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Liver failure 

Liver failure

Chapter:
Liver failure
Author(s):

George F. Mells

and Graeme J.M. Alexander

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199204854.003.152204_update_001

August 28, 2014: This chapter has been re-evaluated and remains up-to-date. No changes have been necessary.

Update:

Extensive revisions include (1) definitions of types of liver failure; (2) classification of acute liver failure; (3) causes of acute liver failure; (4) causes of chronic liver failure; (5) grading systems for hepatic encephalopathy; (6) prognostic scoring systems in acute liver failure and chronic liver disease; (7) management of acute and chronic liver failure and their complications.

Two relevant case histories from Oxford Case Histories in Gastroenterology and Hepatology have been added to this chapter.

Updated on 28 Nov 2012. The previous version of this content can be found here.
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date: 20 July 2017

Case History—A 53 yr old man, known to have alcoholic liver cirrhosis, now presenting with jaundice, ascites and deteriorating renal function.

Case History—A 62 yr old man presenting with confusion and ascites.

Liver failure occurs when loss of hepatic parenchymal function exceeds the capacity of hepatocytes to regenerate or repair liver injury. Acute liver failure is characterized by jaundice and prolongation of the prothrombin time in the context of recent acute liver injury. Acute liver failure is the syndrome of hepatic encephalopathy occurring within 8 weeks of the first onset of liver disease. Chronic liver failure is characterized by a chronic liver injury with one or more features of liver failure....

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