Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis; 2002 May; 21(5):353-61. PubMed ID: 12072919. [Link]; page 410

  4. 234 Comprehensive textbook of Aids Psychiatry. Edited by Mary Ann Cohen and Jack Gorman. OUP (New York) 2008. [Link]; page 410

  5. 235 Hammer SM 2005 NEJM 353 1702 [Link]; page 411

  6. 236 Image of Pneumocystis carinii [fluorescent stain] x 400; courtesy of Subhash K. Mohan [Link]; page 411

  7. 237 Image of cryptococcus neoformans courtesy of Dr M McGinnis [Link]; page 411

  8. 238 F Rollot 2001 AIDS 15:1448; no link available; page 411

  9. 239 Hammer SM 2005 NEJM 353 1702 [Link]; page 411

What every doctor should know about HIV

  1. 240 Lack of recognition of homosexuality. BMJ 2008 337 1262 a2566 [Link]; page 412

  2. 241 Chief Medical Officer, England. 13 Sept 2007. Leter; no link available; page 412

  3. 242 Best Practice Guidance HIV post-exposure prophylaxis: Guidance from the UK Chief Medical Officers’ Expert Advisory Group on AIDS 19 September 2008 [Link]; page 412

  4. 243 Schiffer V. Journal: Rev Med Suisse; 2005 Oct 12; 1(36):2310-4. PubMed ID: 16281441. [Link]; page 412

  5. 244 HIV-1 associated dementia: update on pathological mechanisms and therapeutic approaches. Journal: Curr Opin Neurol; 2009 Mar 18; ():. PubMed ID: 19300249. [Link]; page 412

  6. 245 Hammer SM 2005 NEJM 353 1702 [Link]; page 412

  7. 246 Costs and consequences of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s recommendations for opt-out HIV testing. Author: Holtgrave DR. Journal: PLoS Med; 2007 Jun; 4(6):e194. PubMed ID: 17564488. [Link]; page 413

  8. 247 Routine antenatal HIV testing and informed consent: an unworkable marriage? Author: Bennett R. Journal: J Med Ethics; 2007 Aug; 33(8):446-8. PubMed ID: 17664300. [Link]; page 413

  9. 248 Normalizing HIV Testing in a Busy Urban Sexually Transmitted Infections Clinic. Journal: Sex Transm Dis; 2009 Feb 9; ():. PubMed ID: 19174728. [Link]; page 413

  10. 249 Rapid point-of-care HIV testing in pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Author: Pai NP, Tulsky JP, Cohan D, Colford JM, Reingold AL. Journal: Trop Med Int Health; 2007 Feb; 12(2):162-73. PubMed ID: 17300622. [Link]; page 413

  11. 250 Reservoirs, sanctuaries, and residual disease: the hiding spots of HIV-1. Pomerantz RJ. HIV Clin Trials; 4:137-43. [Link]; page 413

  12. 251 The Lancet 2005; 366:549-555. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67098-5. Depletion of latent HIV-1 infection in vivo: a proof-of-concept study. Ginger Lehrman [Link]; page 413

  13. 252 UNICEF integrated management of childhood illness: Qasi S 2006 Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100 10; no link available; page 413

  14. 253 Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents November 3, 2008 Developed by the DHHS Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents – A Working Group of the Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council (OARAC) [Link]; page 413

  15. 254 Total lymphocyte counts and ART in resource-limited settings. D Moore 2006 Lancet 366 1831. [Link]; page 413

  16. 255 Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents November 3, 2008 Developed by the DHHS Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents – A Working Group of the Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council (OARAC) [Link]; page 413

  17. 256 Should HIV therapy be started at a CD4 cell count above 350 cells/microl in asymptomatic HIV-1-infected patients? Author: Sabin CA, Phillips AN. Journal: Curr Opin Infect Dis; 2009 Apr; 22(2):191-7. PubMed ID: 19283914. [Link]; page 413

Antiretroviral agents

  1. 257 Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents November 3, 2008 Developed by the DHHS Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents – A Working Group of the Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council (OARAC) [Link]; page 414

  2. 258 Recommended therapy is constantly changing. For the latest recommended combinations of antiretrovirals, see the latest British National Fomulary [Link]; page 414

  3. 259 Emtricitabine, a New Antiretroviral Agent with Activity against HIV and Hepatitis B Virus. Author: Saag MS. Journal: Clin Infect Dis; 2006 Jan 1; 42(1):126-31. PubMed ID: 16323102. [Link]; page 414

  4. 260 S Walmsley 2002 NEJM 346:2039 [Link]; page 414

  5. 261 RJC Gilson 2001 BMJ 322:1160-1164 [Link]; page 414

  6. 262 Integrase inhibitors: a new treatment option for patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Author: Correll T, Klibanov OM. Journal: Pharmacotherapy; 2008 Jan; 28(1):90-101. PubMed ID: 18154479 [Link]; page 414

  7. 263 Rapid and durable antiretroviral effect of the HIV-1 Integrase inhibitor raltegravir as part of combination therapy in treatment-naive patients with HIV-1 infection: results of a 48-week controlled study. Author: Markowitz M. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2007 Oct 1; 46(2):125-33. PubMed ID: 17721395 [Link]; page 414

  8. 264 Anti-HIV drugs Author: De Clercq E. Journal: Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg; 2007; 69(2):81-104. PubMed ID: 17550060 [Link]; page 414

  9. 265 Art therapy for relief of symptoms associated with HIV/AIDS. Author: Rao D, Nainis N, Williams L, Langner D, Eisin A, Paice J. Journal: AIDS Care; 2009 Jan; 21(1):64-9. PubMed ID: 19085221. [Link]; page 414

  10. 266 Telephone-delivered, interpersonal psychotherapy for HIV-infected rural persons with depression: a pilot trial. Author: Ransom D, Heckman TG, Anderson T, Garske J, Holroyd K, Basta T. Journal: Psychiatr Serv; 2008 Aug; 59(8):871-7. PubMed ID: 18678684. [Link]; page 414

  11. 267 No link available; page 414

  12. 268 Sharon A 2008 NEJM 358 2095 Class-sparing regimens for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection. [Link]; page 415

  13. 269 Tenofovir DF, emtricitabine, and efavirenz vs. zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz for HIV. Author: Gallant JE, DeJesus E, Arribas JR, Pozniak AL, Gazzard B, Campo RE, Lu B, McColl D, Chuck S, Enejosa J, Toole JJ, Cheng AK, Study 934 Group . Journal: N Engl J Med; 2006 Jan 19; 354(3):251-60. PubMed ID: 16421366. [Link]; page 415

  14. 270 Sharon A 2008 NEJM 358 2095 Class-sparing regimens for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection. [Link]; page 415

  15. 271 Online HIV textbook: HIV medicine; Christian Hoffmann et al. 2005 [Link]; page 415

  16. 272 Treatment strategies for highly treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients. Author: Luber AD. Journal: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther; 2005 Oct; 3(5):815-23. PubMed ID: 16207173. [Link]; page 415

  17. 273 Simplification therapy with once-daily didanosine, tenofovir and efavirenz in HIV-1-infected adults with viral suppression receiving a more complex antiretroviral regimen: final results of the EFADITE trial. Author: Barrios A, Negredo E, Domingo P, Estrada V, Labarga P, Asensi V, Morales D, Santos J, Clotet B, Soriano V, EFADITE Study Group . Journal: Antivir Ther; 2005; 10(7):825-32. PubMed ID: 16312178. [Link]; page 415

Sexually transmitted infections/diseases (STI/STD)

  1. 274 Health protection agency [Link]; page 416

  2. 275 D Scholes 1996 NEJM 334:1362; no link available; page 416

  3. 276 Image of Sarcoptes scabei kindly supplied by Prof S Upton of Kansas University [Link]; page 416

  4. 277 [Link]; page 416

  5. 278 Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis: An emerging sexually transmitted disease in HIV-positive men in the Netherlands. Author: Perenboom RM. Journal: Drugs Today (Barc); 2006 Mar; 42 Suppl A():43-5. PubMed ID: 16683043. [Link]; page 416

  6. 279 Incidence of severe reproductive tract complications associated with diagnosed genital chlamydial infection: the Uppsala Women’s Cohort Study. Author: Low N, Egger M, Sterne JA, Harbord RM, Ibrahim F, Lindblom B, Herrmann B. Journal: Sex Transm Infect; 2006 Jun; 82(3):212-8. PubMed ID: 16731670. [Link]; page 417

  7. 280 Health Protection Agency [Link]; page 417

  8. 281 Final draft review 2 (Chlamydial infection screening) [Link]; page 417

  9. 282 Comparison of first void urine and urogenital swab specimens for detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction in patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Author: Jensen JS, Björnelius E, Dohn B, Lidbrink P. Journal: Sex Transm Dis; 2004 Aug; 31(8):499-507. PubMed ID: 15273584. [Link]; page 417

  10. 283 Antonovsky’s sense of coherence scale and its relation with quality of life: a systematic review. Author: Eriksson M, Lindström B. Journal: J Epidemiol Community Health; 2007 Nov; 61(11):938-44. PubMed ID: 17933950. [Link]; page 417

  11. 284 Differential humoral response against alpha- and beta-linked mannose residues associated with tissue invasion by Candida albicans. Author: Jouault T, Delaunoy C, Sendid B, Ajana F, Poulain D. Journal: Clin Diagn Lab Immunol; 1997 May; 4(3):328-33. PubMed ID: 9144372 [Link]; page 417

Vaginal discharge and urethritis

  1. 285 Image of Trichomonas vaginalis courtesy of Prof S Upton, Kansas University [Link]; page 418

  2. 286 Improved cure of bacterial vaginosis with single dose of tinidazole (2 g), Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal: Can J Microbiol; 2009 Feb; 55(2):133-138. PubMed ID: 19295645. [Link]; page 418

  3. 287 An Atlas of Bedside Microscopy; JM Longmore RGGP [Link]; page 418

  4. 288 [Link]; page 418

  5. 289 [Link]; page 418

  6. 290 Prevalence of and risk factors for quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in Ontario. Author: Ota KV, Jamieson F, Fisman DN, Jones KE, Tamari IE, Ng LK, Towns L, Rawte P, Di Prima A, Wong T, Richardson SE. Journal: CMAJ; 2009 Feb 3; 180(3):287-90. PubMed ID: 19188626. [Link]; page 419

  7. 291 White C 2007 New Gonorrhoea strains are resistant to antibiotics, BMJ 2006 333 825 [Link]; page 419

  8. 292 Ciprofloxacin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in England and Wales in 2002. Author: Fenton KA, Ison C, Johnson AP, Rudd E, Soltani M, Martin I, Nichols T, Livermore DM, GRASP collaboration . Journal: Lancet; 2003 May 31; 361(9372):1867-9. PubMed ID: 12788575. [Link]; page 419

Miscellaneous Gram-positive bacteria

  1. 293 One study in Chicargo fount time in hospital increased by 3-fold (to 14.3 days); death rate 11%; no link available; page 420

  2. 294 Title: Cost-Effectiveness of Linezolid vs Vancomycin in Suspected Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nosocomial Pneumonia in Germany. Journal: Infection; 2009 Mar 9; ():. PubMed ID: 19277465. [Link]; page 420

  3. 295 Image of streptococcal lymphangitis in a diabetic patient courtesy of Prof David Handley [Link]; page 420

(footnote) S Chang 2003 NEJM 348 1342; no link available; page 420

  1. 296 S Antoniu 2000 Lancet 356 664; no link available; page 421

  2. 297 Anthrax: Treatment & Medication Author: Burke A Cunha, MD, Professor of Medicine, State University of New York School of Medicine at Stony Brook; Chief, Infectious Disease Division, Winthrop-University Hospital Updated: Aug 18, 2008 [Link]; page 421

  3. 298 Dose not in bnf, see N Beeching Infectious Diseases 1994 Wolfe; no link available; page 421

  4. 299 Descending polyneuropathy in an intravenous drug user. Author: O’Sullivan JM, McMahon G. Journal: Eur J Emerg Med; 2005 Oct; 12(5):248-50. PubMed ID: 16175064. [Link]; page 421

  5. 300 Increased reports of suspected cases of wound botulism among injecting drug users during 2004. Current Issue: Volume 15 Number 27 Published on: 7 July 2005 [Link]; page 421

  6. 301 F Charlton 1994 bmj i 1060; no link available; page 421

Miscellaneous Gram-negative bacteria

  1. 302 Changes in antibiotic resistance of the most common Gram-negative bacteria isolated in intensive care units. Author: Makedou KG, Tsiakiri EP, Bisiklis AG, Chatzidimitriou M, Halvantzis AA, Ntoutsou K, Alexiou-Daniel S. Journal: J Hosp Infect; 2005 Jul; 60(3):245-8. PubMed ID: 15890431 [Link]; page 422

  2. 303 Gram-negative bacteremia upon hospital admission: when should Pseudomonas aeruginosa be suspected? Author: Schechner V, Nobre V, Kaye KS, Leshno M, Giladi M, Rohner P, Harbarth S, Anderson DJ, Karchmer AW, Schwaber MJ, Carmeli Y. Journal: Clin Infect Dis; 2009 Mar 1; 48(5):580-6. PubMed ID: 19191643. [Link]; page 422

  3. 304 Rat flea (plague vector) Xenopsylla cheopis; by kind permission of Prof S Upton of Kansas University [Link]; page 422

  4. 305 G Luzzi 1993 Tr Roy Soc Trop Med Hy 87 138; no link available; page 422

  5. 306 [Link]; page 422

  6. 307 No link available; page 307

  7. 308 Image of Brucellosis courtesy of Professor Maurice Reeder & Dr. Frank McGuinness, Saudi Arabia [Link]; page 423

  8. 309 Could remembering the prozone phenomenon shorten our diagnostic journey in brucellosis? A case of Brucella spondylodiscitis. Author: Guven GS, Cakir B, Oz G, Tanriover MD, Turkmen E, Sozen T. Journal: Rheumatol Int; 2006 Aug; 26(10):933-5. PubMed ID: 16496149. [Link]; page 423

  9. 310 [Melitococcal psoas abscesses: study of three cases and review of the literature] Author: Marrakchi C, Kilani B, Kanoun F, Abdelmalek R, Tiouiri H, Goubontini A, Zouiten F, Ezzaouia K, Kooli M, Khalfaoui M, Ben Chaabane T. Journal: Med Trop (Mars); 2006 Jun; 66(3):261-5. PubMed ID: 16924818. [Link]; page 423

  10. 311 Neurobrucellosis as an exceptional cause of transient ischemic attacks. Author: Bingöl A, Togay-Iºikay C. Journal: Eur J Neurol; 2006 May; 13(5):544-8. PubMed ID: 16722984. [Link]; page 423

  11. 312 Abducens nerve palsy and optic neuritis as initial manifestation in brucellosis. Author: Karakurum Goksel B, Yerdelen D, Karatas M, Pelit A, Demiroglu YZ, Kizilkilic O, Tan M, Toygar O. Journal: Scand J Infect Dis; 2006; 38(8):721-5. PubMed ID: 16857626. [Link]; page 423

  12. 313 Brucella endocarditis in prosthetic valves. Author: Al Dahouk S, Schneider T, Jansen A, Nöckler K, Tomaso H, Hagen RM, Scholz HC, Rudwaleit M, Neubauer H, Morguet AJ. Journal: Can J Cardiol; 2006 Sep; 22(11):971-4. PubMed ID: 16971982. [Link]; page 423

  13. 314 G Pappas 2008 BMJ 336 678 Treatment of Brucellosis. [Link]; page 423

  14. 315 American Academy of Pediatrics. Pertussis (Whooping Cough). In: Pickering LK, ed. Red Book: 2006 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 26th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2006:498-520. [Link]; page 423

  15. 316 Resurgence of pertussis in Europe. Author: Celentano LP, Massari M, Paramatti D, Salmaso S, Tozzi AE, EUVAC-NET Group . Journal: Pediatr Infect Dis J; 2005 Sep; 24(9):761-5. PubMed ID: 16148840. [Link]; page 423

  16. 317 Munoz-Price L 2008 NEJM 358 1271 [Link]; page 423

  17. 318 See FE Udwadia 2003 in Oxford Textbook of Medicine (4th Ed), OUP, p545; no link available; page 423

Tetanus ND319 Tetanus: a retrospective study of clinical presentations and outcomes in a medical teaching hospital. Author: Sathirapanya P, Sathirapanya C, Limapichat K, Setthawacharawanich S, Phabphal K. Journal: J Med Assoc Thai; 2009 Mar; 92(3):315-9. PubMed ID: 19301722. [Link]; page 424

  1. 320 Tetanus: a retrospective study of clinical presentations and outcomes in a medical teaching hospital. Author: Sathirapanya P, Sathirapanya C, Limapichat K, Setthawacharawanich S, Phabphal K. Journal: J Med Assoc Thai; 2009 Mar; 92(3):315-9. PubMed ID: 19301722. [Link]; page 424

