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Visual pathways 

Visual pathways
Visual pathways

Christopher Kennard

and Sara Ajina



Optic atrophy—new sections on neuromyelitis optica, a rare but important cause of bilateral or recurrent optic neuritis, and dominant optic atrophy, an insidious slowly progressive optic neuropathy.

Cortical blindness—discussion of ‘blindsight’.

Visual field impairments—impact of driving; rehabilitation of hemianopia.

Disorders of higher visual processing—enhanced discussion of visuospatial and visuoperceptual abnormalities, including Bálint’s syndrome, and visual agnosia.

Figures—new images of the ocular fundus.

Updated on 28 November 2012. The previous version of this content can be found here.
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date: 22 June 2018

Visual disturbances may be caused by diseases of the optic disc, optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, lateral geniculate nucleus, optic radiations, and occipital lobe of the brain, as well as other brain areas involved in complex visual processing.

Diagnosis of disturbances of the visual pathways requires both knowledge of their anatomy and physiology, and the ability to carry out a thorough neuro-ophthalmological examination which should enable (1) documentation of the character and extent of the visual disturbance, and (2) topographic localization of the lesion, so that the relevant investigative techniques, such as radiological imaging, can be appropriately requested....

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