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HIV Transmission Prevention 

HIV Transmission Prevention
Chapter:
HIV Transmission Prevention
Author(s):

Carolyn Chu

and Christopher M. Bositis

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190493097.003.0004
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date: 24 May 2018

The prevention of HIV transmission involves a number of behavioral, structural, and biomedical interventions. Behavioral methods include education about sexual health, drug use, and risk reduction, as well as specific messages for at-risk populations who are HIV positive. Needle exchange programs and consistent use of condoms have proven effective for prevention of HIV infection. Post-exposure prophylaxis against HIV with antiviral drugs is often recommended in occupational health care and non-occupational settings. Voluntary male circumcision also reduces the risk of HIV acquisition. The treatment of pregnant women who are HIV infected can effectively eliminate mother-to-child transmission of the virus. Recently, the use of antiretroviral drugs for pre-exposure prophylaxis has proven highly effective in preventing HIV infections in high-risk groups including men who have sex with men. Promising therapies that likely will be available in the future include injectable antiviral drugs, vaginal microbicides, and HIV vaccines.

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