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Environmental health risks

Environmental health risks  

Roscoe Taylor and Charles Guest

in Oxford Handbook of Public Health Practice (3 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2013
Series: 
Oxford Medical Handbooks
Published Online: 
Mar 2013
eISBN: 
9780191742569
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199586301.003.0018
Career: 
Doctor, Undergraduate Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199586301
2 Environmental health risks Roscoe Taylor and Charles Guest Objectives This chapter will help you to understand: • environmental health in the rapidly changing context of health protection • the usefulness of having a framework for environmental health risk assessment • the process of identifying, evaluating, and planning a response to an environmental health threat. Definitions • Environmental health is concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment that may affect human
The operating theatre             environment

The operating theatre environment  

Catherine Spoors and Kevin Kiff

in Training in Anaesthesia

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2010
Series: 
Oxford Specialty Training, Oxford Specialty Training: Training in
Published Online: 
Nov 2012
eISBN: 
9780191753176
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199227266.003.0004
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Undergraduate Doctor
Specialty: 
Anaesthetics
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199227266
are recommended in order to remove excess anaesthetic gases. Increased effectiveness of ventilation may be required for infection control (e.g. for joint replacement surgery). This can be achieved with laminar flow systems. Scavenging Scavenging minimizes potential health risks to staff and the possibility of reduced performance from inhalation of accumulated waste/expired anaesthetic gases. See Section 2.4 Piped medical gas and vacuum (PMGV) systems 2.4 for details. Nerve and soft tissue protection It is important to assess
Human population size, environment, and health

Human population size, environment, and health  

A.J. McMichael and J.W. Powles

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine (5 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
May 2010
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks
Published Online: 
May 2010
eISBN: 
9780199570973
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199204854.003.0302
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, specialist
Specialty: 
Public Health and Epidemiology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199204854
nitrogenous compounds are entering the global environment . Increasingly, persistent synthetic organic (especially chlorinated) chemicals are pervading the biosphere. And, most irreversible of all, human pressures are extinguishing species at a rising rate. These various changes are disrupting the capacity of the natural world to stabilize, replenish, cleanse, and recycle; these were capacities that earlier generations were able to take for granted. Manifestly we no longer live in such a world. The currently foreseeable health risks from these environmental changes are diverse
Integrative Nursing and the Environment

Integrative Nursing and the Environment  

Susan Luck

in Integrative Nursing

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2014
Series: 
Weil Integrative Library
Published Online: 
Feb 2014
eISBN: 
9780199364107
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199860739.003.0030
Career: 
Nurse, Qualified Nurse, Allied Health Professional, Qualified AHP
Specialty: 
Allied Health Professions, Clinical Medicine, Primary Care
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199860739
l and Lifestyle Related Health Risks (2012) expresses concern regarding the enormous human suffering caused by the growing burden of environmental and lifestyle-related, preventable, noncommunicable diseases. They ask that nurses and national nurses associations play a strategic role in helping reduce environmental and lifestyle health risks related to noncommunicable diseases. ICN (2012) views nursing as a steward of the environment ; human health is dependent on the health of our lands, oceans, and air, elements of a person’s environment . The American Nurses
The Intrauterine Environment and Early Infancy

The Intrauterine Environment and Early Infancy  

Ami Zota, Dylan Atchley, and Tracey Woodruff

in Textbook of Children's Environmental Health

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2013
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
May 2014
eISBN: 
9780199351657
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199929573.003.0013
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Public Health and Epidemiology, Paediatrics
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199929573
significant toxicological implications. There is growing evidence that exposures to multiple chemicals can lead to adverse health outcomes that are greater than those that result from exposures to single chemicals ( 11 ). Accordingly, the US National Academy of Sciences recommends that health risk assessments now evaluate the impacts of simultaneous exposures to multiple chemicals ( 11 ). Placental Transfer of Environmental Chemicals Maternal body burden of chemicals during pregnancy can lead to fetal exposure because many synthetic chemicals can transfer across
The environment and climate change

