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Cardiac catheterization and angiography 

Cardiac catheterization and angiography

Cardiac catheterization and angiography

Edward D. Folland



March 2014 – chapter reviewed; no significant changes required.

Updated on 27 Nov 2014. The previous version of this content can be found here.
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date: 27 April 2017

Cardiac catheterization/angiography is indicated for evaluation of patients with coronary, valvular, and congenital heart disease in whom diagnostic or therapeutic decisions cannot be made on the basis of noninvasive tests. Most patients presenting for cardiac catheterization have coronary artery disease: catheterization and coronary angiography are integral parts of interventional treatments for patients experiencing ischaemic coronary syndromes.

Technique and diagnostic utility—vascular access is usually obtained percutaneously from the femoral, radial, or brachial artery (for the left heart), or the femoral, internal jugular, or brachial/antecubital vein (for the right heart). Key information that can be obtained by cardiac catheterization/angiography include (1) pressures within cardiac chambers; (2) cardiac output; (3) quantitative estimation of left ventricular function; (4) diagnosis and quantitation of intracardiac shunts; (5) calculation of systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances; (6) assessment of cardiac valves; and (7) details of coronary arterial anatomy and function.

Therapeutic utility—cardiac catheterization/angiography permits interventions, particularly coronary angioplasty/stenting (see Chapters 16.13.5 and 16.13.6), that are of great and increasing therapeutic importance.

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