  2. 321 doh 1996; the 65-yr booster is not doh advice, but is reckoned cost-effective ($4527/life saved vs $8000/life saved for hypertension screening—C Bowman 1996 Lancet 348 1664; this regimen may still be inadequate for some—R Sehgal 1997 Lancet 349 573); no link available; page 424

  3. 322 Image of opisthotonus in tetanus. Courtesy of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Copyright-free [Link]; page 425

  4. 323 Tetanus Prophylaxis in Wound Management [Link]; page 425

Enteric fever ND324 Enteric fever: a changing perspective. Author: Biswal N, Mathai B, Bhatia BD, Srinivasan S, Nalini P. Journal: Indian Pediatr; 1994 Jul; 31(7):813-9. PubMed ID: 7890344. [Link]; page 426

  1. 325 Background document: The diagnosis, treatment and prevention of typhoid fever [Link]; page 426

  2. 326 E Mintz 2009. NEJM 360 1060. A Lion in our Village. [Link]; page 426

  3. 327 See Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy (2003) p12; no link available; page 426

  4. 328 M Levine 1997 Lancet 349 220, 231; no link available; page 426

  5. 329 WHO epidemiological data on Leprosy [Link]; page 426

  6. 330 Secret of ancient Athens plague is being unraveled [Link]; page 427

  7. 331 Pericles oration--Thucydides [Link]; page 427

(footnote) J Snow 1854 Med Times Gaz 9 321, quoted by H Brody 2000 Lancet 356 64 [Link]; page 427

(footnote) R Cooter 2006 Lancet 367 1648 & The Medical Detective: John Snow and the Mystery of Cholera, Sandra Hempel, Granta Books, 2006. [Link]; page 427

(footnote) Dulce et decorum est [Link]; page 427

Leprosy ND332 K Meeran 1989 bmj i 364; no link available; page 428

  1. 333 [Link]; page 428

  2. 334 [Link]; page 428

  3. 335 [Link]; page 428

  4. 336 [Link]; page 428

  5. 337 D Lockwood 2002 BMJ 324:1516 [Link]; page 428

  6. 338 DermRounds; no link available; page 429

Spirochetes

  1. 339 For a review of Lyme disease, see AC Steere 2001 NEJM 345:115; no link available; page 430

  2. 340 [Link]; page 430

  3. 341 CDC tick removal page [Link]; page 430

  4. 342 DA Warrell ‘Other borrelia infections’ in Oxford Textbook of Medicine, 4th Ed OUP 2002; no link available; page 430

  5. 343 Image of T pallidum courtesy of Prof Steven R. Spilatro; Ohio [Link]; page 431

  6. 344 2004 figures for STI: [Link]; page 431

  7. 345 Health Protection Agency 2009 [Link]; page 431

  8. 346 No link available; page 431

  9. 347 L Doherty 2002 BMJ 325:153-156 [Link]; page 431

  10. 348 Antenatal screening and prevalence of infection: surveillance in London, 2000-2007. Author: Giraudon I, Forde J, Maguire H, Arnold J, Permalloo N. Journal: Euro Surveill; 2009; 14(9):8-12. PubMed ID: 19317973. [Link]; page 431

  11. 349 Nodular secondary syphilis [Link]; page 431

  12. 350 Syphilitic hepatitis among HIV-infected patients. Author: Crum-Cianflone N, Weekes J, Bavaro M. Journal: Int J STD AIDS; 2009 Apr; 20(4):278-84. PubMed ID: 1930497 [Link]; page 431

  13. 351 Syphilis in Adults. Lancet 2007 369 1912. Stephan Wohrl [Link]; page 431

  14. 352 Should syphilis be treated differently in HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals? Treatment outcomes at a university hospital, Brighton, UK. Author: Warwick Z, Dean G, Fisher M. Journal: Int J STD AIDS; 2009 Apr; 20(4):229-30. PubMed ID: 19304964. [Link]; page 431

  15. 353 Should syphilis be treated differently in HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals? Treatment outcomes at a university hospital, Brighton, UK. Author: Warwick Z, Dean G, Fisher M. Journal: Int J STD AIDS; 2009 Apr; 20(4):229-30. PubMed ID: 19304964. [Link]; page 431

Viral haemorrhagic (and related) fevers ND354 T Monath 1997 reports that dengue is very unlikely to become haemorrhagic if ast; no link available; page 432

  1. 355 Howard RS 2005 BMJ 330 1314 [Link]; page 432

  2. 356 Morbid & Mortal Weekly Rec 1998 47 1; no link available; page 432

  3. 357 T Hemachudha 1991 nejm 324 1890; no link available; page 432

  4. 358 Rabies: Treatment & Medication [Link]; page 432

  5. 359 The global fight against rabies. T Burki 2008 Lancet 372 1136 [Link]; page 432

  6. 360 Lancet 1997 Dec 13;350(9093):1719 Early indicators in acute dengue infection. Monath T [Link]; page 433

  7. 361 N White 1999 Lancet 354 1401 & Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2003 Jan-Feb;45(1):17 Molecular typing of dengue virus type 2 in Brazil. Miagostovich M [Link]; page 433

  8. 362 Eradication vs control for poliomyelitis: an economic analysis. Thompson, K 2007 Lancet 369 1363 [Link]; page 433

  9. 363 [From the poliomyelitis epidemic to the founding of artificial respiration centres, intensive care units and centres for home mechanical ventilation] Author: Meinesz AF, Wijkstra PJ, Zijlstra JG, Albers MJ, Köter GH. Journal: Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2006 Feb 25; 150(8):444-9. PubMed ID: 16538846. [Link]; page 433

  10. 364 Lancet 2004 363 215 [Link]; page 433

  11. 365 Polio Eradication Count [Link]; page 433

  12. 366 Hindustani Times. Fresh polio case: Warning to officials. HT Correspondent. Kanpur, April 1; no link available; page 433

  13. 367 Donors pledge $630m to help boost global polio eradication. John Zarocostas [Link]; page 433

Arthropod-borne bacteria 368 Splenic abscess caused by Coxiella burnetti in the absence of endocarditis] Author: Cathébras P, Brouqui P, Philippe P, Raoult D, Rousset H. Journal: Rev Med Interne; 1998 Oct; 19(10):740-2. PubMed ID: 9827448 [Link]; page 434

  1. 369 Q fever [Link]; page 434

  2. 370 Q fever [Link]; page 434

  3. 371 M Barrett 1999 Lancet 353 1113; no link available; page 434

  4. 372 Rickettsial infections and fever, Vientiane, Laos. Author: Phongmany S, White NJ, Journal: Emerg Infect Dis; 2006 Feb; 12(2):256-62. PubMed ID: 16494751 [Link]; page 435

  5. 373 [Neurological feature of Mediterranean spotted fever: a study of four cases] Author: Alioua Z, Bourazza A, Lamsyah H, Erragragui Y, Boudi O, Karouach K, Ghfir M, Mossedaq R, Sedrati O. Journal: Rev Med Interne; 2003 Dec; 24(12):824-9. PubMed ID: 14656643. [Link]; page 435

  6. 374 Rickettsial infections and fever, Vientiane, Laos. Author: Phongmany S, Rolain JM, Phetsouvanh R, Blacksell SD, Soukkhaseum V, Rasachack B, Phiasakha K, Soukkhaseum S, Frichithavong K, Chu V, Keolouangkhot V, Martinez-Aussel B, Chang K, Darasavath C, Rattanavong O, Sisouphone S, Mayxay M, Vidamaly S, Parola P, Thammavong C, Heuangvongsy M, Syhavong B, Raoult D, White NJ, Newton PN. Journal: Emerg Infect Dis; 2006 Feb; 12(2):256-62. PubMed ID: 16494751 [Link]; page 435

  7. 375 Acute hearing loss due to scrub typhus: a forgotten complication of a reemerging disease. Author: Premaratna R, Chandrasena TG, Dassayake AS, Loftis AD, Dasch GA, de Silva HJ. Journal: Clin Infect Dis; 2006 Jan 1; 42(1):e6-8. PubMed ID: 16323083. [Link]; page 435

  8. 376 Clinical study of 20 children with scrub typhus at Chiang Rai Regional Hospital. Author: Chanta C, Chanta S. Journal: J Med Assoc Thai; 2005 Dec; 88(12):1867-72. PubMed ID: 16518987. [Link]; page 435

  9. 377 Epidemiological characteristics of rickettsial diseases in Croatia. Author: Mulić R, Mihajlović N, Ropac D, Zorić I, Alambasić K. Journal: Mil Med; 2006 Jan; 171(1):64-8. PubMed ID: 16532877. [Link]; page 435

  10. 378 Neurological feature of Mediterranean spotted fever: a study of four cases. Author: Alioua Z, Bourazza A, Lamsyah H, Erragragui Y, Boudi O, Karouach K, Ghfir M, Mossedaq R, Sedrati O. Journal: Rev Med Interne; 2003 Dec; 24(12):824-9. PubMed ID: 14656643. [Link]; page 435

  11. 379 Usefulness of eschar PCR for diagnosis of scrub typhus. Author: Lee SH, Kim DM, Cho YS, Yoon SH, Shim SK. Journal: J Clin Microbiol; 2006 Mar; 44(3):1169-71. PubMed ID: 16517922 [Link]; page 435

  12. 380 Mediterranean spotted fever: clinical and laboratory characteristics of 415 Sicilian children. Author: Colomba C, Saporito L, Polara VF, Rubino R, Titone L. Journal: BMC Infect Dis; 2006; 6():60. PubMed ID: 16553943 Mediterranean spotted fever: clinical and laboratory characteristics of 415 Sicilian children. Author: Colomba C, Saporito L, Polara VF, Rubino R, Titone L. Journal: BMC Infect Dis; 2006; 6():60. PubMed ID: 16553943; no link available; page 435

Some gastrointestinal protozoa

  1. 381 Giardia--by kind permission of Prof S Upton of Kansas University [Link]; page 436

  2. 382 Outbreak of giardiasis in a daycare nursery. Author: Ang LH. Journal: Commun Dis Public Health; 2000 Sep; 3(3):212-3. PubMed ID: 11014038. [Link]; page 436

  3. 383 Laboratory diagnosis of giardiasis [Link]; page 436

  4. 384 Image of entamoeba histolytica courtesy of Prof S Upton; Kansas University [Link]; page 436

  5. 385 Image of Trypanosoma gambiense by kind permission of Prof S Upton [Link]; page 437

  6. 386 Image of Entamoeba trophozoites courtesy of Prof S Upton, Kansas University [Link]; page 437

  7. 387 No link available; page 437

Trypanosomiasis

  1. 388 Image of Trypanosoma gambiense by kind permission of Prof S Upton [Link]; page 438

  2. 389 M Barrett, 2006 The rise and fall of sleeping sickness. Lancet ed vol 367 1377 [Link]; page 438

  3. 390 Médecins sans Frontières Lancet 2009; 374: 56-64. DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(09)61117-x; no link available; page 438

  4. 391 G Priotto 2008 BMJ i 336 705 afety and effectiveness of first line eflonithine for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness in Sudan: cohort study. [Link]; page 438

  5. 392 Controlling Chagas’ disease in urban Peru. B Fraser 2008 Lancet 372 16 [Link]; page 438

  6. 393 L. donovani image by kind permission of Prof S Upton of Kansas University [Link]; page 439

  7. 394 Atypical American visceral leishmaniasis caused by disseminated Leishmania amazonensis infection presenting with hepatitis and adenopathy. Author: Aleixo JA, Nascimento ET, Monteiro GR, Fernandes MZ, Ramos AM, Wilson ME, Pearson RD, Jeronimo SM. Journal: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg; 2006 Jan; 100(1):79-82. PubMed ID: 16198385. [Link]; page 439

  8. 395 Advances in Leishmaniasis; Henry Murray, Lancet 2005 366 1561. [Link]; page 439

  9. 396 Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Recognition and Treatment WILLIAM H. MARKLE, M.D., and KHALDOUN MAKHOUL, M.D. University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, McKeesport Hospital, McKeesport, Pennsylvania [Link]; page 439

  10. 397 Visceral leishmaniasis: advances in treatment. Author: Maltezou HC. Journal: Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov; 2008 Nov; 3(3):192-8. [Link]; page 439

  11. 398 J Rosenblatt 1999 Mayo Clin Proc 74 1161 [@10560606]; no link available; page 439

  12. 399 Visceral leishmaniasis: what are the needs for diagnosis, treatment and control? Chappuis F, Sundar S, Hailu A, Ghalib H, Rijal S, Peeling RW, Alvar J, Boelaert M. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007 Nov;5(11):873-82 [Link]; page 439

  13. 400 Visceral leishmaniasis: what are the needs for diagnosis, treatment and control? Chappuis F, Sundar S, Hailu A, Ghalib H, Rijal S, Peeling RW, Alvar J, Boelaert M. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007 Nov;5(11):873-82 [Link]; page 439

  14. 401 Indian J Med Res 120, September 2004, pp 166-172 Epidemiological, clinical & pharmacological study of antimonyresistant visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India C.P. Thakur, S. Narayan & A. Ranjan [Link]; page 439

  15. 402 Indian J Med Res 127, June 2008, pp 582-588 Comparison of treatment regimens of kala-azar based on culture & sensitivity of amastigotes to sodium antimony gluconate C.P. Thakur, Shabnam Thakur, S. Narayan & Arun Sinha [Link]; page 439

Fungi

  1. 403 Image of candidal intertrigo courtesy of Prof A Huntley [Link]; page 440

  2. 404 Treatment is with intravenous voriconazole (two doses of 6 mg per kilogram of body weight on day 1, then 4 mg per kilogram twice daily for at least seven days) followed by 200 mg orally twice daily. See R Herbrecht 2002 NEJM 347:408-415 [Link]; page 440

  3. 405 Aspergillus brain abscess in a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia successfully treated with voriconazole. Author: Wandroo F, Stableforth P, Hasan Y. Journal: Clin Lab Haematol; 2006 Apr; 28(2):130-3. PubMed ID: 16630219. [Link]; page 440

  4. 406 Capsofungin was shown in one trial to be at least as effective as Amphotericin B in the treatment of invasive candidiasis. See J Mora-Duarte 2002 NEJM 347:2020-2029 [Link]; page 440

  5. 407 Cryptococcus John G. Bartlett, M.D. 01-13-2009 [Link]; page 440

  6. 408 Image of Histoplasma duboisi courtesy of Subhash K. Mohan [Link]; page 440

  7. 409 British Soc for Antimicrobial Chemo 1994 Intensive Care Med 20 522; no link available; page 441

  8. 410 D Bundy 1994 Tr Roy Soc Tr Med Hyg 88 259; no link available; page 441

  9. 411 Image of mucor courtesy of Prof Pierre-Yves Guillaume; Professeur de biotechnologie génie biologique, Lycée d’honoré d’Urfé, Saint Etienne [Link]; page 441

  10. 412 Image of mucor courtesy of Prof Pierre-Yves Guillaume; Professeur de biotechnologie génie biologique, Lycée d’honoré d’Urfé, Saint Etienne [Link]; page 441

  11. 413 Image of Aspergillus niger courtesy of Image of mucor courtesy of Prof Pierre-Yves Guillaume; Professeur de biotechnologie génie biologique, Lycée d’honoré d’Urfé, Saint Etienne [Link]; page 441

  12. 414 Occupational allergic asthma in greenhouses. Report of a clinical case. Author: Farruggia E, Bellia M. Journal: Med Lav; 2001 May-Jun; 92(3):203-5. PubMed ID: 11515153 [Link]; page 441

  13. 415 Image of mucor courtesy of Prof Pierre-Yves Guillaume; Professeur de biotechnologie génie biologique, Lycée d’honoré d’Urfé, Saint Etienne [Link]; page 441

  14. 416 Image of Candida on the glans; courtesy of Prof Arthur Haley [Link]; page 441

  15. 417 Image of candida in web-space. Prof A Huntley [Link]; page 441

Nematodes (roundworms)

  1. 418 J Sanford 2000 Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy, ISBN 0-933775-43-1; no link available; page 442

  2. 419 [Link]; page 442

  3. 420 Image of threadworm eggs (c) JML; no link available; page 442

  4. 421 Neurotrichinosis. Author: Knezević K, Turkulov V, Canak G, Lalosević V, Tomić S. Journal: Med Pregl; 2001 Sep-Oct; 54(9-10):483-5. PubMed ID: 11876013 [Link]; page 442

  5. 422 Dracunculiasis eradication: the final inch. Author: Hopkins DR, Ruiz-Tiben E, Downs P, Withers PC, Maguire JH. Journal: Am J Trop Med Hyg; 2005 Oct; 73(4):669-75. PubMed ID: 16222007. [Link]; page 442

