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Cholera 

Cholera

Chapter:
Cholera
Author(s):

Aldo A.M. Lima

and Richard L. Guerrant

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199204854.003.070611_update_001

February 27, 2014: This chapter has been re-evaluated and remains up-to-date. No changes have been necessary.

Update:

Vibrio El Tor outbreaks in Zimbabwe and Haiti.

New figure of cholera toxin.

Update on cholera vaccines.

Updated on 31 May 2012. The previous version of this content can be found here.
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date: 27 May 2017

Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative organism that can be subdivided into over 200 serogroups based on the somatic O antigen, with only serogroups O1 and O139 causing epidemic and pandemic disease. Historically it has killed millions from dehydrating diarrhoea, encouraged the birth of modern epidemiology, the sanitary revolution, and oral rehydration therapy; it persists today as a glaring reminder of poverty and inadequate water/sanitation. Contaminated food (especially undercooked seafood) is the usual route of transmission in developed countries; contaminated water and street food vendors are more common vehicles in less developed countries....

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