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Disturbances of acid–base homeostasis 

Disturbances of acid–base homeostasis
Chapter:
Disturbances of acid–base homeostasis
Author(s):

R. D. Cohen

and H. F. Woods

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199204854.003.1211_update_001

November 28, 2013: This chapter has been re-evaluated and remains up-to-date. No changes have been necessary.

Update:

New or enhanced discussion of lactic acidosis due to cyanide poisoning, pyroglutamic acidaemia, acidosis in the Wolcott–Rallison syndrome, and lactic acidosis in malignancy.

Updated on 30 Nov 2011. The previous version of this content can be found here.
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date: 12 December 2017

Despite a daily load of protons, derived mainly from metabolism, the hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood in health is tightly maintained within a slightly alkaline range (pH 7.36–7.42); concentrations of intracellular hydrogen ions are also controlled. Failure adequately to excrete or neutralize protons causes acidic conditions to prevail (decreased pH): undue intake of base, uncompensated loss of protons—or the substrates from which they are derived—induces an alkaline milieu (raised pH)....

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