Oxford University Press makes no representation, express or implied, that the drug dosages in this book are correct. Readers must therefore always check the product information and clinical procedures with the most up to date published product information and data sheets provided by the manufacturers and the most recent codes of conduct and safety regulations. The authors and the publishers do not accept responsibility or legal liability for any errors in the text or for the misuse or misapplication of material in this work. Except where otherwise stated, drug dosages and recommendations are for the non-pregnant adult who is not breastfeeding.

Show Summary Details
Page of

Environmental Risk Factors in Autism: Results from Large-Scale Epidemiologic Studies 

Environmental Risk Factors in Autism: Results from Large-Scale Epidemiologic Studies

Environmental Risk Factors in Autism: Results from Large-Scale Epidemiologic Studies

Irva Hertz-Picciotto

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2015. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy).

date: 17 January 2017

This chapter presents findings from large-scale epidemiologic studies that address risk and protective factors for autism. It provides a synthetic overview of the extant literature relevant to the noninherited etiologic factors in autism, highlighting promising leads that may point to causal and modifiable exposures. It begins with the literature on sociodemographic factors, focusing on how variables such as parental age, ethnicity, social class, and seasonality are a source of clues about etiology, including environmental exposures. The second section concerns medical exposures, and comprises infections and immunology, fertility treatments, obstetric factors, and vaccines. The third section addresses traditional environmental exposures, most of which are, to some extent, involuntary: metals, pesticides, air pollutants, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, and other compounds we breathe, ingest, or absorb dermally. Finally, the limited research on lifestyle, including smoking, alcohol, nutrients, and diet, is described, along with topics holding for future work.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us.