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Lipoid (lipid) pneumonia 

Lipoid (lipid) pneumonia

Chapter:
Lipoid (lipid) pneumonia
Author(s):

D.J. Hendrick

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199204854.003.181409

July 30, 2015: This chapter has been re-evaluated and remains up-to-date. No changes have been necessary.

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date: 27 May 2017

Lipids that accumulate within airways and alveolae are difficult to remove and may lead to an inflammatory response. Exogenous lipid can be aspirated in those with impaired swallowing mechanisms who take or are given agents such as olive oil or paraffin, or can be inhaled from oil aerosols/mists. Endogenous lipid can (rarely) be deposited when chronic inflammation accompanies some cause of localized bronchial obstruction. Presentation is with a chronic ‘pneumonic’ illness or asymptomatic radiographic abnormality, when appearances may closely simulate bronchial carcinoma. Demonstration of lipid material within pulmonary secretions or alveolar macrophages obtained from sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage is diagnostic. If treatment is needed, therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage may remove substantial quantities of lipid from the alveoli; episodes of secondary bacterial infection require antibiotic treatment....

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