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Neurosciences 

Neurosciences
Chapter:
Neurosciences
Author(s):

Stuart Gillon

, Chris Wright

, Cameron Knott

, Mark McPhail

, and Luigi Camporota

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198754619.003.0005
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date: 18 August 2018

The Neurosciences chapter begins with discussion regarding sedation, anaesthesia, and analgesia on the intensive care unit, covering both pharmacology and practicalities. The aetiology and investigation of coma and the coma-like states are described. There is discussion of traumatic brain injury including pathophysiology, monitoring, the consequences of and response to raised intracranial pressure, and neuroprotection. Seizure disorders are explored including the investigation with the electroencephalogram and the pharmacology of anti-epileptic drugs. The approach to ischaemic stroke and intra-cerebral haemorrhage on the intensive care unit is discussed. There is coverage of subarachnoid haemorrhage: complications (including hydrocephalus, vasospasm, re-bleeding), investigation, and management. The approach to the patient with neuromuscular weakness is described, including the aetiology and investigation of intensive-care-acquired weakness. The, prevention, assessment of, and approach to delirium are described. The chapter finished with discussion of the central nervous system infections, namely meningitis and encephalitis.

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