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Infections caused by RNA viruses 

Infections caused by RNA viruses
Chapter:
Infections caused by RNA viruses
Author(s):

Philippa C. Matthews

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198737773.003.0009
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date: 12 December 2017

Paramyxoviruses

Hendra and Nipah viruses

Measles

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS)

Source: data from World Health Organization, Emergencies preparedness response, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Copyright © WHO 2017, available from http://www.who.int/csr/sars/en/

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS)

Picornaviruses

Poliomyelitis (‘Polio’)

Hepatitis a virus (HAV)

Rotavirus

From Latin rota: wheel

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)

Hepatitis C virus (HCV)

Hepatitis E virus (HEV)

Rabies

Ebola virus disease (EVD)

Marburg virus

Lassa fever

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)

Arboviruses (‘ARthropod-BOrne viruses’): summary

Japanese encephalitis (JE)

West Nile fever

Yellow fever

Dengue fever

Zika virus

Equine encephalitis viruses

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV); Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV); Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)

Chikungunya

O’nyong-nyong

Bunyaviruses

Rift valley fever and crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever

Rift valley fever (RVF)

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF)

Distribution

First identified in Kenya

Patchy distribution across Africa and Middle East

Infections caused by RNA viruses

Many parts of Africa, Middle East, Eastern Europe, Russia

Infections caused by RNA viruses

Spread

  • Direct or indirect contact with infected animals

  • Sandfly/mosquito bites

  • Rural areas only

  • Direct or indirect contact with infected animals

  • Tick bites

Pathogenic in animals?

  • Yes

    (potentially substantial livestock losses, especially pregnant/young animals)

  • No

Clinical syndrome

  • Most cases mild or subclinical

  • Severe cases:

    1. (i) Ocular disease

      (retinal lesions, visual blurring)

    2. (ii) CNS disease

      (meningoencephalitis)

    3. (iii) VHF (uncommon) with liver involvement

Primarily VHF:

  • Sudden onset fever, myalgia, headache, neck stiffness

  • Petechial rash/ecchymoses

  • Lymphadenopathy

  • Vomiting and diarrhoea

  • Mood swings, confusion

  • Liver failure, bleeding

Treatment

Possible benefit of ribavirin (sensitive in vitro)

Possible benefit of ribavirin (sensitive in vitro)

Prevention

Unlicensed inactivated vaccine

Live and inactivated animal vaccines

Inactivated vaccine used on a small scale in Eastern Europe—not widely available

Mortality

< 1%

10–40%

Hantavirus