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Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of essential hypertension 

Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of essential hypertension
Chapter:
Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of essential hypertension
Author(s):

Bryan Williams

and John D. Firth

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199204854.003.161702_update_001

Update:

This chapter has been substantially re-written to accommodate changes in European, American (Joint National Committee [JNC] 8), and British (British Hypertension Society/NICE) guidelines for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. New sections have been added on non-pharmacological treatments for hypertension: renal denervation and baroreflex activation therapy.

Updated on 29 Oct 2015. The previous version of this content can be found here.
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date: 18 December 2017

Essential hypertension is almost invariably symptomless, and usually detected by routine screening or opportunistic measurement of blood pressure. Key questions to answer in the assessment of a person presenting with an elevated blood pressure are: (1) Do they have hypertension, i.e. is the blood pressure persistently elevated? (2) Are there any associated clinical features that might warrant further evaluation to exclude secondary causes of hypertension? (3) Are there factors that might be contributing to an elevated blood pressure, including lifestyle or dietary factors or concomitant medication? (4) Is there any associated target organ damage or comorbidity that influences the overall cardiovascular disease risk and subsequent treatment of the patient?...

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