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Pregnancy complications

Pregnancy complications  

Janet Medforth, Linda Ball, Angela Walker, Sue Battersby, and Sarah Stables

in Oxford Handbook of Midwifery (3 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Series: 
Oxford Handbooks in Nursing
Published Online: 
Jan 2017
eISBN: 
9780191816284
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198754787.003.0012
Career: 
Midwife
Specialty: 
Midwifery
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198754787
Chapter 12 Pregnancy complications Bleeding in early pregnancy Bleeding in early pregnancy Hyperemesis gravidarum Hyperemesis gravidarum Antepartum haemorrhage Antepartum haemorrhage Recognition and management of breech presentation Recognition and management of breech presentation Management of the small-for-gestational-age fetus Management of the small-for-gestational-age fetus Multiple pregnancy Multiple pregnancy Bleeding in early pregnancy Once a pregnancy has been confirmed, any vaginal bleeding
Pregnancy complications

Pregnancy complications  

Sally Collins, Sabaratnam Arulkumaran, Kevin Hayes, Simon Jackson, and Lawrence Impey

in Oxford Handbook of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (3 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2013
Series: 
Oxford Medical Handbooks
Published Online: 
Jul 2013
eISBN: 
9780191743184
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199698400.003.0002
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Undergraduate Doctor
Specialty: 
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199698400
Chapter 2 Pregnancy complications Minor symptoms of pregnancy : gastrointestinal Minor symptoms of pregnancy : gastrointestinal Minor symptoms of pregnancy : musculoskeletal and vascular Minor symptoms of pregnancy : musculoskeletal and vascular Minor symptoms of pregnancy : genitourinary and others Minor symptoms of pregnancy : genitourinary and others Antepartum haemorrhage: overview Antepartum haemorrhage: overview Antepartum haemorrhage: assessment Antepartum haemorrhage: assessment Antepartum haemorrhage: management Antepartum haemorrhage: management
Complications of early pregnancy

Complications of early pregnancy  

Sabaratnam Arulkumaran, David I. M. Farquharson, Ash Monga, Aris T. Papageorghiou, and Lesley Regan

in Obstetrics and Gynaecology (Oxford Desk Reference)

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2011
Series: 
Oxford Desk References
Published Online: 
Oct 2011
eISBN: 
9780191725777
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199552214.003.0006
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Obstetrics
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199552214
Chapter 6 Complications of early pregnancy Bleeding and pain in early pregnancy Bleeding and pain in early pregnancy 74 Hyperemesis gravidarum Hyperemesis gravidarum 76 Pregnancy of unknown location Pregnancy of unknown location 80 Bleeding and pain in early pregnancy Epidemiology Vaginal bleeding occurs in about 25% of pregnancies with a positive pregnancy test within the first trimester. It is imperative to make an accurate diagnosis as it can cause unnecessary distress and, rarely, can be life-threatening. Aetiology The
Pregnancy changes and early pregnancy complications

Pregnancy changes and early pregnancy complications  

Stergios K. Doumouchtsis, S. Arulkumaran, S. Arulkumaran, Edwin Chandraharan, Christina Coroyannakis, Kevin Hayes, and Emma Kirk

in Emergencies in Obstetrics and Gynaecology (2 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2016
Series: 
Emergencies in
Published Online: 
Oct 2016
eISBN: 
9780191742910
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199651382.003.0001
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Obstetrics
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199651382
Chapter 1 Pregnancy changes and early pregnancy complications Contributors S. Arulkumaran , Edwin Chandraharan , Christina Coroyannakis , Kevin Hayes , and Emma Kirk Contents Physiological changes in pregnancy Physiological changes in pregnancy Pain/bleeding in early pregnancy Pain/bleeding in early pregnancy Gestational trophoblastic disease Gestational trophoblastic disease Vomiting in pregnancy Vomiting in pregnancy Physiological changes in pregnancy Pregnancy is characterized
Pregestational (type 1 and type 2) diabetes: care and complications during pregnancy

Pregestational (type 1 and type 2) diabetes: care and complications during pregnancy  

Helen R Murphy

in Diabetes in Pregnancy (Oxford Diabetes Library)