  6. 423 Profile on Donald Hopkins. Lancet 2008 371 1571 [Link]; page 442

(footnote) A case of myeloradiculitis as a complication of visceral larva migrans due to Ascaris suum] Author: Yoshida S, Matsui M, Wang HY, Oeda T, Sasaki T, Komure O, Ozawa K, Konisi T, Saida T, Yoshikawa H, Nawa Y. Journal: Rinsho Shinkeigaku; 2004 Mar; 44(3):198-202. PubMed ID: 15233274. [Link]; page 442

  1. 424 [No descriptive text] [Link]; page 443

  2. 425 M Osei-Atweneboana 2007 Lancet 369 2021. Prealence and intensity of Onchocerca vovlulus infection... [Link]; page 443

  3. 426 Image of Wuchereria bancrofti kindly supplied by Prof S Upton of Kansas University [Link]; page 443

  4. 427 P Sapak 2000 P N G Med J 43:213 (Medline 11939303); no link available; page 443

  5. 428 [Link]; page 443

  6. 429 [Ocular filariasis due to Loa-loa. An emerging tropical parasitosis in Europe?] Herrero-Morín JD, Fernández González MN, González Rodríguez F, García López E, Díaz Argüelles M. An Pediatr (Barc); 2006 Aug; 65(2):168-70. PubMed ID: 16948983 [Link]; page 443

  7. 430 Volume 346:1751 2002 Case 1-2002: Loa loa Nutman, T. B To the Editor: The case discussion by Nutman and Kradin (Jan. 10 issue)1 triggered the recollection of a case of Loa loa ... [Link]; page 443

  8. 431 Loiasis. Volume 355:e6 August 17, 2006 Number 7 [Link]; page 443

(footnote) [Intermittent chyluria in a young man] Author: Stanzial AM, Menini C, Casaril M, Baggio E, Corrocher R. Journal: Presse Med; 1996 Feb 3; 25(4):157-8. PubMed ID: 8728901. [Link]; page 443

(footnote) Case 1-2002— A 24-Year-Old Woman with Paresthesias and Muscle Cramps after a Stay in Africa Thomas B. Nutman, M.D., and Richard L. Kradin, M.D. [Link]; page 443

Cestodes (tapeworms)

  1. 432 Professor Steve J Upton [Link]; page 444

  2. 433 Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis by detection of Taenia solium DNA using a global DNA screening platform. Author: Harrington AT, Creutzfeldt CJ, Sengupta DJ, Hoogestraat DR, Zunt JR, Cookson BT. Journal: Clin Infect Dis; 2009 Jan 1; 48(1):86-90. [Link]; page 444

  3. 434 A trial of antiparasitic treatment to reduce the rate of seizures due to cerebral cysticercosis. Author: Garcia HH, Pretell EJ, Gilman RH, Martinez SM, Moulton LH, Del Brutto OH, Herrera G, Evans CA, Gonzalez AE, Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2004 Jan 15; 350(3):249-58. PubMed ID: 14724304. [Link]; page 444

  4. 435 Image of Diphylobothrium latum courtesy of Prof J Upton, Kansas university; no link available; page 444

  5. 436 Image of entire hydatid worm (Echinococcus) by kind permission of Prof S Upton of Kansas University. [Link]; page 444

  6. 437 A varied presentation of hydatid cyst: a report of four cases with review of literature. Author: Das S, Kalyani R, Kumar U, Kumar HM. Journal: Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Jul; 50(3):550-2. PubMed ID: 17883131. [Link]; page 444

  7. 438 Difficult diagnosis in pulmonary hydatidosis] Author: Pop M, Mureşan A, Râjnoveanu R, Man M. Journal: Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2006 Apr-Jun; 110(2):314-8. PubMed ID: 17802938. [Link]; page 444

  8. 439 Albendazole for the treatment of human echinococcosis: a review of comparative clinical trials. Author: Falagas ME, Bliziotis IA. Journal: Am J Med Sci; 2007 Sep; 334(3):171-9. PubMed ID: 17873530. [Link]; page 444

(footnote) J Sotelo 2003 BMJ 326 511 Neurocysticercosis. Eradication of cysticercosis is an attainable goal [Link]; page 444

  1. 440 Image of S mansoni male on female, mating, and eggs of S. mansoni (sublateral spine) and S. haematobium (terminal spine) by kind permission of Prof S Upton of Kansas University [Link]; page 445

  2. 441 Al-Sherbiny MM, Osman AM, Hancock K, et al. Application of immunodiagnostic assays: detection of antibodies and circulating antigens in human schistosomiasis and correlation with clinical findings. Am J Trop Med Hyg. Jun 1999;60(6):960-6 [Link]; page 445

  3. 442 Clonorchis sinensis. Permission from Pro Upton for all eds [Link]; page 445

  4. 443 PCR diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis taichui infections in an endemic Lao community: a comparison of diagnostic methods for parasitological field surveys. Journal: J Clin Microbiol; 2009 Mar 11; ():. PubMed ID: 19279176. [Link]; page 445

Exotic infections

  1. 444 A rare case of Brucella melitensis infection in an obstetrician during the delivery of a transplacentally infected infant. Author: Poulou A, Markou F, Xipolitos I, Skandalakis PN. Journal: J Infect; 2006 Jul; 53(1):e39-41. PubMed ID: 16249034. [Link]; page 446

  2. 445 eMedicine Mycobacterium marinum infection of the skin 2005 [Link]; page 446

  3. 446 Pasteurella multocida pneumonia in an adolescent with duchenne’s muscular dystrophy following exposure to his helper dog Fida Bacha, Joseph B Domachowske. Clinical Pediatrics. Glen Head: Mar 2001.Vol.40, Iss. 3; pg. 159, 3 pgs [Link]; page 446

  4. 447 Riley PL, Chomel BB. Hedgehog zoonoses Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2005 Jan [Link]; page 446

  5. 448 Zoonotic transmission of Cryptococcus neoformans from a magpie to an immunocompetent patient. Author: Lagrou K, Van Eldere J, Keuleers S, Hagen F, Merckx R, Verhaegen J, Peetermans WE, Boekhout T. Journal: J Intern Med; 2005 Apr; 257(4):385-8. PubMed ID: 15788009. [Link]; page 446

  6. 449 Invasive Snails and an Emerging Infectious Disease: Results from the First National Survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China. Author: Lv S, Zhang Y, Liu HX, Hu L, Yang K, Steinmann P, Chen Z, Wang LY, Utzinger J, Zhou XN. Journal: PLoS Negl Trop Dis; 2009; 3(2):e368. PubMed ID: 19190771. [Link]; page 446

  7. 450 Brucellosis: the first case of King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital and review of the literature. Author: Paitoonpong L, Ekgatat M, Nunthapisud P, Tantawichien T, Suankratay C. Journal: J Med Assoc Thai; 2006 Aug; 89(8):1313-7. PubMed ID: 17048447. [Link]; page 446

  8. 451 Pasteurella multocida respiratory infection: An important cat-associated zoonosis Ryland P Byrd Jr, Thomas M Roy. Archives of Internal Medicine. Chicago: May 26, 2003.Vol.163, Iss. 10; pg. 1239 [Link]; page 447

  9. 452 Pasteurella multocida meningitis: case report and review of the literature. Author: O’Neill E, Moloney A, Hickey M. Journal: J Infect; 2005 May; 50(4):344-5. PubMed ID: 15845433. [Link]; page 447

  10. 453 Cutaneous protothecosis: Report of the second Brazilian case Ivonise Follador, Achillea Bittencourt, Fernanda Duran, Maria Das Gracas Araujo. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo. Sao Paulo: Sep/Oct 2001.Vol.43, Iss. 5; pg. 287, 4 pgs [Link]; page 447

  11. 454 eMedicine 2004-5 [Link]; page 447

  12. 455 Rothia dentocariosa, endocarditis and mycotic aneurysms: case report and review of the literature. Author: Boudewijns M, Magerman K, Verhaegen J, Debrock G, Peetermans WE, Donkersloot P, Mewis A, Peeters V, Rummens JL, Cartuyvels R. Journal: Clin Microbiol Infect; 2003 Mar; 9(3):222-9. PubMed ID: 12667255 [Link]; page 447

  13. 456 A Man With a Reddish Stained Washcloth Kaare Weismann, Anne-Grethe Poulsen, Alice-Friis Møller, Takasi Kobayashi. Archives of Dermatology. Chicago: Jun 2005.Vol.141, Iss. 6; pg. 795 [Link]; page 447

Chapter 10: Neurology

Neurology

  1. 1 Images redrawn from ‘Mapping the mind’ Rita Carter, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1998 [Link]; page 448

The chief questions of bedside neurology

  1. 2 Breathing control in neurological diseases. Author: Nogués MA, Roncoroni AJ, Benarroch E. Journal: Clin Auton Res; 2002 Dec; 12(6):440-9. PubMed ID: 12598948 &: Prof J Feldman 2005 Nature Neuroscience[Link]; page 450

  2. 3 Autism Linked To Poor Communication Between Brain Areas. G Bird, 2006 Neuroimage [Link]; page 450

  3. 4 Neurologicalevaluations [Link]; page 451

  4. 5 Orthopaedics [Link]; page 451

Cerebral artery territories

  1. 6 Image of middle cerebral artery [MCA]aneurysm in a post-mortem specimen’ courtesy of Danil Hammoundi[Link]; page 452

  2. 7 Image of CT of posterior cerebral artery inface courtest of Prof J Trobe. [Link]; page 453

Drugs and the nervous system

  1. 8 Biochemical Pharmacology of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons. 2000 Neuropsychopharmacology [Link]; page 454

  2. 9 Augmentation of antidepressant therapy with 5-HT autoreceptor antagonists: receptor autoradiographic studies of pindolol; no link available; page 454

  3. 10 Mol Psychiatry. 1998 Mar;3(2):101-2. A new framework for investigating antipsychotic action in humans: lessons from PET imaging. Kapur S. [Link]; page 454

(footnote) Newer antidepressants; no link available; page 454

  1. 11 Gambling on dopamine Peter Shizgal, Andreas Arvanitogiannis. Science. Washington: Mar 21, 2003.Vol.299, Iss. 5614; pg. 1856, 3 pgs [Link]; page 455

  2. 12 Acamprosate for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Author: Boothby LA, Doering PL. Journal: Clin Ther; 2005 Jun; 27(6):695-714. PubMed ID: 16117977 [Link]; page 455

  3. 13 Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1990 Oct;87(19):7522-6 Chronic antidepressant administration decreases the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the rat locus coeruleus. Nestler EJ [Link]; page 455

(footnote) Addolorato G 2008 Lancet 370 1915. Effectiveness and safety of baclofen for maintenance of alcohol abstinence in alcohol dependent patients with cirrhosis. [Link]; page 455

(footnote) Oral topiramate for treatment of alcohol dependence: a randomised controlled trial. Author: Johnson BA, Ait-Daoud N, Bowden CL, DiClemente CC, Roache JD, Lawson K, Javors MA, Ma JZ. Journal: Lancet; 2003 May 17; 361(9370):1677-85. PubMed ID: 12767733. [Link]; page 455

Testing peripheral nerves

  1. 14 J Hand Surg [Am] 1980 Nov;5(6):560-5 Crossed fingers and other tests of ulnar nerve motor function. Earle AS [Link]; page 456

  2. 15 J Hand Surg [Br] 1998 Apr;23(2):240-1 Finger flexion sign for ulnar neuropathy. Tsujino A [Link]; page 456

  3. 16 Anatomy lesson [Link]; page ” >[Link]; page ” >[Link]; page 457

(footnote) distal ulnar neuropathy as a cause of finger tremor: a case report. Streib, EW. Neurology 1990 40: 153-4. PMID2153273; no link available; page 457

Dermatomes

  1. 17 Neuroanatomy lessons: Weakness; Myopathy, Anterior horn cell disease, Neuropathies et al [Link]; page 458

Headache

  1. 18 BASH guideline for giving O2 in cluster headache; no link available; page 461

  2. 19 Personal histories of cluster headache [Link]; page 461

  3. 20 The importance of routine magnetic resonance imaging in trigeminal neuralgia diagnosis. Author: Goh BT, Poon CY, Peck RH. Journal: Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2001 Oct; 92(4):424-9. PubMed ID: 11598578 [Link]; page 461

Migraine

  1. 21 A high incidence of migraine with aura among morbidly obese women. Author: Horev A, Wirguin I, Lantsberg L, Ifergane G. Journal: Headache; 2005 Jul; 45(7):936-8. PubMed ID: 15985113. [Link]; page 462

  2. 22 Migraine: Traditional or ‘Innovative’ Treatment? A Preliminary Case-Control Study.Journal: Pediatr Cardiol; 2005 Jun 25; ():. PubMed ID: 15977084. [Link]; page 462

  3. 23 Efficacy of oral ketoprofen in acute migraine: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Dib et al. Neurology. 2002;58:1660–5. PMID: 12058095; no link available; page 462

  4. 24 Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Rizatriptan and Sumatriptan versus Cafergot((R)) in the Acute Treatment of Migraine. Author: Zhang L, Hay JW. Journal: CNS Drugs; 2005; 19(7):635-42. PubMed ID: 15984898. [Link]; page 462

  5. 25 Topiramate in migraine prevention: results of a large controlled trial. Silberstein SD. Arch Neurol. 2004;61:490-5. PMID: 15096395; no link available; page 462

  6. 26 [Prophylactic drug treatment of migraine] Author: Massiou H, Bousser MG. Journal: Rev Neurol (Paris); 2005 Jul; 161(6-7):681-4. PubMed ID: 16141958. [Link]; page 462

  7. 27 Lamotrigine versus placebo in the prophylaxis of migraine with and without aura. Steiner et al. Cephalalgia. 1997;17:109–12. PMID: 9137848; no link available; page 462

  8. 28 Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1982 Jan 30;284(6312):312 Rebreathing aborts migraine attacks. Dexter SL. [Link]; page 462

  9. 29 J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1998 Oct;21(8):511-9 The efficacy of spinal manipulation, amitriptyline and the combination of both therapies for the prophylaxis of migraine headache. Nelson CF [Link]; page 462

  10. 30 CNS Drugs 2002;16(9):611-34 New and emerging prophylactic agents for migraine. Krymchantowski AV[Link]; page 462

  11. 31 Clinical holistic medicine: the patient with multiple diseases. Author: Ventegodt S, Merrick J. Journal: ScientificWorldJournal; 2005 Apr 12; 5():324-39. PubMed ID: 15962199. [Link]; page 462

  12. 32 Serial MRI in a case of familial hemiplegic migraine. Author: Butteriss DJ, Ramesh V, Birchall D. Journal: Neuroradiology; 2003 May; 45(5):300-3. PubMed ID: 12669159 [Link]; page 463

  13. 33 Hypothalamic activation in spontaneous migraine attacks. Author: Denuelle M, Fabre N, Payoux P, Chollet F, Geraud G. Journal: Headache; 2007 Nov; 47(10):1418-26. PubMed ID: 18052951. [Link]; page 463

  14. 34 Exp Brain Res 2002 Jul;145(2):177-81 Modulation of visual cortical excitability in migraine with aura: effects of 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Brighina F [Link]; page 463

  15. 35 Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo 2002 Nov-Dec;57(6):293-8 New migraine preventive options: an update with pathophysiological considerations. Bigal ME [Link]; page 463

  16. 36 The Headache of SAH responds to sumatriptan. Author: Rosenberg JH, Silberstein SD. Journal: Headache; 2005 May; 45(5):597-8. PubMed ID: 15953279 [Link]; page 463

  17. 37 Migraines during pregnancy linked to stroke and vascular diseases: US population based case-control study. Bushnell et al. BMJ 2009;338:b664 [Link]; page 463

  18. 38 Migraine during pregnancy: options for therapy. Author: Fox AW, Diamond ML, Spierings EL. Journal: CNS Drugs; 2005; 19(6):465-81. PubMed ID: 15962998 [Link]; page 463

(footnote) Comparative aspects of triptans in treating migraine. Author: Adelman JU, Lewit EJ. Journal: Clin Cornerstone; 2001; 4(3):53-64. PubMed ID: 12739316 [Link]; page 463

(footnote) Almotriptan in migraine patients who respond poorly to oral sumatriptan: a double-blind, randomized trial. Author: Diener HC, Gendolla A, Gebert I, Beneke M. Journal: Headache; 2005 Jul; 45(7):874-82. PubMed ID: 15985104 [Link]; page 463

Blackouts(footnote) Body surface distribution and response to drugs of ST segment elevation in Brugada syndrome: clinical implication of eighty-seven-lead body surface potential mapping and its application to twelve-lead electrocardiograms. Author: Shimizu W, Matsuo K, Takagi M, Tanabe Y, Aiba T, Taguchi A, Suyama K, Kurita T, Aihara N, Kamakura S. Journal: J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol; 2000 Apr; 11(4):396-404. PubMed ID: 10809492 [Link]; page 464

