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Disorders of iodine excess 

Disorders of iodine excess
Chapter:
Disorders of iodine excess
Author(s):

Shigenobu Nagataki

, Misa Imaizumi

, and Noboru Takamura

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199235292.003.3119
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date: 12 December 2017

Iodine is an essential substrate for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormone because both thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) contain iodine. An adequate supply of dietary iodine is therefore necessary for the maintenance of normal thyroid function. Dietary iodine intake is increasing in many regions, especially in developed countries, mainly due to iodization of salt or bread, and it is well known that various drugs and foods contain large quantities of iodine (1), e.g. seaweeds, such as konbu (Laminaria japonica), contain 0.3% of iodine dry weight. Furthermore, large doses of iodine are used for prophylaxis against exposure to 131I. Excess iodine, as well as iodine deficiency, can induce thyroid dysfunction. The response of the thyroid gland to excess iodine and disorders due to excess iodine are the main subject of this chapter.

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