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2012
Series: 
Oxford Medical Libraries, Oxford Diabetes Library
Published Online: 
Jan 2012
eISBN: 
9780191739682
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199593033.003.0017
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist, Nurse, Qualified Nurse
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Endocrinology and Diabetes
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199593033
care and complications during pregnancy Helen R Murphy Key points • Fetal growth acceleration resulting in the delivery of a large for gestational age or macrosomic infant is the commonest complication of pregnancy affecting approximately 50% of diabetic pregnancies • Macrosomic infants are at increased risk both of immediate birth complications (shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycaemia and neonatal care admission) and of longer term complications (insulin resistance, obesity and type 2 diabetes) • Pre-eclampsia complicates 13% or 1 in 7 diabetes pregnancies and is
Pregnancy after a renal transplant

Pregnancy after a renal transplant  

Nicholas Torpey, Nadeem E. Moghal, Evelyn Watson, and David Talbot (eds)

in Renal Transplantation (Oxford Specialist Handbooks)

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2010
Series: 
Oxford Specialist Handbooks
Published Online: 
Oct 2011
eISBN: 
9780191726088
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199215669.003.18
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training
Specialty: 
Surgery, Transplant Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199215669
and the prospect of successful pregnancy . Following transplantation: • Fertility is restored • Conception is common • Rates of spontaneous miscarriage are similar to normal population • In ♀ with good graft function, 97% of pregnancies that progress beyond 12 weeks, will end successfully. Risks of pregnancy following renal transplantation There is an increased risk of complications during pregnancy after renal transplantation (see Table 18.1 and p. Complications of pregnancy in transplant recipients 381 ) Table 18.1 Pregnancy outcome based on pre-conception
Comatose and Puerperium

Comatose and Puerperium  

Eelco F. M. Wijdicks

in The Comatose Patient

Print Publication Year: 
May 2014
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
May 2014
eISBN: 
9780199381654
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199331215.003.0096
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Neurology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199331215
changes that occur during pregnancy are well tolerated, and serious neurologic complications are unusual. Therefore, both subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hematoma are very uncommon in pregnancy , with an estimated incidence of less than 0.05%. 16 Pregnancy —despite blood volume increase—does not predispose to rupture of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM), nor is there documented evidence of growth of the vascular malformation, if present. 2 , 12 Nonetheless, some studies suggest an 80% to 90% risk of rupture during pregnancy and a 27% risk of rebleeding
Obstetrics and pregnancy

Obstetrics and pregnancy  

Monika Østensen, Radboud Dolhain, and Guillermo Ruiz-Irastorza

in Oxford Textbook of Rheumatology (4 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2013
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks
Published Online: 
Oct 2016
eISBN: 
9780191757730
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199642489.003.0016_update_002
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199642489
therapy of complications of rheumatic diseases during pregnancy Disease Complication Drugs compatible in case of pregnancy complication Time of treatment during pregnancy Drugs to be discontinued before pregnancy Rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, JIA, psoriatic arthritis Active arthritis during pregnancy NSAIDs 1st + 2nd trimester Methotrexate, leflunomide, misoprostol Rituximab, abatacept, tocilizumab, and anakinra should be used during pregnancy only when no other pregnancy -compatible
Pre-pregnancy planning

Pre-pregnancy planning  

Robert Lindsay (ed.)

in Diabetes in Pregnancy (Oxford Diabetes Library)

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2012
Series: 
Oxford Medical Libraries, Oxford Diabetes Library
Published Online: 
Jan 2012
eISBN: 
9780191739682
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199593033.003.0010
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist, Nurse, Qualified Nurse
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Endocrinology and Diabetes
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199593033
this chapter we will consider evidence examining the relationship of maternal glycaemia to early pregnancy complications , issues relating to counselling women with complications of their diabetes as well as the broader role of pre- pregnancy counselling to improve health in during pregnancy . 1.2 Glycaemia in early pregnancy and pregnancy complications A broad range of studies have demonstrated the relationship of maternal glycaemia to adverse outcomes in early pregnancy . The risk of congenital malformation is increased, as is the risk of miscarriage, as detailed in
Pregnancy and the rheumatic diseases

Pregnancy and the rheumatic diseases  

Richard Watts, Gavin Clunie, Frances Hall, and Tarnya Marshall (eds)

in Rheumatology (Oxford Desk Reference)