(footnote) Tilt test for the evaluation of syncope of unknown origin] Author: Muratore C, Rabinovich R, Valentino M, Baranchuk A, Liprandi AS. Journal: Medicina (B Aires); 1997; 57(2):139-42. PubMed ID: 9532822. [Link]; page 464

  1. 39 Sudden Adult Death Trust Information [Link]; page 465

Vertigo and dizziness

  1. 40 James A, and Burton MJ. Betahistine for Ménière’s disease or syndrome. Cochrane 2001, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD001873. [Link]; page 466

  2. 41 Scottish Radiological Society Educational Resources: Case 72, Cerebello-pontine angle tumours [Link]; page 466

  3. 42 Acoustic neuroma. NMC Neurosurgical Medical Clinic. [Link]; page 467

  4. 43 Neurosurgery of acoustic neuromas; no link available; page 467

Hearing loss

  1. 44 Otolaryngol Pol. 2002;56(2):213.Tinnitus in systemic diseases--Nowak K [Link]; page 468

  2. 45 Lancet. 2003 Jul 26;362(9380):292 Tinnitus after cycling--Lanczik O [Link]; page 468

  3. 46 British Tinnitus Association, Tel: (0114) 279 6600; no link available; page 468

  4. 47 J Otolaryngol. 2001 Oct;30(5):300 Efficacy of amitriptyline in the treatment of subjective tinnitus. Bayar N[Link]; page 468

  5. 48 Arch Intern Med. 1993 Oct 11;153(19):2251-9 A randomized trial of nortriptyline for severe chronic tinnitus. Effects on depression, disability, and tinnitus symptoms--Sullivan M [Link]; page 468

  6. 49 Long-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients with chronic tinnitus. Author: Kleinjung T, Eichhammer P, Langguth B, Jacob P, Marienhagen J, Hajak G, Wolf SR, Strutz J. Journal: Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2005 Apr; 132(4):566-9. PubMed ID: 15806046 [Link]; page 468

(footnote) Long-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients with chronic tinnitus. Author: Kleinjung T, Eichhammer P, Langguth B, Jacob P, Marienhagen J, Hajak G, Wolf SR, Strutz J. Journal: Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2005 Apr; 132(4):566-9. PubMed ID: 15806046 [Link]; page 468

Weak legs and cord compression

  1. 50 Image of histology of subacute combined degeneration of the cord. [Link]; page 471

  2. 51 Eur Radiol. 1999;9(7):1252 Spinal cord tumors--Baleriaux DL [Link]; page 471

  3. 52 Surg Neurol. 1988 Sep;30(3):220 Metastases of the spinal cord from remote neoplasms. Study of five cases--Tognetti F [Link]; page 471

  4. 53 Br J Neurosurg. 2002 Jun;16(3):296-300 Schistosoma haematobium presenting as an intrinsic conus tumour--Samandouras G [Link]; page 471

  5. 54 Dev Med Child Neurol. 1977 Feb;19(1):54 Bizarre posture and movement disorder with third ventricle astrocytoma--Hanson PA [Link]; page 471

  6. 55 Neurol. 1991 Jun;238(3):140 How to identify psychogenic disorders of stance and gait. A video study in 37 patients--Lempert T [Link]; page 471

(footnote) [A case of myeloradiculitis as a complication of visceral larva migrans due to Ascaris suum] Author: Yoshida S, Matsui M, Wang HY, Oeda T, Sasaki T, Komure O, Ozawa K, Konisi T, Saida T, Yoshikawa H, Nawa Y. Journal: Rinsho Shinkeigaku; 2004 Mar; 44(3):198-202. PubMed ID: 15233274. [Link]; page 471

Abnormal involuntary movements (dyskinesia)

  1. 56 Movement disorders: classifications. Author: Klein C. Journal: J Inherit Metab Dis; 2005; 28(3):425-39. PubMed ID: 15868475 [Link]; page 472

  2. 57 Essential tremor. E Louis 2005. Lancet Neurol 4:100-110. PMID: 15664542. [Link]; page 472

  3. 58 J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1999 Nov;67(5):646-50. Re-emergent tremor of Parkinson’s disease. Jankovic J [Link]; page 472

  4. 59 New treatment options for tremors. G Deuschl 2000 NEJM 342:505-507 PMID [Link]; page 472

  5. 60 Unilateral asterixis after thalamic hemorrhage. Author: Klos KJ, Wijdicks EF. Journal: Neurology; 2006 Jan 24; 66(2):E11. PubMed ID: 16434643. [Link]; page 472

  6. 61 Tardive Dystonia. Journal: Curr Treat Options Neurol; 2005 May; 7(3):231-236. PubMed ID: 15814076[Link]; page 472

  7. 62 Beneficial effect of donepezil in the treatment of elderly patients with tardive movement disorders. Author: Bergman J, Dwolatzky T, Brettholz I, Lerner V. Journal: J Clin Psychiatry; 2005 Jan; 66(1):107-10. PubMed ID: 15669896 [Link]; page 472

  8. 63 Tetrabenazine treatment in movement disorders. Author: Paleacu D, Giladi N, Moore O, Stern A, Honigman S, Badarny S. Journal: Clin Neuropharmacol; 2004 Sep-Oct; 27(5):230-3. PubMed ID: 15602104 [Link]; page 472

(footnote) Paracelcus [Link]; page 472

  1. 64 Patient’s forums [Link]; page 473

  2. 65 Microelectrode-guided implantation of deep brain stimulators into the globus pallidus internus for dystonia: techniques, electrode locations, and outcomes. Author: Starr PA, Turner RS, Rau G, Lindsey N, Heath S, Volz M, Ostrem JL, Marks WJ. Journal: Neurosurg Focus; 2004 Jul 15; 17(1):E4. PubMed ID: 15264773. [Link]; page 473

  3. 66 Ritual Relieved Axial Dystonia Triggered by Gaze-Evoked Amaurosis. American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 314(5):348-350, November 1997. JACOME, DANIEL E. MD [Link]; page 473

  4. 67 Scott Adams, Drawing the Line [Link]; page 473

  5. 68 Specific muscle EMG biofeedback for hand dystonia. Author: Deepak KK, Behari M. Journal: Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback; 1999 Dec; 24(4):267-80. PubMed ID: 10789003 [Link]; page 473

  6. 69 J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001;71:413-41 Obsessive-compulsive characteristics in patients with writer’s cramp [Link]; page 473

  7. 70 Modulation of electromyographic activity of wrist flexor and extensor muscles in patients with writer’s cramp. Author: Valls-Solé J, Hallett M. Journal: Mov Disord; 1995 Nov; 10(6):741-8. PubMed ID: 8749993.[Link]; page 473

  8. 71 Movement-related electroencephalographic desynchronization in patients with hand cramps: evidence for motor cortical involvement in focal dystonia. Author: Toro C, Deuschl G, Hallett M. Journal: Ann Neurol; 2000 Apr; 47(4):456-61. PubMed ID: 10762156 [Link]; page 473

  9. 72 Specific muscle EMG biofeedback for hand dystonia. Author: Deepak KK, Behari M. Journal: Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback; 1999 Dec; 24(4):267-80. PubMed ID: 10789003. [Link]; page 473

  10. 73 Ondansetron-Induced Multifocal Encephalopathy. Ritter MJ, et al. Mayo Clinic Proc 2003; 78:1150-2. [Link]; page 473

Stroke: clinical features and acute management

  1. 74 Immediate surgery reduces mortality in deeply comatose patients with spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage. Yanaka et al 2000. Neur Med Ch 40:295-9 PMID: 10892265; no link available; page 474

  2. 75 Organised inpatient (stroke unit) care for stroke. Langhorne et al. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 1, 2009. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000197.pub2; no link available; page 474

  3. 76 Intracerebral haemorrhage after thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke: an update. Derex L, & Nighoghossian N. JNNP 2008; 79:1093-9. PMID: 18223014; no link available; page 475

  4. 77 Intracerebral haemorrhage after thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke: an update. Derex L, & Nighoghossian N. JNNP 2008; 79:1093-9. PMID: 18223014; no link available; page 475

  5. 78 Aphasic status epilepticus with periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges in a bilingual patient as a presenting sign of ‘AIDS-toxoplasmosis complex’. Author: Ozkaya G, Kurne A, Unal S, Oðuz KK, Karabudak R, Saygi S. Journal: Epilepsy Behav; 2006 Aug; 9(1):193-6. PubMed ID: 16697709. [Link]; page 475

  6. 79 Mycotic aneurysm in endocarditis lenta as the etiology of intraparenchymatous cerebral hemorrhage. Author: Würker M, Szelies B, Heindel W, Böhm M, Fischbach R, Heiss WD. Journal: Med Klin (Munich); 1998 May 15; 93(5):307-10. PubMed ID: 9630815. [Link]; page 475

  7. 80 Vasculitic and encephalitic complications associated with Coccidioides immitis infection of the central nervous system in humans: report of 10 cases and review. Author: Williams PL, Johnson R, Pappagianis D, Einstein H, Slager U, Koster FT, Eron JJ, Morrison J, Aguet J, River ME. Journal: Clin Infect Dis; 1992 Mar; 14(3):673-82. PubMed ID: 1562659. [Link]; page 475

  8. 81 Cortical laminar necrosis related to prolonged focal status epilepticus. Author: Donaire A, Carreno M, Gómez B, Fossas P, Bargalló N, Agudo R, Falip M, Setoaín X, Boget T, Raspall T, Obach V, Rumiá J. Journal: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2006 Jan; 77(1):104-6. PubMed ID: 16361606. [Link]; page 475

  9. 82 Fatal granulomatous Acanthamoeba encephalitis mimicking a stroke. McKellar et al 2006. J clin microbiol 44: 4265-9. PMID: 16988022; no link available; page 475

(footnote) Thrombolysis with alteplase 3 to 4.5 hours after acute ischemic stroke. Hacke et al. NEJM 2008; 359:1317-29. PMID: 18815396; no link available; page 475

(footnote) Thrombolysis with alteplase 3-4.5 h after acute ischaemic stroke (SITS-ISTR): an observational study. Wahlgren N, et al. Lancet 2008; 372:1303-9. PMID: 18790527; no link available; page 475

(footnote) Is intravenous recombinant plasminogen activator effective up to 4.5 h after onset of ischemic stroke? Rothwell, P. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 2009; 6:164-5. PMID: 19153559; no link availble; page 475

Stroke: investigation and prevention

  1. 83 British Heart protection study, Lancet 2003 361 2005; no link available; page 476

  2. 84 The effect of folic acid supplementation on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with cardiovascular risk: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Ntaios et al. Int J Cardiol 2009; PMID: 19201496; no link available; page 476

  3. 85 Antiplatelet therapy for acute ischaemic stroke. Sandercock et al. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 3. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000029.pub2; no link available; page 476

  4. 86 Aspirin plus dipyridamole versus aspirin alone after cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin (ESPRIT): randomised controlled trial. Halkes et al. Lancet 2006; 367:1665-73. PMID: 16714187; no link available; page 476

  5. 87 Clopidogrel and aspirin versus aspirin alone for the prevention of atherothrombotic events. Bhatt et al. NEJM 2006; 354:1706-17. PMID: 16531616; no link available; page 476

  6. 88 Aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole versus clopidogrel for recurrent stroke. Sacco et al. NEJM 2008; 359:1238-51. PMID: 18753638; no link available; page 476

  7. 89 Carotid endarterectomy: recommendations for management of transient ischaemic attack and ischaemic stroke. Brown & Humphrey (for Assoc British Neurologists) 1992 BMJ 305:1071-4. PMID: 1883621 [Link]; page 476

  8. 90 Clinical results of carotid artery stenting compared with carotid endarterectomy. Brahmanandam et al. J Vasc Surg. 2008; 47:343-9. PMID: 18241758; no link available; page 476

(footnote) Folate, vitamin B12, and risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke: a prospective, nested case-referent study of plasma concentrations and dietary intake. Author: Van Guelpen B, Hultdin J, Johansson I, Stegmayr B, Hallmans G, Nilsson TK, Weinehall L, Witthöft C, Palmqvist R, Winkvist A. Journal: Stroke; 2005 Jul; 36(7):1426-31. PubMed ID: 15933256. [Link]; page 476

  1. 91 Prevention of thromboembolic events in atrial fibrillation. Author: Koefoed BG, Gulløv AL, Petersen P. Journal: Thromb Haemost; 1997 Jul; 78(1):377-81. PubMed ID: 9198182 [Link]; page 477

  2. 92 Image of Sacral pressure sore, courtesy of OUP image bank; no link available; page 477

Rehabilitation after stroke: the stroke unit

  1. 93 John Young 2007 Rehabillitation after stroke. BMJ 334 86. [Link]; page 478

  2. 94 Botulinum neurotoxin versus tizanidine in upper limb spasticity: a placebo-controlled study. Simpson DM, et al. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2009; 80:380-5. PMID: 18977811; no link available; page 478

  3. 95 J Rehabil Med. 2003 Jul;35(4):180 Sitting up and transferring to a chair: two functional tests for patients with stroke--Sunnerhagen K [Link]; page 478

  4. 96 Stroke. 2005 Jun;36(6):1330-40. Frequency of depression after stroke: a systematic review of observational studies. Hackett ML [Link]; page 478

  5. 97 Technol Health Care 1999;7(6):419 Overview of clinical trials with MIT-MANUS: a robot-aided neuro-rehabilitation facility. Krebs H [Link]; page 478

  6. 98 Nervenarzt 2003 Apr;74(4):334 New developments in stroke rehabilitation based on behavioral and neuroscientific principles: constraint-induced therapy Elbert T [Link]; page 478

  7. 99 Withdrawing or withholding life prolonging treatment. S Luttrell BMJ 1999. 318:1709-10.PMID: 10381683[Link]; page 478

(footnote) Psychological Bulletin 2006 132 180-211 &: Minerva 2006 BMJ 332 1102 [Link]; page 479

Transient ischaemic attack (TIA)

  1. 100 Randomised trial of endarterectomy for recently symptomatic carotid stenosis: final results of the MRC European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST) 1998 Lancet 351:1379-87 PMID: 9593407 [Link]; page 480

  2. 101 Haematologia (Budap). 2001;31(2):153 Multiple myeloma in sickle cell syndromes--Kaloterakis A [Link]; page 480

  3. 102 Effect of urgent treatment of transient ischaemic attack and minor stroke on early recurrent stroke (EXPRESS study): a prospective population-based sequential comparison. Rothwell PM, et al. Lancet 2007;370:1432-42. PMID: 17928046; no link available; page 480

  4. 103 Randomised trial of endarterectomy for recently symptomatic carotid stenosis: final results of the MRC European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST) 1998 Lancet 351:1379-87 PMID: 9593407 [Link]; page 480

  5. 104 Clinical and angiographic predictors of stroke and death from carotid endarterectomy: systematic review. Rothwell, Slattery & Warlow. BMJ 1997, 315:1571-7. PMID: 9437274 [Link]; page 480

  6. 105 Endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis in relation to clinical subgroups and timing of surgery. Rothwell PM, et al. Lancet 2004;363:915-24. PMID: 15043958; no link available; page 480

  7. 106 Carotid endarterectomy-an evidence-based review: report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Chaturvedi S, et al. Neurology 2005; 65:794-801. PMID: 16186516; no link available; page 480

  8. 107 Clinical results of carotid artery stenting compared with carotid endarterectomy. Brahmanandam et al. J Vasc Surg. 2008; 47:343-9. PMID: 18241758; no link available; page 480

  9. 108 Long-term survival and vascular event risk after transient ischaemic attack or minor ischaemic stroke: a cohort study. Author: van Wijk I, Kappelle LJ, van Gijn J, Koudstaal PJ, Franke CL, Vermeulen M, Gorter JW, Algra A, LiLAC study group . Journal: Lancet; 2005 Jul 7; 365(9477):2098-104. PubMed ID: 15964446 [Link]; page 480

  10. 109 Validation and refinement of scores to predict very early stroke risk after transient ischaemic attack. Johnson et al. Lancet 2007; 369:283-92. PMID: 17258668; no link available; page 481

  11. 110 Timing of TIAs preceding stroke: time window for prevention is very short. Author: Rothwell PM, Warlow CP. Journal: Neurology; 2005 Mar 8; 64(5):817-20. PubMed ID: 15753415 [Link]; page 481

  12. 111 Management and outcomes of transient ischemic attacks in Ontario. Author: Gladstone DJ, Kapral MK, Fang J, Laupacis A, Tu JV. Journal: CMAJ; 2004 Mar 30; 170(7):1099-104. PubMed ID: 15051693 [Link]; page 481

Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH)

  1. 112 Image of left lateral hemisphere with SAH, courtesy of Danil Hammoudi [Link]; page 482