The environment and climate change  

Alistair Woodward and Alex Macmillan

in Oxford Textbook of Global Public Health (6 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2015
Series: 
Oxford Textbooks, Oxford Textbooks in Public Health
Published Online: 
Feb 2015
eISBN: 
9780191788567
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199661756.003.0013
Career: 
Doctor, Undergraduate Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist, Nurse, Qualified Nurse
Specialty: 
Public Health and Epidemiology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199661756
the risk of damaging heatwaves more than twofold. As part of the 2002 Global Burden of Disease project, the contribution of climate change up to the year 2000 was estimated, providing an overall assessment of present impacts. This followed the steps that are usually taken in a health risk assessment: choose the conditions that are thought to be sensitive to the exposure; quantify the dose–response relationship; define alternative exposure scenarios; and calculate the burden of disease attributable to the difference in exposure between what is observed and what would
Neurodevelopmental Disorders and the Environment

Neurodevelopmental Disorders and the Environment  

David C. Bellinger

in Textbook of Children's Environmental Health

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2013
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
May 2014
eISBN: 
9780199351657
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199929573.003.0044
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Public Health and Epidemiology, Paediatrics
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199929573
Neurotoxicology 2009;30:867–75. 59 . White RF. Palumbo CL , Yurgelun-Todd DA , et al. Functional MRI approach to developmental methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyl neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicology 2011;32:975–80. 60 . World Health Organization . Principles for Evaluating Health Risks in Children Associated with Exposure to Chemicals . Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2006. Environmental Health Criteria 237. 61 . Fewtrell L , Kaufmann R , Pruss-Ustun A. Lead: Assessing the Environmental Burden of Disease at National and Local Levels . Geneva
Obesity, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease, and the Environment

Obesity, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease, and the Environment  

Nikki L. Mihalopoulos

in Textbook of Children's Environmental Health

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2013
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
May 2014
eISBN: 
9780199351657
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199929573.003.0046
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Public Health and Epidemiology, Paediatrics
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199929573
the structure and function of WAT and BAT. Computed tomography, positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are all used to identify the location and extent of WAT and BAT deposition throughout the body ( Fig. 46.8 ). Not all WAT is equal in terms of health risk , and WAT accumulations in different depots in the body are associated with differences in risk for cardiovascular disease. Thus, increased visceral WAT, in which fat cells surround the organs of the abdominal cavity (liver, intestines, spleen, pancreas, kidneys), is associated with
The Shape of the Built Environment Shapes Children’s Health

The Shape of the Built Environment Shapes Children’s Health  

Richard J. Jackson and Ashley Kissinger

in Textbook of Children's Environmental Health

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2013
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
May 2014
eISBN: 
9780199351657
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199929573.003.0016
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Public Health and Epidemiology, Paediatrics
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199929573
environmental health risks ( 43 ). The home environment plays an important role in sensitizing children and triggering attacks, especially to indoor air pollutants, allergens, noise, and ambient light ( 43 ). Building structure can lead to injuries in children, such as window falls, carbon monoxide poisoning, and burns ( 19 ). As stated in other chapters, pediatric injuries are a leading cause of death of children, ages 1–21 years ( 11 ). These deaths could be prevented by a more health-focused design of the built environment . Food and the Built Environment The
The Changing Global Environment and Children’s Health

The Changing Global Environment and Children’s Health  

Perry E. Sheffield and Kristie L. Ebi

in Textbook of Children's Environmental Health

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2013
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
May 2014
eISBN: 
9780199351657
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199929573.003.0021
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Public Health and Epidemiology, Paediatrics
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199929573
that ripple across many sectors of society from energy, to land use, city planning, health, environment , and even defense (see Chapter 11 Economics and Children’s Environmental Health 11 ). Changes to global biological, ecological, and chemical cycles have impacts on regional and local environments . These regional and local changes can directly affect human health and can especially affect the health and well-being of children. Three factors determine the health risks of global environmental change: (a) the hazard itself, such as climate change, increasing the

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