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2009
Series: 
Oxford Desk References
Published Online: 
Oct 2011
eISBN: 
9780191725746
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199229994.003.0011
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199229994
flares in the postpartum period should be discussed. Screening for complications should be undertaken regularly during pregnancy , and the risks and benefits of drug therapies, both in pregnancy and whilst breastfeeding, discussed. Monitoring in pregnancy Monitoring of both mother and foetus should be undertaken regularly. In the mother, disease activity and disease complications such as renal involvement should be sought. Additionally, close monitoring for complications of pregnancy , such as thrombo-embolic disease and pre-eclampsia, particularly in those patients with
Aortic diseases

Aortic diseases  

Bernard Iung

in ESC CardioMed (3 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2018
Series: 
The European Society of Cardiology Textbooks
Published Online: 
Jul 2018
eISBN: 
9780191827143
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198784906.003.0689
Career: 
Doctor
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Cardiovascular Medicine
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198784906
and are seldom encountered in young women. Risk of pregnancy -related complications In Marfan syndrome, the risk of aortic dissection increases when the diameter of the ascending aorta is greater than 40 mm or increases during pregnancy . 4 , 9 , 10 The risk of complications is low for aortic diameters up to 45 mm, in particular when patients are followed according to guidelines 11 , 12 , 13 ( Figure 53.3b.1(online) ). Dissection of the descending thoracic aorta may also be observed during pregnancy , including after replacement of the ascending aorta. 9
Endocrinology in pregnancy

Endocrinology in pregnancy  

John Wass, Katharine Owen, and Helen Turner

in Oxford Handbook of Endocrinology and Diabetes (3 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2014
Series: 
Oxford Medical Handbooks
Published Online: 
Mar 2014
eISBN: 
9780191742859
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199644438.003.0005
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Undergraduate Doctor
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Endocrinology and Diabetes
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199644438
persists. Prolactinoma in pregnancy Effect of pregnancy on tumour size Risk of significant tumour enlargement (i.e. resulting in visual field disturbances or headaches): • Microadenoma 1–2%. • Macroadenoma 15–35%. • Macroadenoma treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy before pregnancy 4–7%. Effect of dopamine agonists on the fetus Bromocriptine Over 6,000 pregnancies have occurred in women receiving bromocriptine in early pregnancy , and the incidence of complications in these pregnancies with regard to fetal outcome is similar
Multiple pregnancies

Multiple pregnancies  

Harini Narayan

in Compendium for the Antenatal Care of High-Risk Pregnancies

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2015
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Sep 2015
eISBN: 
9780191800344
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199673643.003.0025
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Obstetrics
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199673643
immigration from regions where spontaneous multiple pregnancies are more common, have also contributed to the rise. • Multiple pregnancies , whether conceived spontaneously or as a result of ART, are undoubtedly more complex compared with singleton pregnancies , with higher risks for the mother and babies. 1 , 3 , 4 The higher the order of multiple fetuses, the greater these risks. • Due to the higher risk of complications , women with multiple pregnancies need closer and more frequent surveillance during pregnancy . This, as well as the pressure on neonatal services
Renal disease in pregnancy

Renal disease in pregnancy  

John D. Firth

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

Print Publication Year: 
May 2010
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks
Published Online: 
May 2010
eISBN: 
9780199570973
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199204854.003.1405
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Obstetrics
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199204854
progress. (See Chapter 14.4 Hypertension in pregnancy 14.4 for further discussion.) The mean albumin excretion rate in pregnancy is 12 mg/day, with 29 mg/day the upper limit of normal (no different from that in the nonpregnant state). However, slightly increased urinary protein excretion is normal in pregnancy , such that proteinuria in pregnancy should not be considered abnormal until it exceeds 500 mg/day, which is over twice the upper limit of normal outside of pregnancy . Renal complications that can occur in pregnancy Urinary tract infection Asymptomatic
Pregnancy risk assessment

Pregnancy risk assessment  

Petronella Pieper

in ESC CardioMed (3 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2018
Series: 
The European Society of Cardiology Textbooks
Published Online: 
Jul 2018
eISBN: 
9780191827143
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198784906.003.0686
Career: 
Doctor
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Cardiovascular Medicine
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198784906
assigns to the woman one of four risk classes—WHO I represents a hardly increased risk of complications while WHO IV means a contraindication for pregnancy ( Table 53.1b.1 ). 1 , 5 , 6 This system integrates all knowledge about maternal risk of cardiac complications . Obstetric and offspring risk are also increased in women with heart disease and should be included in the risk assessment. Specific outcomes that occur more often in women with heart disease are miscarriage, pregnancy -induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia, postpartum haemorrhage, premature labour, premature
Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