  2. 113 Incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a systematic review with emphasis on region, age, gender and time trends. de Rooij et al. JNNP 2007;78:1365-1372 doi:10.1136/jnnp.2007.117655; no link available; page 482

  3. 114 Risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage in first degree relatives of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Gaist et al. BMJ 2000;320:141-145 [Link]; page 482

  4. 115 Warning leak in subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Ostergaard. BMJ 1990, 301:190-1. PMID: 2203484; no link available; page 482

  5. 116 Prospective study of sentinel headache in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Linn et al 1994, Lancet 344:590-3. PMID: 7914965; no link available; page 482

  6. 117 F Linn 1994 Lancet 344 590; no link available; page 482

  7. 118 Warning leak in subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Ostergaard. BMJ 1990, 301:190-1. PMID: 2203484; no link available; page 482

  8. 119 Subarachnoid hemorrhage diagnosis by computed tomography and lumbar puncture: Are fifth generation CT scanners better at identifying subarachnoid hemorrhage? Author: Boesiger BM, Shiber JR. Journal: J Emerg Med; 2005 Jul; 29(1):23-7. PubMed ID: 15961003. [Link]; page 482

  9. 120 The Lancet 2005; 366:809-817; DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67214-5. International subarachnoid aneurysm trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomised comparison of effects on survival, dependency, seizures, rebleeding, subgroups, and aneurysm occlusion [Link]; page 482

  10. 121 Endovascular management of intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Author: Marden FA, Roy SS. Journal: Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med; 2005 Jul; 7(3):197-209. PubMed ID: 16004851 [Link]; page 482

(footnote) Comparison of blood pressure-associated risk of intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage: Korea Medical Insurance Corporation study. Author: Kim HC, Nam CM, Jee SH, Suh I. Journal: Hypertension; 2005 Aug; 46(2):393-7. PubMed ID: 15998702 [Link]; page 482

  1. 122 Should intracranial aneurysms be treated before they rupture? L Caplan 1998 NEJM 339:1774-5. PMID: 9845714; no link available; page 483

  2. 123 Should intracranial aneurysms be treated before they rupture? L Caplan 1998 NEJM 339:1774-5. PMID: 9845714; no link available; page 483

  3. 124 ISUIA 2003 Lancet 362 103 and an editorial by White PM Lancet 2003 362 90 [Link]; page 483

  4. 125 Follow-up screening after subarachnoid haemorrhage: frequency and determinants of new aneurysms and enlargement of existing aneurysms. Journal: Brain; 2005 Jul 6; ():. PubMed ID: 16000333. [Link]; page 483

Intracranial venous thrombosis (IVT)

  1. 126 Diabetic ketoacidosis presenting as a cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Author: De Keyzer K, Paemeleire K, De Clerck M, Peeters D, De Reuck JL. Journal: Acta Neurol Belg; 2004 Sep; 104(3):117-20. PubMed ID: 15508266. [Link]; page 484

  2. 127 Cerebral venous thrombosis associated with tentorial subdural hematoma during oxymetholone therapy. Author: Chu K, Kang DW, Kim DE, Roh JK. Journal: J Neurol Sci; 2001 Mar 15; 185(1):27-30. PubMed ID: 11266687 [Link]; page 484

  3. 128 Infliximab-induced cerebral thrombophlebitis. Author: Grange L, Nissen MJ, Garambois K, Dumolard A, Duc C, Gaudin P, Juvin R. Journal: Rheumatology (Oxford); 2005 Feb; 44(2):260-1. PubMed ID: 15637045[Link]; page 484

  4. 129 [Septic thrombosis of the cavernous sinus due to folliculitis] Author: Tuettenberg A, Tuettenberg J, Knop J, Enk A. Journal: Hautarzt; 2003 Apr; 54(4):351-3. PubMed ID: 12669208 [Link]; page 484

  5. 130 Thunderclap headache as first symptom of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. de Bruijn et al. Lancet 1996; 348:1623-5 [Link]; page 484

  6. 131 Rinsho Shinkeigaku 1996 Nov;36(11):1234-9 [A case with an isolated cortical vein thrombosis] Adachi T[Link]; page 484

  7. 132 [Galen vein thrombosis: case report] Author: Marques MC, Pires LA, Damasceno CA, Felício AC, Atala A, Franco GM. Journal: Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2003 Jun; 61(2A):285-7. PubMed ID: 12806514. [Link]; page 484

  8. 133 Importance of T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI for diagnosis of cortical vein thrombosis. Journal: Eur J Radiol; 2005 Jun 17. PubMed ID: 15967621. [Link]; page 484

  9. 134 Presse Med 1999 Sep 25;28(28):1547-52 [Cerebral venous thromboses] Masson C [Link]; page 484

  10. 135 [Serious cerebral venous thrombosis: can we use fibrinolytic?] Author: Lemarchand E, Letouze S, du Manoir B, Courthéoux P, Bricard H, Gérard JL. Journal: Ann Fr Anesth Reanim; 2003 Feb; 22(2):133-6. PubMed ID: 12706767. [Link]; page 484

  11. 136 Streptokinase in the treatment of venous sinus thrombosis: a case report. Author: Yang YH, Shih MC, Chou MS, Liu CK. Journal: Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2003 Aug; 19(8):421-7. PubMed ID: 12962430. [Link]; page 484

  12. 137 Causes and Predictors of Death in Cerebral Venous Thrombosis. Canhão P, et al. Stroke 2005; 36:1720-5. PMID: 16002765. [Link]; page 484

Subdural haemorrhage

  1. 138 Very late onset of chronic subdural hematoma. Case report. Author: Sato M, Nakano M, Sasanuma J, Asari J, Watanabe K. Journal: Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2005 Jan; 45(1):41-3. PubMed ID: 15699620 [Link]; page 486

  2. 139 Chronic subdural hematoma following dural metastasis of gastric cancer: measurement of pre- and postoperative cerebral blood flow with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine--case report. Author: Fukino K, Terao T, Kojima T, Adachi K, Teramoto A. Journal: Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2004 Dec; 44(12):646-9. PubMed ID: 15684596 [Link]; page 486

  3. 140 J Neurosurg. 2005 Feb;102(2):389. Subdural cysticercosis mimicking a chronic subdural hematoma. Case illustration. Im SH [Link]; page 486

  4. 141 Outcome of contemporary surgery for chronic subdural haematoma: evidence based review. Author: Weigel R, Schmiedek P, Krauss JK. Journal: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2003 Jul; 74(7):937-43. PubMed ID: 12810784. [Link]; page 486

  5. 142 Craniotomy for organized subdural hematoma. Author: Ohkawa T, Ogura M, Tanaka S, Terada T, Itakura T. Journal: No Shinkei Geka; 2005 Apr; 33(4):357-62. PubMed ID: 15830542 [Link]; page 486

  6. 143 Prolonged postictal psychosis with forced normalization (Landolt) in temporal lobe epilepsy. Author: Akanuma N, Kanemoto K, Adachi N, Kawasaki J, Ito M, Onuma T. Journal: Epilepsy Behav; 2005 May; 6(3):456-9. PubMed ID: 15820361. [Link]; page 486

  7. 144 Complex traumatic dissection of right vertebral and bilateral carotid arteries: a case report and literature review. Author: Busch T, Aleksic I, Sirbu H, Kersten J, Dalichau H. Journal: Cardiovasc Surg; 2000 Jan; 8(1):72-4. PubMed ID: 10661707. [Link]; page 486

  8. 145 Effect of therapy with oxygen under high pressure on regional cerebral blood flow in the interval form of carbon monoxide poisoning: observation from subtraction of technetium-99m HMPAO SPECT brain imaging. Author: Maeda Y, Kawasaki Y, Jibiki I, Yamaguchi N, Matsuda H, Hisada K. Journal: Eur Neurol; 1991; 31(6):380-3. PubMed ID: 1756761. [Link]; page 486

(footnote) Spontaneous intracranial hypotension presenting as mental deterioration. Author: Tsai PH, Wang SJ, Lirng JF, Fuh JL. Journal: Headache; 2005 Jan; 45(1):76-80. PubMed ID: 15663618. [Link]; page 486

(footnote) Intracranial hypotension syndrome: a comprehensive review. MICHAEL PALDINO, M.D. [Link]; page 486

Delirium (acute confusional state)

  1. 146 Joseph Conrad; _Heart of Darkness_ [Link]; page 488

  2. 147 Epilepsy and catalepsy in Anglo-American literature between romanticism and realism: Tennyson, Poe, Eliot and Collins. Wolf P. [Link]; page 489

  3. 148 NCSE post subarachnoid haemorrhage is refractory to therapy, and the prognosis is poor. Routine postoperative EEG monitoring of patients with SAH who are at high risk for NCSE, allowing earlier diagnosis and treatment, offers the best chance of improving outcomes [Link]; page 489

  4. 149 Acta Neurol Scand 2000 Nov;102(5):337-9 Non-convulsive status epilepticus with marked neuropsychiatric manifestations and MRI changes after treatment of hypercalcaemia. [Link]; page 489

  5. 150 Ganser syndrome after solitary confinement in prison: a short review and a case report. Author: Andersen HS, Sestoft D, Lillebaek T. Journal: Nord J Psychiatry; 2001; 55(3):199-201. PubMed ID: 11827615 [Link]; page 489

  6. 151 Ganser syndrome The Lancet 2004; 364:471-473 [Link]; page 489

Dementia

  1. 152 The clinical utility of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test as a screening test for mild dementia. Frank, RM and Byrne, GJ. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2000;15:317-24. PubMed ID: 10767731; no link available; page 490

  2. 153 CLOX: an executive clock drawing task. Royall et al. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998;64:588-594[Link]; page 490

  3. 154 chweiz Rundsch Med Prax 1999 Nov 4;88(45):1867 Vitamin B12 deficiency in geriatrics Bopp-Kistler I[Link]; page 490

  4. 155 Radiology. 2003 Aug;228(2):515 Cost-Effectiveness of PET in the Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease--McMahon PM [Link]; page 490

(footnote) Pathophysiology and treatment of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease: a review. Zahodne LB, and Fernandez HH. Drugs Aging 2008;25:665-82. PubMed ID: 18665659; no link available; page 490

(footnote) Art and the brain: The influence of frontotemporal dementia on an accomplished artist. Mell et al. Neurology 2003; 60:1707-1710 [Link]; page 490

  1. 156 Music therapy in moderate and severe dementia of Alzheimer’s type: a case-control study. Journal: Int Psychogeriatr; 2006 Apr 18; ():1-9. PubMed ID: 16618375. [Link]; page 491

  2. 157 Ballard C Aromatherapy for Agitated patients [Link]; page 491

  3. 158 A randomized controlled trial of the effects of multi-sensory stimulation (MSS) for people with dementia. Baker R, et al. Br J Clin Psychol 2001; 40:81-96. PubMed ID: 11317951; no link available; page 491

  4. 159 SIGN guideline 86 [Link]; page 491

  5. 160 Clive Ballard [Link]; page 491

Intracranial venous thrombosis (IVT)

  1. 126 Diabetic ketoacidosis presenting as a cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Author: De Keyzer K, Paemeleire K, De Clerck M, Peeters D, De Reuck JL. Journal: Acta Neurol Belg; 2004 Sep; 104(3):117-20. PubMed ID: 15508266. [Link]; page 484

  2. 127 Cerebral venous thrombosis associated with tentorial subdural hematoma during oxymetholone therapy. Author: Chu K, Kang DW, Kim DE, Roh JK. Journal: J Neurol Sci; 2001 Mar 15; 185(1):27-30. PubMed ID: 11266687 [Link]; page 484

  3. 128 Infliximab-induced cerebral thrombophlebitis. Author: Grange L, Nissen MJ, Garambois K, Dumolard A, Duc C, Gaudin P, Juvin R. Journal: Rheumatology (Oxford); 2005 Feb; 44(2):260-1. PubMed ID: 15637045[Link]; page 484

  4. 129 [Septic thrombosis of the cavernous sinus due to folliculitis] Author: Tuettenberg A, Tuettenberg J, Knop J, Enk A. Journal: Hautarzt; 2003 Apr; 54(4):351-3. PubMed ID: 12669208 [Link]; page 484

  5. 130 Thunderclap headache as first symptom of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. de Bruijn et al. Lancet 1996; 348:1623-5 [Link]; page 484

  6. 131 Rinsho Shinkeigaku 1996 Nov;36(11):1234-9 [A case with an isolated cortical vein thrombosis] Adachi T[Link]; page 484

  7. 132 [Galen vein thrombosis: case report] Author: Marques MC, Pires LA, Damasceno CA, Felício AC, Atala A, Franco GM. Journal: Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2003 Jun; 61(2A):285-7. PubMed ID: 12806514. [Link]; page 484

  8. 133 Importance of T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI for diagnosis of cortical vein thrombosis. Journal: Eur J Radiol; 2005 Jun 17. PubMed ID: 15967621. [Link]; page 484

  9. 134 Presse Med 1999 Sep 25;28(28):1547-52 [Cerebral venous thromboses] Masson C [Link]; page 484

  10. 135 [Serious cerebral venous thrombosis: can we use fibrinolytic?] Author: Lemarchand E, Letouze S, du Manoir B, Courthéoux P, Bricard H, Gérard JL. Journal: Ann Fr Anesth Reanim; 2003 Feb; 22(2):133-6. PubMed ID: 12706767. [Link]; page 484

  11. 136 Streptokinase in the treatment of venous sinus thrombosis: a case report. Author: Yang YH, Shih MC, Chou MS, Liu CK. Journal: Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2003 Aug; 19(8):421-7. PubMed ID: 12962430. [Link]; page 484

  12. 137 Causes and Predictors of Death in Cerebral Venous Thrombosis. Canhão P, et al. Stroke 2005; 36:1720-5. PMID: 16002765. [Link]; page 484

Subdural haemorrhage

  1. 138 Very late onset of chronic subdural hematoma. Case report. Author: Sato M, Nakano M, Sasanuma J, Asari J, Watanabe K. Journal: Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2005 Jan; 45(1):41-3. PubMed ID: 15699620 [Link]; page 486

  2. 139 Chronic subdural hematoma following dural metastasis of gastric cancer: measurement of pre- and postoperative cerebral blood flow with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine--case report. Author: Fukino K, Terao T, Kojima T, Adachi K, Teramoto A. Journal: Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2004 Dec; 44(12):646-9. PubMed ID: 15684596 [Link]; page 486

  3. 140 J Neurosurg. 2005 Feb;102(2):389. Subdural cysticercosis mimicking a chronic subdural hematoma. Case illustration. Im SH [Link]; page 486

  4. 141 Outcome of contemporary surgery for chronic subdural haematoma: evidence based review. Author: Weigel R, Schmiedek P, Krauss JK. Journal: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2003 Jul; 74(7):937-43. PubMed ID: 12810784. [Link]; page 486

  5. 142 Craniotomy for organized subdural hematoma. Author: Ohkawa T, Ogura M, Tanaka S, Terada T, Itakura T. Journal: No Shinkei Geka; 2005 Apr; 33(4):357-62. PubMed ID: 15830542 [Link]; page 486

  6. 143 Prolonged postictal psychosis with forced normalization (Landolt) in temporal lobe epilepsy. Author: Akanuma N, Kanemoto K, Adachi N, Kawasaki J, Ito M, Onuma T. Journal: Epilepsy Behav; 2005 May; 6(3):456-9. PubMed ID: 15820361. [Link]; page 486

  7. 144 Complex traumatic dissection of right vertebral and bilateral carotid arteries: a case report and literature review. Author: Busch T, Aleksic I, Sirbu H, Kersten J, Dalichau H. Journal: Cardiovasc Surg; 2000 Jan; 8(1):72-4. PubMed ID: 10661707. [Link]; page 486

  8. 145 Effect of therapy with oxygen under high pressure on regional cerebral blood flow in the interval form of carbon monoxide poisoning: observation from subtraction of technetium-99m HMPAO SPECT brain imaging. Author: Maeda Y, Kawasaki Y, Jibiki I, Yamaguchi N, Matsuda H, Hisada K. Journal: Eur Neurol; 1991; 31(6):380-3. PubMed ID: 1756761. [Link]; page 486

(footnote) Spontaneous intracranial hypotension presenting as mental deterioration. Author: Tsai PH, Wang SJ, Lirng JF, Fuh JL. Journal: Headache; 2005 Jan; 45(1):76-80. PubMed ID: 15663618. [Link]; page 486

(footnote) Intracranial hypotension syndrome: a comprehensive review. MICHAEL PALDINO, M.D. [Link]; page 486

Delirium (acute confusional state)

  1. 146 Joseph Conrad; _Heart of Darkness_ [Link]; page 488

  2. 147 Epilepsy and catalepsy in Anglo-American literature between romanticism and realism: Tennyson, Poe, Eliot and Collins. Wolf P. [Link]; page 489

