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Control of pain in labor 

Control of pain in labor
Chapter:
Control of pain in labor
Author(s):

Murray Enkin

, Marc J. N. C. Keirse

, James Neilson

, Caroline Crowther

, Lelia Duley

, Ellen Hodnett

, and Justus Hofmeyr

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780192631732.003.0034
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date: 21 September 2018

Chapter 34 discusses control of pain in labor, including non-pharmacological methods (techniques that reduce painful stimuli, maternal movement and position changes, counter-pressure, and abdominal decompression), techniques that activate peripheral sensory receptors (superficial heat and cold, immersion in water during labor and birth, touch and massage, acupuncture and acupressure, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), intradermal injection of sterile water, and aromatherapy), techniques that enhance descending inhibitory pathways (attention focusing and distraction, hypnosis, music and audio-analgesia, and biofeedback), and pharmacological control of pain in labor, including regional analgesia and anesthesia, epidural analgesia, other routes of regional analgesia, systemic agents, opioids, sedatives and tranquilizers, and inhalation analgesia.

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