Endocrine disorders in pregnancy  

Helen E. Turner, Richard Eastell, and Ashley Grossman

in Endocrinology (Oxford Desk Reference)

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2018
Series: 
Oxford Desk References
Published Online: 
Aug 2018
eISBN: 
9780191835629
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199672837.003.0010
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Endocrinology and Diabetes
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672837
later pregnancy . In the post-partum period Check thyroid function tests at 6 weeks post partum. Reduction of the levothyroxine dose to the pre- pregnancy level may be indicated. Adverse effects of hypothyroidism on fetal and maternal well-being Uncorrected maternal hypothyroidism has adverse feto-maternal consequences (see Table 10.5 ). These complications are reported in mothers with subclinical as well as overt hypothyroidism and there is also evidence that women who are positive for anti-thyroid-peroxidase antibodies in pregnancy suffer
Maternal obesity

Maternal obesity  

Harini Narayan

in Compendium for the Antenatal Care of High-Risk Pregnancies

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2015
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Sep 2015
eISBN: 
9780191800344
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199673643.003.0018
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Obstetrics
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199673643
weight loss should be put into practice before and after a pregnancy , not during. Lifestyle changes such as weight reduction and exercise are firmly in the control of the individual. • The advice therefore is to eat a healthy diet during pregnancy and then to lose weight after childbirth and before the next pregnancy . Table 18.1 WHO definition of obesity Classification Early pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) Risk of obstetric/anaesthetic complications Normal range 18.5–24.9 No increased obstetric or maternal risk Overweight
Liver and gastrointestinal diseases in pregnancy

Liver and gastrointestinal diseases in pregnancy  

Alexander Gimson

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

Print Publication Year: 
May 2010
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks
Published Online: 
May 2010
eISBN: 
9780199570973
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199204854.003.1409
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Obstetrics
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199204854
prompt intervention. Table 14.9.1 Liver diseases during pregnancy Diseases specific to pregnancy Hyperemesis gravidarum Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy Acute fatty liver of pregnancy Hypertension-associated liver diseases of pregnancy Diseases where pregnancy increases frequency or severity of presentation Budd–Chiari syndrome—increased frequency, possibly related to low antithrombin III levels Acute cholecystitis—increased risk of gallstones/ complications Acute viral hepatitis E—increased frequency of acute
Acyanotic congenital heart disease

Acyanotic congenital heart disease  

Dawn L. Adamson, Mandish K. Dhanjal, and Catherine Nelson-Piercy

in Heart Disease in Pregnancy (Oxford Specialist Handbooks in Cardiology)

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2011
Series: 
Oxford Specialist Handbooks, OSHs in Cardiology
Published Online: 
Oct 2011
eISBN: 
9780191726224
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199574308.003.0089
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Cardiovascular Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Obstetrics
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199574308
This should be done outside pregnancy . Complications of uncorrected ASDs • Right heart dilatation and rise in right heart pressure, leading to shunt reversal (Eisenmenger syndrome). • Paradoxical embolism. • Atrial arrhythmia, often unmasked in pregnancy (may also require anticoagulation). • Failure of an already volume loaded and dilated RV, precipitated by plasma volume expansion during pregnancy . • Eisenmenger syndrome (i.e. shunt reversal, see Chapter Chapter 12 Aortic pathology 12 ). The only contraindication to pregnancy in women with ASDs, operated or
Pregnancy planning in Type 1 diabetes

Pregnancy planning in Type 1 diabetes  

Nicoletta Dozio

in Type 1 Diabetes (Oxford Diabetes Library) (2 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2016
Series: 
Oxford Medical Libraries, Oxford Diabetes Library
Published Online: 
Sep 2016
eISBN: 
9780191820960
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780198766452.003.0010
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Endocrinology and Diabetes
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198766452
achieve optimal metabolic control without hypoglycemia, diagnosis of any diabetes complications , and coexisting medical problems and their treatments ( Box Box 10.1 Initial pre- pregnancy counselling 10.1 ). Meltzer (2010) points out that counselling and care must be intimately linked, but where even intensive programmes for pre- pregnancy care have been developed, only 30% to 40% of eligible women avail themselves of access. A UK study showed that the significant benefits of pre- pregnancy counselling and care in Type 2 patients was not replicated in a Type 1 cohort

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