  3. 148 NCSE post subarachnoid haemorrhage is refractory to therapy, and the prognosis is poor. Routine postoperative EEG monitoring of patients with SAH who are at high risk for NCSE, allowing earlier diagnosis and treatment, offers the best chance of improving outcomes [Link]; page 489

  4. 149 Acta Neurol Scand 2000 Nov;102(5):337-9 Non-convulsive status epilepticus with marked neuropsychiatric manifestations and MRI changes after treatment of hypercalcaemia. [Link]; page 489

  5. 150 Ganser syndrome after solitary confinement in prison: a short review and a case report. Author: Andersen HS, Sestoft D, Lillebaek T. Journal: Nord J Psychiatry; 2001; 55(3):199-201. PubMed ID: 11827615 [Link]; page 489

  6. 151 Ganser syndrome The Lancet 2004; 364:471-473 [Link]; page 489

Dementia

  1. 152 The clinical utility of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test as a screening test for mild dementia. Frank, RM and Byrne, GJ. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2000;15:317-24. PubMed ID: 10767731; no link available; page 490

  2. 153 CLOX: an executive clock drawing task. Royall et al. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998;64:588-594[Link]; page 490

  3. 154 chweiz Rundsch Med Prax 1999 Nov 4;88(45):1867 Vitamin B12 deficiency in geriatrics Bopp-Kistler I[Link]; page 490

  4. 155 Radiology. 2003 Aug;228(2):515 Cost-Effectiveness of PET in the Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease--McMahon PM [Link]; page 490

(footnote) Pathophysiology and treatment of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease: a review. Zahodne LB, and Fernandez HH. Drugs Aging 2008;25:665-82. PubMed ID: 18665659; no link available; page 490

(footnote) Art and the brain: The influence of frontotemporal dementia on an accomplished artist. Mell et al. Neurology 2003; 60:1707-1710 [Link]; page 490

  1. 156 Music therapy in moderate and severe dementia of Alzheimer’s type: a case-control study. Journal: Int Psychogeriatr; 2006 Apr 18; ():1-9. PubMed ID: 16618375. [Link]; page 491

  2. 157 Ballard C Aromatherapy for Agitated patients [Link]; page 491

  3. 158 A randomized controlled trial of the effects of multi-sensory stimulation (MSS) for people with dementia. Baker R, et al. Br J Clin Psychol 2001; 40:81-96. PubMed ID: 11317951; no link available; page 491

  4. 159 SIGN guideline 86 [Link]; page 491

  5. 160 Clive Ballard [Link]; page 491

Alzheimer’s disease (AD)

  1. 161 J Bayley 1999, Iris, isbn 0 7156 2848-8, Duckworth; no link available; page 492

  2. 162 A diagnostic formulation for Anosognosia in Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2006. PubMed ID: 16549411; no link available; page 492

  3. 163 Different MRI findings for normal elderly and very mild Alzheimer’s disease in a community: Implications for clinical practice The Tajiri Project. Author: Ishii H, Meguro K, Yamaguchi S, Hirayama K, Tabuchi M, Mori E, Yamadori A. Journal: Arch Gerontol Geriatr; 2006 Jan-Feb; 42(1):59-71. PubMed ID: 16085324; no link available; page 492

  4. 164 Genome-wide association study identifies variants at CLU and CR1 associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Harold et al. Nature Genetics, 2009; 41:1088-93. PMID 19734902; no link available; page 492

  5. 165 Genome-wide association study identifies variants at CLU and PICALM associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Lambert et al. Nature Genetics, 2009; 41:1094-99. PMID 19734902; no link available; page 492

  6. 166 Cigarettes and Alcohol Lead to Earlier Development of Alzheimer’s Disease. 2008. Ranjan Duara [Link]; page 492

  7. 167 Systematic review: blood pressure lowering in patients without prior cerebrovascular disease for prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia. McGuiness et al. JNNP 2008;79:4-5. [Link]; page 492

  8. 168 Treatments for Alzheimer disease. Author: Potyk D. Journal: South Med J; 2005 Jun; 98(6):628-35. PubMed ID: 16004170. [Link]; page 492

  9. 169 Ginkgo biloba and donepezil: a comparison in the treatment of Alzheimer’s dementia in a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study. Author: Mazza M, Capuano A, Bria P, Mazza S. Journal: Eur J Neurol; 2006 Sep; 13(9):981-5. PubMed ID: 16930364. [Link]; page 492

  10. 170 Huperzine A for Alzheimer’s disease. Li et al. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD005592. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005592.pub2; no link available; page 492

  11. 171 Pharmacological strategies for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. Author: Doraiswamy PM, Xiong GL. Journal: Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2006 Jan; 7(1):1-10. PubMed ID: 16370917. [Link]; page 492

  12. 172 Brain imaging evidence of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease in normal aging. Jagust et al. Ann Neurol 2006;59:673-81. [Link]; page 492

  13. 173 Aging with Grace: ‘The Nun Study’ By David Snowdon [Link]; page 492

(footnote) Curcuminoids enhance amyloid-beta uptake by macrophages of Alzheimer’s disease patients. Fiala M. J Alzheimers Dis; 2006 Sep; 10(1):1-7. PubMed ID: 16988474 [Link]; page 492

(footnote) Dementia in india--a critical appraisal. Biswas A. Indian Med Assoc; 2005 Mar; 103(3):154, 156, 158 passim. PubMed ID: 16173292. [Link]; page 492

(footnote) Prevalence of dementia in an urban Indian population. Vas CJ. Int Psychogeriatr; 2001 Dec; 13(4):439-50. PubMed ID: 12003250; no link available; page 492

(footnote) Incidence of Alzheimer’s disease in a rural community in India: the Indo-US study. Chandra V, Pandav R, Dodge HH, Johnston JM, Belle SH, DeKosky ST, Ganguli M.Journal: Neurology; 2001 Sep 25; 57(6):985-9. PubMed ID: 11571321; no link available; page 492

(footnote) Heart Failure and Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer Disease. A Population-Based Cohort Study. Chengxuan Qiu [Link]; page 492

(footnote) BMJ 28 April 2006. Cerebral emboli as a potential cause of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia: case-control study. Nitin Purandare [Link]; page 492

  1. 174 Cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer’s disease. Birks J. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews2006, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD005593. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005593; no link available; page 493

  2. 175 Cholinesterase inhibitors for Parkinson’s disease dementia. Maidment I, et al. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD004747. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004747.pub2; no link available; page 493

  3. 176 Cholinesterase inhibitors for dementia with Lewy bodies. Wild R, et al. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD003672. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003672; no link available; page 493

  4. 177 Beneficial effect of cholinesterase inhibitor medications on recognition memory performance in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: preliminary findings. Author: Crowell TA, Paramadevan J, Abdullah L, Mullan M. Journal: J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol; 2006 Mar; 19(1):13-5. PubMed ID: 16449754. [Link]; page 493

  5. 178 M Gillick 2000 nejm 342 206 [Link]; page 493

  6. 179 This quotation [‘Brighter, more motivated’ is from one of JML’s patients taking donepezil]; no link available; page 493

(footnote) Orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex neurofibrillary tangle burden is associated with agitation in Alzheimer disease. Tekin S, Mega MS, Masterman DM, Chow T, Garakian J, Vinters HV, Cummings JL. Ann Neurol; 2001 Mar; 49(3):355-61. PubMed ID: 11261510. [Link]; page 493

(footnote) Understanding and managing behavioural symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias: focus on rivastigmine. Robert P. Curr Med Res Opin; 2002; 18(3):156-71. PubMed ID: 12094826 [Link]; page 493

Epilepsy: diagnosis

  1. 180 B Pohlmann 2006 BMJ 332 Feb 11 339 [Link]; page 494

181No link available; page 494

  1. 182 The 1981 Classification of the International League Against Epilepsy; no link available; page 495

  2. 183 Semiological seizure classification. Luders H, et al. Epilepsia 1998; 39:1006-13. PMID: 9738682 [Link]; page 495

  3. 184 Epilepsy and violence. Author: Hindler CG. Journal: Br J Psychiatry; 1989 Aug; 155():246-9. PubMed ID: 2597922. [Link]; page 495

  4. 185 Complex partial status epilepticus presenting as fever of unknown origin. Author: Semel JD. Journal: Arch Intern Med; 1987 Sep; 147(9):1571-2. PubMed ID: 3632165. [Link]; page 495

  5. 186 The spectrum of abdominal epilepsy in adults. Author: Peppercorn MA, Herzog AG. Journal: Am J Gastroenterol; 1989 Oct; 84(10):1294-6. PubMed ID: 2801681. [Link]; page 495

  6. 187 Title: [Astral and out-of-body voyages. Heautoscopy, ecstasis and experimental hallucinations of epileptic origin] Author: Vuilleumier P, Despland PA, Assal G, Regli F. Journal: Rev Neurol (Paris); 1997 Mar; 153(2):115-9. PubMed ID: 9296122. [Link]; page 495

  7. 188 Religiosity is associated with hippocampal but not amygdala volumes in patients with refractory epilepsy. Author: Wuerfel J, Krishnamoorthy ES, Brown RJ, Lemieux L, Koepp M, Tebartz van Elst L, Trimble MR. Journal: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2004 Apr; 75(4):640-2. PubMed ID: 15026516. [Link]; page 495

  8. 189 Dreamy states and psychoses in temporal lobe epilepsy: mediating role of affect. Author: Sengoku A, Toichi M, Murai T. Journal: Psychiatry Clin Neurosci; 1997 Feb; 51(1):23-6. PubMed ID: 9076856 [Link]; page 495

  9. 190 [Palinacousis with hemianacusia caused by left temporal lesion] Author: Auzou P, Hannequin D, Cochin JP, Girard C, Augustin P. Journal: Rev Neurol (Paris); 1995 Feb; 151(2):129-31. PubMed ID: 7676140 [Link]; page 495

  10. 191 Ictal SPECT in a case of pure musicogenic epilepsy. Author: Gelisse P, Thomas P, Padovani R, Hassan-Sebbag N, Pasquier J, Genton P. Journal: Epileptic Disord; 2003 Sep; 5(3):133-7. PubMed ID: 14684347[Link]; page 495

  11. 192 Tooth-brushing epilepsy with ictal orgasms. Author: Chuang YC, Lin TK, Lui CC, Chen SD, Chang CS. Journal: Seizure; 2004 Apr; 13(3):179-82. PubMed ID: 15010056 [Link]; page 495

  12. 193 Rev Electroencephalogr Neurophysiol Clin. 1981 Dec;11(3-4):509 Epilepsy beginning between 18 and 39 years of age--Courjon J [Link]; page 495

(footnote) The neural substrates of religious experience. Author: Saver JL, Rabin J. Journal: J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci; 1997 Summer; 9(3):498-510. PubMed ID: 9276850 [Link]; page 495

Epilepsy: management

  1. 194 The SANAD study of effectiveness of carbamazepine, gabapentin,lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, or topiramate for treatment of partial epilepsy: an unblinded randomised controlled trial. Marson et al. Lancet 2007; 369:1000–1015. PMID: 17382827 [Link]; page 496

  2. 195 Rev Neurol. 2001 Feb 1-15;32(3):247--Use of lamotrigine in the treatment of absence epilepsy crises--Mauri-Llerda JA [Link]; page 496

  3. 196 Clinical effectiveness, tolerability and cost-effectiveness of newer drugs for epilepsy in adults: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Author: Wilby J, Kainth A, Hawkins N, Epstein D, McIntosh H, McDaid C, Mason A, Golder S, O’Meara S, Sculpher M, Drummond M, Forbes C. Journal: Health Technol Assess; 2005 Apr; 9(15):1-157, iii-iv. PubMed ID: 15842952. [Link]; page 496

  4. 197 NICE 2004 advice [Link]; page 496

  5. 198 M Gillick 2000 nejm 342 206 [Link]; page 496

  6. 199 Intractable epilepsy: management and therapeutic alternatives. Schuele & Lüders. Lancet Neurol 2008; 7:514-24. PMID: 18485315; no link available; page 496

  7. 200 Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: current knowledge and future directions. Tomson T, et al. Lancet Neurol 2008; 7:1021-31. PMID: 18805738; no link available; page 496

  8. 201 M Gillick 2000 nejm 342 206 [Link]; page 497

  9. 202 Uncontrolled epilepsy following discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs in seizure-free patients: a review of current clinical experience. Author: Schmidt D, Löscher W. Journal: Acta Neurol Scand; 2005 May; 111(5):291-300. PubMed ID: 15819708 [Link]; page 497

  10. 203 Drug Ther Bul 2003 41 ( June) 41; no link available; page 497

Parkinsonism

  1. 204 Genetic factors involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Lee, FJ & Liu, F. Brain Res Rev 2008; 58:354-64. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2008.02.001; no link available; page 498

  2. 205 J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003 Feb;74(2):158-62. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003 Feb;74(2):148-9. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation for people with Parkinson’s disease: a randomised controlled study. Wade D [Link]; page 498

  3. 206 Qigong exercise for the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease: A randomized, controlled pilot study. Journal: Mov Disord; 2005 Oct 14; ():. PubMed ID: 16229022. [Link]; page 498

  4. 207 Advice from Medicine and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) 2007 (August)--and the UK GP Research Database; no link available; page 499

  5. 208 Prescrire Int 2002 Aug;11(60):108-11 Selegiline: a second look. Six years later: too risky in Parkinson’s disease [Link]; page 499

  6. 209 M Gillick 2000 nejm 342 206 [Link]; page 499

  7. 210 Adenosine A2A receptor antagonist istradefylline (KW-6002) reduces; no link avaailable; page 499

  8. 211 Nature 445, 643-647 (8 February 2007) Endocannabinoid-mediated rescue of striatal LTD and motor deficits in Parkinson’s disease models. Anatol C. Kreitzer and Robert C. Malenka [Link]; page 499

  9. 212 Encapsulated cell biodelivery of GDNF: a novel clinical strategy for neuroprotection and neuroregeneration in Parkinson’s disease? Lindvall O, and Wahlberg LU. Exp Neurol 2008;209:82-8. PubMed ID: 17963752; no link available; page 499

  10. 213 Emerging restorative treatments for Parkinson’s disease. Deierborg et al. Prog Neurobiol 2008; 85:407-32. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2008.05.001; no link available; page 499

Multiple sclerosis (MS)

  1. 214 J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1998 Jun;64(6):730High incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in south east Scotland: evidence of a genetic predisposition--Rothwell PM [Link]; page 500

  2. 215 Sex ratio of multiple sclerosis in Canada: a longitudinal study. Author: Orton SM, Herrera BM, Yee IM, Valdar W, Ramagopalan SV, Sadovnick AD, Ebers GC, Canadian Collaborative Study Group . Journal: Lancet Neurol; 2006 Nov; 5(11):932-6. PubMed ID: 17052660. [Link]; page 500

  3. 216 Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis: an update. Author: Cantorna MT. Journal: Nutr Rev; 2008 Oct; 66(10 Suppl 2):S135-8. PubMed ID: 18844840. [Link]; page 500

  4. 217 Expression of the multiple sclerosis-associated MHC class II Allele HLA-DRB1*1501 is regulated by vitamin D. Author: Ramagopalan SV, Maugeri NJ, Handunnetthi L, Lincoln MR, Orton SM, Dyment DA, Deluca GC, Herrera BM, Chao MJ, Sadovnick AD, Ebers GC, Knight JC. Journal: PLoS Genet; 2009 Feb; 5(2):e1000369. PubMed ID: 19197344. [Link]; page 500

  5. 218 BMJ 2003;327:646 Multiple sclerosis Self reported stressful life events and exacerbations in multiple sclerosis: prospective study--D Buljevac [Link]; page 500

  6. 219 A longitudinal study of abnormalities on MRI and disability from multiple sclerosis. Brex et al. N Engl J Med 2002; 346:158-64. [Link]; page 500

  7. 220 NEJM 349:139 2003 Antimyelin Antibodies as a Predictor of Clinically Definite Multiple Sclerosis after a First Demyelinating Event--Thomas Berger [Link]; page 500

  8. 221 Drugs. 2003;63(15):1525 Early intervention in multiple sclerosis: better outcomes for patients and society? Flachenecker P [Link]; page 500

  9. 222 Ò-interferon 1a appears effective after 1st clinical MS event (if prior subclinical lesions on MRI): CHAMPS 2000 NEJM 343 898; no link available; page 500

  10. 223 A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of natalizumab for relapsing multiple sclerosis. Polman et al. N Engl J Med 2006;354:899-910. [Link]; page 500

  11. 224 Title: Cost-utility analysis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treatment with azathioprine or interferon beta in Spain. Author: Rubio-Terres C, Dominguez-Gil Hurle A. Journal: Rev Neurol; 2005 Jun 16-30; 40(12):705-10. PubMed ID: 15973634 [Link]; page 500

