Fetal cardiology is progressing extremely rapidly. It is certain that by the time this book is published some new information will be threatening to alter some aspects of diagnosis or management. We have deliberately not speculated about details of possible new approaches. The clinical role of 3D and 4D scanning, of some of the newer Doppler techniques, and of fetal ECG for example, will become clearer in time, particularly with respect to assessing fetal cardiac function. Indications for and value of fetal cardiac interventions are being actively evaluated. Drug therapy for fetal conditions in addition to arrhythmias is only in its infancy with no clear consensus at present—this will change.
New developments will not remove the challenge to continue to improve knowledge of and practical ability to detect and define structural abnormalities of the heart.