  12. 225 [Update in multiple sclerosis treatment.] Author: Uria D. Journal: Neurologia; 2004 Dec; 19 Suppl 2():8-21. PubMed ID: 16184497. [Link]; page 500

  13. 226 Rethinking cognitive function in multiple sclerosis: a nursing perspective. Author: Halper J, Kennedy P, Miller CM, Morgante L, Namey M, Ross AP. Journal: J Neurosci Nurs; 2003 Apr; 35(2):70-81. PubMed ID: 12795033. [Link]; page 501

  14. 227 Non-MS recurrent demyelinating diseases. Author: Brinar VV. Journal: Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2004 Jun; 106(3):197-210. PubMed ID: 15177769 [Link]; page 501

  15. 228 Recommended diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: guidelines from the International Panel on the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. McDonald et al. Ann Neurol 2001;50:121-7. Pub Med ID: 11456302; no link available; page 501

  16. 229 Whiting P 2006 BMJ 332 15 April page 875. Accuracy of MRI for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: systemic review. [Link]; page 501

  17. 230 Temporal critteria [@11456302] [Link]; page 501

(footnote) Significance of the Argyll Robertson pupil in clinical medicine. Author: Dacso CC, Bortz DL. Journal: Am J Med; 1989 Feb; 86(2):199-202. PubMed ID: 2643871. [Link]; page 501

Space-occupying lesions (SOL)

  1. 231 Epidemiological evidence for an association between use of wireless phones and tumor diseases. Hardell et al. Pathophysiology 2009; PMID: 19268551; no link available; page 502

  2. 232 Cellular phone use and brain tumor: a meta-analysis. Kan et al. J Neurooncol. 2008;86:71-8. PMID: 17619826; no link available; page 502

  3. 233 Gliadel((R)) wafer in initial surgery for malignant glioma: long-term follow-up of a multicenter controlled trial. Journal: Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2006 Feb 17; ():. PubMed ID: 16482400. [Link]; page 502

  4. 234 Cerebral edema associated with Gliadel wafers: two case studies. Author: Weber EL, Goebel EA. Journal: Neuro-oncol; 2005 Jan; 7(1):84-9. PubMed ID: 15701285. [Link]; page 502

  5. 235 Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial. Stupp et al. Lancet Oncol. 2009 PMID: 19269895; no link available; page 502

  6. 236 Changing paradigms--an update on the multidisciplinary management of malignant glioma. Author: Stupp R, Hegi ME, van den Bent MJ, Mason WP, Weller M, Mirimanoff RO, Cairncross JG. Journal: Oncologist; 2006 Feb; 11(2):165-80. PubMed ID: 16476837 [Link]; page 502

  7. 237 Clinical and therapeutic aspects of benign intracranial hypertension] Author: Errguig L, Benomar A, Aitbenhaddou E, Mouti O, Regragui W, Benaaboud B, Yahyaoui M, Chkili T. Journal: Rev Neurol (Paris); 2004 Dec; 160(12):1187-90. PubMed ID: 15602365. [Link]; page 502

  8. 238 J Fr Ophtalmol. 2002 Oct;25(8):835 Bilateral papilledema in young women: two case reports of benign intracranial hypertension? Kling F [Link]; page 502

  9. 239 Curr Opin Ophthalmol 1998 Dec;9(6):27-32 Elevated intracranial pressure and pseudotumor cerebri. Brazis PW, Lee AG. Mayo School [Link]; page 502

  10. 240 Psychopathology of Frontal Lobe Syndromes. Michael H. Thimble, F.R.C.P., F.R.C. Psych [Link]; page 503

  11. 241 Optometry. 2001 Apr;72(4):234 Dorsal midbrain syndrome secondary to a pineocytoma--Allmer DM [Link]; page 503

  12. 242 Nystagmus [Link]; page 503

(footnote) Sex, beauty and the orbitofrontal cortex. Author: Ishai A. Journal: Int J Psychophysiol; 2007 Feb; 63(2):181-5. PubMed ID: 16759727 [Link]; page 503

Bell’s palsy (idiopathic facial nerve palsy)

  1. 244 Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 1997 Sep;14(2):115 Differential diagnosis of facial nerve palsy. James D [Link]; page 504

  2. 245 Am J Otol 1996 Nov;17(6):893 Episodic facial paralysis due to temporal bone pneumocele: a case report. Ivers C [Link]; page 504

  3. 246 Can J Anaesth 1998 Sep;45(9):893 Unilateral trigeminal and facial nerve palsies associated with epidural analgesia in labour. Carrero E [Link]; page 504

  4. 247 When is facial paralysis Bell palsy? Current diagnosis and treatment. Ahmed A 2005. Cleve Clin J Med 72(5):398-401, 405. PubMed ID: 15929453. [Link]; page 504

  5. 248 The spectrum of cranial neuropathy in patients with Bell’s palsy. Author: Benatar M, Edlow J. Journal: Arch Intern Med; 2004 Nov 22; 164(21):2383-5. PubMed ID: 15557420 [Link]; page 504

  6. 249 Recent developments in Bell’s Palsy BMJ 2004;329:553-557 (4 September), doi:10.1136/bmj.329.7465.553 [Link]; page 504

  7. 250 Lakartidningen. 2005 Apr 25-May 1;102(17):1358. Peripheral facial paralysis? Exclude borreliosis, perform LP! Reimer M. PMID: 15921115 [Link]; page 504

  8. 251 J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001 Aug;71(2):149 Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Sweeney C [Link]; page 504

  9. 252 Treatment of gustatory hyperlacrimation (crocodile tears) with injection of botulinum toxin into the lacrimal gland. Montoya FJ, et al. Eye 2002; 16:705-9. PubMed ID: 12439663; no link available; page 504

  10. 253 Prednisolone and valaciclovir in Bell’s palsy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Engström M, et al, 2008. Lancet Neurol. 7:993-1000. PubMed ID: 18849193; no link available; page 504

  11. 254 Early Treatment with Prednisolone or Acyclovir in Bell’s Palsy. Sullivan FM, et al. NEJM 2007; 357:1598-607 [Link]; page 504

  12. 255 Bell’s palsy and Herpes simplex virus: fact or mystery? Linder T, et al. Otol Neurotol, 2005; 26:109-13. PubMed ID: 15699730; no link available; page 504

  13. 256 Bell’s palsy in pregnancy: a study of recovery outcomes. Gillman GS, et al. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2002; 126:26-30. PubMed ID: 11821761; no link available; page 504

  14. 257 The phenomenon of the late recovered Bell’s palsy: treatment options to improve facial symmetry. Author: Bulstrode NW, Harrison DH. Journal: Plast Reconstr Surg; 2005 May; 115(6):1466-71. PubMed ID: 15861048[Link]; page 504

  15. 258 No link available 259 Physical therapy for Bell´ s palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis). Teixeira LJ, et al. The Cochrane Library 2009. [Link]; page 504

  16. 260 Gray’s Anatomy [Link]; page 505

  17. 261 Lingual nerve lesions [Link]; page 505

  18. 262 On herpetic inflammations of the geniculate ganglion. A new syndrome and its complications. Ramsay Hunt, J. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1907. 34(2):73-96; no link available; page 505

  19. 263 Treatment of Ramsay Hunt Syndrome with Acyclovir-Prednisone: Significance of Early Diagnosis and Treatment. Murakami S, et al. Ann Neurol 1997; 41:353-357 [Link]; page 505

Mononeuropathies

  1. 264 Lower median nerve block impairs precision grip. dun et al 2007 J Electromyogr Kinesiol. PMID: 16616519; no link available; page 506

  2. 265 Acknowledgement: Prof Mark Lowenthal; see: Surgical efficacy of carpal tunnel release for carpal tunnel syndrome in acromegaly: report of four patients. Author: Iwasaki N, Masuko T, Ishikawa J, Minami A. Journal: J Hand Surg [Br]; 2005 Dec; 30(6):605-6. PubMed ID: 16095779. [Link]; page 507

  3. 266 J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1998 Sep-Oct;6(5):282-8 Compressive ulnar neuropathies at the elbow: I. Etiology and diagnosis. Posner MA [Link]; page 507

  4. 267 Night splints; no link available; page 507

  5. 268 Ulnar nerve entrapment [Link]; page 507

  6. 269 Instr Course Lect 2000;49:305-17 Compressive neuropathies of the ulnar nerve at the elbow and wrist. Posner MA. [Link]; page 507

Polyneuropathies

  1. 270 J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2003 Jul;62(7):699 Dominantly inherited peripheral neuropathies--Vallat J[Link]; page 508

  2. 271 J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2003 Sep;8(3):155-8. Related Articles, Links Resolution of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy-associated central nervous system lesions after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin--Fee D [Link]; page 508

  3. 272 Antidepressants for neuropathic pain. Author: Saarto T, Wiffen P. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (3):CD005454. PubMed ID: 16034979 [Link]; page 508

  4. 273 Gabapentin for acute and chronic pain. Author: Wiffen P, McQuay H, Edwards J, Moore R. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (3):CD005452. PubMed ID: 16034978 [Link]; page 508

  5. 274 Autonomic dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus. Journal: Rheumatol Int; 2005 Dec 20; ():1-4. PubMed ID: 16365754. [Link]; page 509

  6. 275 Autonomic neuropathy [Link]; page 509

Motor neuron disease (MND)

  1. 276 J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003 Sep;74(9):1258-61. Effect of a multidisciplinary amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) clinic on ALS survival: a population based study, 1996-2000--Traynor B [Link]; page 510

  2. 277 Nursing role in the multidisciplinary management of motor neurone disease. Author: Skelton J. Journal: Br J Nurs; 2005 Jan 13-26; 14(1):20-4. PubMed ID: 15750484 [Link]; page 510

  3. 278 Ventilation in motor neuron disease: difficult decisions in difficult circumstances. Author: Oliver D. Journal: Amyotroph Lateral Scler Other Motor Neuron Disord; 2004 Mar; 5(1):6-8. PubMed ID: 15204017 [Link]; page 510

  4. 279 Do not go gentle into that good night, / Old age should burn and rave at close of day;/ Rage, rage against the dying of the light. / Though wise men at their end know dark is right, / Because their words had forked no lightning they/ Do not go gentle into that good night. [Link]; page 510

  5. 280 Psychiatry Rounds: Pathologic Laughing and Crying in Multiple Sclerosis; no link available; page 511

  6. 281 M Cookson 1999 Brain Path 9 165; no link available; page 511

  7. 282 Rapidly progressive aphasic dementia with motor neuron disease: a distinctive clinical entity. Author: Catani M, Piccirilli M, Geloso MC, Cherubini A, Finali G, Pelliccioli G, Senin U, Mecocci P. Journal: Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord; 2004; 17(1-2):21-8. PubMed ID: 14560061 [Link]; page 511

  8. 283 The antioxidant paradox. B Halliwell 2000 Lancet 355:1179-80. PMID: 10791396. [Link]; page 511

  9. 284 Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2001;35(1 Suppl):25 Pathogenesis of ALS: implications for treatment strategies--Braga M [Link]; page 511

  10. 285 Intake of Polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E reduce the risk of developing ALS. Journal: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2006 Apr 28; ():. PubMed ID: 16648143. [Link]; page 511

  11. 286 Curr Biol. 2003 Apr 15;13(8):669-73. Inhibiting axon degeneration and synapse loss attenuates apoptosis and disease progression in a mouse model of motoneuron disease. Ferri A [Link]; page 511

Cervical spondylosis

  1. 287 A Singh 1999 Lancet 354 370; no link available; page 512

  2. 288 Nishio Y, Takane K, Hasegawa T, Inoue K, Honda K. [Link]; page 512

  3. 289 A Singh 1999 Lancet 354 370; no link available; page 512

  4. 290 Cochrane review on the role of surgery in cervical spondylotic radiculomyelopathy. Author: Fouyas IP, Statham PF, Sandercock PA. Journal: Spine; 2002 Apr 1; 27(7):736-47. PubMed ID: 11923667. [Link]; page 512

  5. 291 Predictive factors for spondylotic cervical myelopathy treated conservatively or surgically. Author: Kadanka Z, Mares M, Bednarík J, Smrcka V, Krbec M, Chaloupka R, Dusek L. Journal: Eur J Neurol; 2005 Jan; 12(1):55-63. PubMed ID: 15613148 [Link]; page 512

  6. 292 Long-term outcome of laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy due to disc herniation: a comparative study of laminoplasty and anterior spinal fusion. Author: Sakaura H, Hosono N, Mukai Y, Ishii T, Iwasaki M, Yoshikawa H. Journal: Spine; 2005 Apr 1; 30(7):756-9. PubMed ID: 15803077 [Link]; page 512

  7. 293 Diaphragmatic paralysis caused by cervical spondylosis. Case report. Author: Hayashi H, Kihara S, Hoshimaru M, Hashimoto N. Journal: J Neurosurg Spine; 2005 May; 2(5):604-7. PubMed ID: 15945437.[Link]; page 512

  8. 294 Anterior spinal artery syndrome due to cervical spondylosis presenting as cervical angina] Author: Odaka M, Hirata K. Journal: No To Shinkei; 2004 Nov; 56(11):961-3. PubMed ID: 15678954 [Link]; page 512

  9. 295 Neurosurgery Today--cervical spine [Link]; page 513

  10. 296 Laminoplasty [Link]; page 513

  11. 297 Operative treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy. A comparison of laminectomy and laminoplasty at five year average follow-up. Author: Kaminsky SB, Clark CR, Traynelis VC. Journal: Iowa Orthop J; 2004; 24():95-105. PubMed ID: 15296214. [Link]; page 513

  12. 298 Wheeless online orthopaedic tesxtbook [Link]; page 513

  13. 299 Image of cervical verteba redrawn from Daphne Palomar [Link]; page 513

Primary disorders of muscle (myopathies)

  1. 300 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;3:CD003278 Scapular fixation in muscular dystrophy--Mummery C[Link]; page 514

  2. 301 Muscle Nerve. 2001 Mar;24(3):352 Unusual clinical presentations in patients harboring the facioscapulohumeral dystrophy 4q35 deletion--Felice K [Link]; page 514

  3. 302 Spine. 1985 Sep;10(7):614 Spinal deformities in patients with muscular dystrophy other than Duchenne. A review of 11 patients having surgical treatment--Daher Y [Link]; page 514

  4. 303 New classification and treatment for myotonic disorders. Author: Kurihara T. Journal: Intern Med; 2005 Oct; 44(10):1027-32. PubMed ID: 16293911 [Link]; page 514

  5. 304 Tau aggregates are abnormally phosphorylated in inclusion body myositis and have an immunoelectrophoretic profile distinct from other tauopathies. [Link]; page 514

Myasthenia gravis (MG)

  1. 305 Vaccines against myasthenia gravis. Author: Berrih-Aknin S, Fuchs S, Souroujon MC. Journal: Expert Opin Biol Ther; 2005 Jul; 5(7):983-95. PubMed ID: 16018742 [Link]; page 516

  2. 306 Extrathymic malignancies in patients with myasthenia gravis. Journal: J Neurol Sci; 2005 Jun 28; ():. PubMed ID: 15990114. [Link]; page 516

  3. 307 The features of myasthenia gravis with autoantibodies to MuSK. Author: Lavrnic D, Losen M, Vujic A, De Baets M, Hajdukovic LJ, Stojanovic V, Trikic R, Djukic P, Apostolski S. Journal: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2005 Aug; 76(8):1099-102. PubMed ID: 16024887 [Link]; page 516

  4. 308 Preoperative preparation of the patient with myasthenia gravis. Author: Kernstine KH. Journal: Thorac Surg Clin; 2005 May; 15(2):287-95. PubMed ID: 15999526 [Link]; page 516

  5. 309 Ophthalmology 1999 Jul;106(7):1282-6 Related Articles, Links Ophthalmology. 2000 Apr;107(4):622-3. An ice test for the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. Golnik KC [Link]; page 516

  6. 310 Corticosteroids for myasthenia gravis. Author: Schneider-Gold C, Gajdos P, Toyka KV, Hohlfeld RR. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (2):CD002828. PubMed ID: 15846640 [Link]; page 516

  7. 311 Acta Neurol Scand. 2003 Aug;108(2):136 Intravenous immunoglobulin in the preparation of thymectomy for myasthenia gravis--Huang C [Link]; page 516

  8. 312 Pulmonary function tests and blood gases in worsening myasthenia gravis. Journal: Muscle Nerve; 2005 Jul 15; ():. PubMed ID: 16025526. [Link]; page 516

  9. 313 Neurol Sci. 2002 Apr;23 Suppl 1:S9 High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin G treatment of myasthenia gravis--Ferrero B [Link]; page 516

  10. 314 Chin Med J (Engl). 2003 Aug;116(8):1187-90. Diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of thymoma: an analysis of 116 cases--Wang Y [Link]; page 516

  11. 315 [Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome: diagnosis and treatment] Author: Motomura M, Iwanaga H.Journal: Clin Calcium; 2001 Nov; 11(11):1468-74. PubMed ID: 15775666 [Link]; page 516

  12. 316 Electrophysiological diagnostic criteria of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. Journal: Muscle Nerve; 2005 Jul 7; ():. PubMed ID: 16003742. [Link]; page 516

  13. 317 Treatment for Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. Author: Maddison P, Newsom-Davis J. Journal: Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005; (2):CD003279. PubMed ID: 15846654 [Link]; page 516

(footnote) Does this patient have myasthenia gravis? Author: Scherer K, Bedlack RS, Simel DL. Journal: JAMA; 2005 Apr 20; 293(15):1906-14. PubMed ID: 15840866 [Link]; page 516

(footnote) Associated autoimmune diseases in patients with the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome and their families. Author: Wirtz PW, Bradshaw J, Wintzen AR, Verschuuren JJ. Journal: J Neurol; 2004 Oct; 251(10):1255-9. PubMed ID: 15503107 [Link]; page 516

  1. 318 Synaptic transmission; no link available; page 517

Neurofibromatosis

  1. 319 Image of Lisch nodules courtesy of John Miles [Link]; page 518

  2. 320 Neurofibromatosis type I: clinical and imaging features of Von Recklinghausen’s disease. Author: Gajeski BL, Kettner NW, Awwad EE, Boesch RJ. Journal: J Manipulative Physiol Ther; 2003 Feb; 26(2):116-27. PubMed ID: 12584510. [Link]; page 518

  3. 321 P Mathew 2000 Arch Pathol Lab Med 124 319 [@10656749] & S Huson 1994 The Neurofibromatoses Chapman & Hall; no link available; page 518

  4. 322 Neurofibromatosis type I: clinical and imaging features of Von Recklinghausen’s disease. Author: Gajeski BL, Kettner NW, Awwad EE, Boesch RJ. Journal: J Manipulative Physiol Ther; 2003 Feb; 26(2):116-27. PubMed ID: 12584510. [Link]; page 518

  5. 323 Q J Med. 1992 Aug;84(304):603 A clinical study of type 2 neurofibromatosis--Evans D [Link]; page 518

  6. 324 Neurofibromatosis 2. Baser et al. Curr Opin Neurol 2003; 16:27-33. PMID: 12544854; no link available; page 518

  7. 325 A case of multiple cutaneous schwannomas; schwannomatosis or neurofibromatosis type 2? Murray et al. JNNP 2006; 77:269-71. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2005.067017; no link available; page 518

  8. 326 Germline mutation of INI1/SMARCB1 in Familial Schwannomatosis. Hulsebos et al. Am J Human Gen 2007; 80:805-10 doi: 10.1086/513207; no link available; page 518

Syringomyelia

  1. 327 A cough, then respiratory failure. Fuller and Stanners. Lancet 2000. 355:284. PMID: 10675077; no link available; page 520

  2. 328 Spinothalamic pathways [Link]; page 520

  3. 329 Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997 Jul;78(7):780 Total knee arthroplasty in a patient with bilateral Charcot knees--Fullerton B [Link]; page 520

  4. 330 Joint Bone Spine. 2000;67(4):334 Destructive hip disease complicating traumatic paraplegia--Avimadje AM[Link]; page 520

  5. 331 J Belge Radiol. 1993 Aug;76(4):232 Neuropathic arthropathy of the shoulder secondary to syringomyelia--Heylen Y [Link]; page 520

  6. 332 [Link] see also [Link]; page 520

  7. 333 Adult syringomielia. Classification, pathogenesis and therapeutic approaches. Author: Di Lorenzo N, Cacciola F. Journal: J Neurosurg Sci; 2005 Sep; 49(3):65-72. PubMed ID: 16288188. [Link]; page 520

  8. 334 Neurological manifestations of HIV infection in Kwazulu-Natal South Africa. Author: Bhigjee AI. Journal: J Neurovirol; 2005; 11 Suppl 1():17-21. PubMed ID: 15960236. [Link]; page 520

  9. 335 Listening to polyphonic music recruits domain-general attention and working memory circuits.Janata et al. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2002;2:121-40. PubMed ID: 12455680; no link available; page 521

  10. 336 Neural Netw. 1997 Oct 1;10(7):1175-1183. Three Centuries of Category Errors in Studies of the Neural Basis of Consciousness and Intentionality. Freeman W [Link]; page 521

  11. 337 W Freeman; Comparison of Brain Models [Link]; page 521

  12. 338 Lancet. 1999 Oct 16;354(9187):1320 Lancet. 1999 Oct 16;354(9187):1331 Modification of attitudes to influence survival from breast cancer. Tucker J [Link]; page 521

  13. 339 The association between emotional well-being and the incidence of stroke in older adults. Ostir et al. Psychosom Med 2001;63:210-5. [Link]; page 521

  14. 340 J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000 May;48(5):473 Emotional well-being predicts subsequent functional independence and survival. Ostir GV [Link]; page 521

Chapter 11: Oncology and palliative care

Oncology and palliative care

  1. 1 Use of Alternative Medicine by Women with Early-Stage Breast Cancer. Burstein et al. N Engl J Med 1999; 340:1733-9. [Link]; page 522

  2. 2 Effects of psychosocial interventions with adult cancer patients: A meta-analysis of randomized experiments. TJ Meyer & M Mark J Health Psychol 1995; 14:101-108. DOI: 10.1037/0278-6133.14.2.101. [Link]; page 523

  3. 3 Psychosocial interventions in cancer. L Fallowfield BMJ 1995; 311:1316-7. PMID: 7496268 [Link]; page 523

  4. 4 BMJ 2003;327:1044-1046 Cancer care in the United Kingdom: new solutions are needed--Karol Sikora [Link]; page 523

  5. 5 Breaking bad news: practical advice for busy doctors, Mir NU Hosp Med. 2004 Oct;65(10):613-5; no link available; page 523

  6. 6 Breaking bad news: practical advice for busy doctors. Mir NU Hosp Med. 2004;65:613-5. PMID: 15524342.[Link]; page 523

  7. 7 S Sontag 1978 Illness as Metaphor; no link available; page 523

  8. 8 Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005 Mar 1;61(3):870-3. Accuracy of survival prediction by palliative radiation oncologists.Chow E [Link]; page 523

  9. 9 R Buckman 1992 How to Break Bad News, PaperMac 0-333 54564-7; no link available; page 523

(footnote) Lancet oncology August 2007 & UK cancer survival rates lagging most of Europe. Guardian for 21.8.2007 page12. P Curtis. [Link]; page 523

Oncology and genetics

  1. 10 Breast. 2005 Sep 23;Management of women at high risk for breast cancer: New imaging beyond mammography.Kuhl CK, Kuhn W, Schild H; no link available; page 524

  2. 11 The National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group MAP.3 trial: an international breast cancer prevention trial. Richardson et al. Curr Oncol 2007;14:89-96. PMID: 17593981; no link available; page 524

  3. 12 Environmental and heritable factors in the causation of cancer--analyses of cohorts of twins from Sweden, Denmark, and Finland. Lichtenstein P, [Link]; page 524

(footnote) S Gallinger 2003 NEJM 249 209; no link available; page 524

Oncological emergencies

  1. 13 Curr Treat Options Oncol 2001 Feb;2(1):77 Superior vena cava syndrome. Wudel LJ [Link]; page 526

  2. 14 Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2002 Jun;14(3):228 Radiological stenting provides effective palliation in malignant central venous obstruction. Wilson E [Link]; page 526

  3. 15 Palliative radiotherapy of cerebral metastasis from lung cancer. Author: Li JC, Liu MT, Chang KH, Chung CH. Journal: J Formos Med Assoc; 1990 Apr; 89(4):281-5. PubMed ID: 1698912. [Link]; page 526

  4. 16 D Provan 1998 Oxford Handbook of Clinical Haematology, page 470, oup; no link available; page 526

  5. 17 Support Care Cancer 2003 Apr;11(4):249 Pan-European multicentre economic evaluation of recombinant urate oxidase (rasburicase) in prevention and treatment of hyperuricaemia and tumour lysis syndrome in haematological cancer patients. Annemans I [Link]; page 526

Cancer therapies

  1. 18 Drug Saf 1995 Apr;12(4):245 Prevention and management of extravasation of cytotoxic drugs. Bertelli G[Link]; page 528

  2. 19 Nuclear medicine in cancer diagnosis. J Eary Lancet 1999; 354:853-7. PMID: 10485742. [Link]; page 529

Radiotherapy

  1. 20 Can J Oncol. 1996 Feb;6 Suppl 1:5-11. The principles of palliative radiotherapy: a radiation oncologist’s perspective. Mackillop WJ. [Link]; page 530

  2. 21 Measuring the benefit and toxicity of palliative radiotherapy. The Canadian journal of oncology, {Can-J-Oncol}, Feb 1996, vol. 6 Suppl 1, p. 86-9, ISSN: 1183-2509. Shelley-W. [Link]; page 530

  3. 22 External beam radiation treatment for rectal cancer is associated with a decrease in subsequent prostate cancer diagnosis. Journal: Cancer; 2007 Dec 20; ():. PubMed ID: 18098220. [Link]; page 530

  4. 23 Recchia F. Sica G, DeFilippis S, et.al. Goserelin as ovarian protection in the adjuvant treatment of premenopausal breast cancer: a phase II pilot study. Anticancer Drugs 2002; 13: 17–24 [Link]; page 531

  5. 24 Aust Fam Physician 2003 Jan-Feb;32(1-2):9 Fertility effects of cancer treatment. Marsden DE [Link]; page 531

  6. 25 Preserving Fertility After Cancer Beth Simon, MD, Stephanie Joi Lee, MD, Ann Hart Partridge, MD and Carolyn D. Runowicz, MD, CA Cancer J Clin 2005; 55:211-228 [Link]; page 531

  7. 26 Contracept Fertil Sex 1993 Oct;21(10):749 Conservation of sperm before cancer therapy. An efficient measure for preserving chances of future conception Auger J [Link]; page 531

  8. 27 Cancer 2001 Sep 15;92(6):1632 Testicular sperm extraction combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection in the treatment of men with persistent azoospermia postchemotherapy. Chan PT [Link]; page 531

  9. 28 J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2005;(34):57-9. Fertility preservation: a comprehensive approach to the young woman with cancer.Roberts JE, Oktay K. [Link]; page 531

  10. 29 Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002 Jun;16(2):311 Late reproductive sequelae following treatment of childhood cancer and options for fertility preservation. Thomson AB [Link]; page 531

  11. 30 Recent cancer survival in Europe: a 2000–02 period analysis of EUROCARE-4 data. Verdecchia et al. Lancet Oncol 2007: 8: 784–96. PMID: 17714993 PMID: 17714993; no link available; page 531

  12. 31 Survival for eight major cancers and all cancers combined for European adults diagnosed in 1995-99: results of the EUROCARE-4 study. Berrino et al. Lancet Oncol 2007; 8:773-83 PMID: 17714991; no link available; page 531

Palliative care: principles & symptom relief

  1. 32 Twycross R. (2000). Palliative care: anorexia, cachexia, nausea and vomiting. Medicine 28: 7-12. [Link]; page 532

  2. 33 PRODIGY Guidance - Palliative care-nausea/vomiting/malignant bowel obstruction [Link]; page 532

  3. 34 Am J Med Sci. 2001 Aug;322(2):79-87. Diagnosis and management of chronic pericardial effusions. Karam N, Patel P, deFilippi C. [Link]; page 532

Palliative care: pain relief

  1. 35 Management of pain in elderly patients with cancer. JAMA. 1998;279:1877-1882. Bernabei R, Gambassi G, Lapane K, et al; no link available; page 534

  2. 36 Bonica JJ. Cancer pain. In: Bonica JJ, ed. The Management of Pain. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lea & Febiger; 1990:400; no link available; page 534

  3. 37 WHO Cancer pain relief [Link]; page 534

  4. 38 Effects of acetaminophen on morphine side-effects and consumption after major surgery: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.Remy C. Br J Anaesth 2005; 94:505-13. PMID: 15681586 [Link]; page 534

  5. 39 Br J Cancer. 2003 Dec 1;89(11):2027-30. Comparison of sustained-release morphine with sustained-release oxycodone in advanced cancer patients. Lauretti GR, Oliveira GM, Pereira NL. [Link]; page 534

  6. 40 Cancer. 1999 Sep 1;86(5):871-7. High dose morphine use in the hospice setting. A database survey of patient characteristics and effect on life expectancy.Bercovitch M, Waller A, Adunsky A. [Link]; page 534

  7. 41 R Twycross 1990 Symptom Control in Terminal Cancer, Sobell Publications, Oxford and R Twycross, S Lack 1990 Therapeutics in Terminal Care, Churchill Livingstone; no link available; page 535

  8. 42 A validation study of the WHO analgesic ladder: a two-step vs three-step strategy. Maltoni et al. Support Care Cancer 2005; 13:888-94. PMID: 15818486; no link available; page 535

Urgent referral in possible malignancy

  1. 43 Nice Referral for suspected cancer - quick reference guide www.nice.org.uk/CG027quickrefguide; no link available; page 536

  2. 44 Roger Jones 2001 BMJ 322:1555-1556 ( 30 June ) editorial [Link]; page 537

  3. 46 Br J Dermatol. 2004 Feb;150(2):291-8. & Br J Dermatol. 2005 May;152(5):1065-6. Evaluation of the U.K. 2-week referral rule for skin cancer. Cox NH [Link]; page 537

Tumour markers

  1. 47 Tumour markers in malignancies. A Lindblom. BMJ 2000; 320:424-427. PMID: 10669448. [Link]; page 538

  2. 48 Obesity May Mask Prostate Cancer Risk by Lowering PSA Levels. By Judith Groch, Senior Writer, MedPage Today. Reviewed by Rubeen K. Israni [Link]; page 538

  3. 49 Evolution of free, complexed, and total serum prostate-specific antigen and their ratios during 1 year of follow-up of men with febrile urinary tract infection. Zackrisson et al. Urology 2003; 62:278-81. PMID: 12893335; no link available; page 538

  4. 50 Paraneoplastic encephalitis] Author: Dusková J, Svácková D, Macoková P, Bauer J, Reková P, Fiksa J, Povýsil C. Journal: Cas Lek Cesk; 2006; 145(6):488-93; discussion 493-4. PubMed ID: 16836004. [Link]; page 539

Chapter 12: Rheumatology

Rheumatology

  1. 1 Courtesy of Monica Bhargava & Dr. John Hunter, M.D.; no link available; page 540

Assessing the locomotor system

  1. 2 The ‘GALS’ locomotor screen. M Doherty et al. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 1992; 51:1165–9. PMID: 1444632 [Link]; page 542

  2. 3 Courtney P, Doherty M. Joint aspiration and injection. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2005 Jun; 19: 345-69.[Link]; page 543

Back pain

  1. 4 Speed C. Low back pain. BMJ 2004; 328:1119-21. PMID: 15130982 [Link]; page 544

  2. 5 van Tulder M, et al. European guidelines for the management of acute non-specific low back pain in primary care. European Comission, Research Directorate General. [Link]; page 544

  3. 6 Antidepressants for non-specific low back pain. Urquhart et al. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008;1:CD001703. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001703.pub3; no link available; page 544

Osteoarthritis

  1. 7 Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2002 Aug;10(8):595 C-reactive protein as a biomarker of emergent osteoarthritis. Sowers M [Link]; page 546

  2. 8 Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and the two in combination for painful knee osteoarthritis. Author: Clegg DO, Reda DJ, Harris CL, Klein MA, O’Dell JR, Hooper MM, Bradley JD, Bingham CO, Weisman MH, Jackson CG, Lane NE, Cush JJ, Moreland LW, Schumacher HR, Oddis CV, Wolfe F, Molitor JA, Yocum DE, Schnitzer TJ, Furst DE, Sawitzke AD, Shi H, Brandt KD, Moskowitz RW, Williams HJ. Journal: N Engl J Med; 2006 Feb 23; 354(8):795-808. PubMed ID: 16495392. [Link]; page 546

  3. 9 Advances in the management of septic arthritis. García-De La Torre I. Rheum Dis Clin North Am; 2003 Feb; 29(1):61-75; no link available; page 546

  4. 10 Clin Infect Dis 2003 Feb 1;36(3):319-27 Pneumococcal septic arthritis: review of 190 cases. Ross JJ [Link]; page 546

  5. 11 ra Hughes 1996 Reports on Rheumatic Diseases 7 1–4; no link available; page 546

  6. 12 Management of Septic Arthritis. Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin 2003; 41:65-68. doi:10.1136/dtb.2003.41965; no link available; page 546

  7. 13 Chan F 2007 Lancet 369 1621 Combination of COX-2 and PPI for prevention of recurrent ulcer bleeding in patients at very high risk. [Link]; page 547