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Outdoor Air Pollution

Outdoor Air Pollution  

Douglas W. Dockery

in Textbook of Children's Environmental Health

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2013
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
May 2014
eISBN: 
9780199351657
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199929573.003.0022
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Public Health and Epidemiology, Paediatrics
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199929573
22 Outdoor Air Pollution Douglas W. Dockery the great air pollution episodes of the mid-20th century in London, England and Donora, Pennsylvania highlighted the dangers of air pollution . Understanding of the health risks of air pollution has led to substantial improvements in air quality over the past few decades in the United States, Europe, Japan, and other high-income countries. Yet, despite these improvements, there is emerging evidence that the health effects of air pollution extend down to the lowest concentrations of air pollution that can be
Household Air Pollution

Household Air Pollution  

Archana Patel

in Textbook of Children's Environmental Health

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2013
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
May 2014
eISBN: 
9780199351657
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199929573.003.0023
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Public Health and Epidemiology, Paediatrics
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199929573
worst overall health risk factor in developing countries. This results from combustion of coal and biomass fuels (wood, charcoal, dung, and crop residues) in homes for heating, lighting, and cooking. These solid fuels provide more than half of domestic energy in developing countries, and up to 90% in rural areas ( 3 ). Due to their domestic roles, women spend most of their time indoors and, due to close proximity to their mothers, children are most vulnerable on a daily basis to the ill effects of HAP. Scope of the Problem Household air pollution (HAP) is a
Air pollution, mortality, and the need for public health policy

Air pollution, mortality, and the need for public health policy  

Frank J Kelly

in Landmark Papers in Allergy: Seminal Papers in Allergy with Expert Commentaries

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2013
Series: 
Landmark Papers in
Published Online: 
Apr 2013
eISBN: 
9780191754241
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199651559.003.0068
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Nurse, Qualified Nurse
Specialty: 
Public Health and Epidemiology, Pathology, Immunology, Clinical Medicine, Respiratory Medicine and Pulmonology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199651559
and other health risks . Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we estimated the effects of air pollution on mortality, while controlling for individual risk factors. Survival analysis, including Cox proportional-hazards regression modeling, was conducted with data from a 14-to-16-year mortality follow-up of 8111 adults in six U.S. cities. Results: Mortality rates were most strongly associated with cigarette smoking. After adjusting for smoking and other risk factors, we observed statistically significant and robust associations between air pollution and mortality
Environmental health risks

Environmental health risks  

Roscoe Taylor and Charles Guest

in Oxford Handbook of Public Health Practice (3 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2013
Series: 
Oxford Medical Handbooks
Published Online: 
Mar 2013
eISBN: 
9780191742569
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199586301.003.0018
Career: 
Doctor, Undergraduate Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199586301
continually emerging, with impacts ranging from small-scale or local, to widespread exposures affecting whole populations. Public health has its developmental roots in the identification and control of environmental health risks . ‘Old’ health protection issues, such as failures in sanitation, contamination of food or water supplies, and air pollution episodes continue to re-emerge, and new threats are evolving from our changing environments and patterns of human usage. Environmental health practitioners must identify environmental hazards and understand how to predict
Environmental measurements

Environmental measurements  

Sotiris Vardoulakis

in Essentials of Environmental Epidemiology for Health Protection: A handbook for field professionals

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2012
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Jan 2013
eISBN: 
9780191759116
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199663415.003.0007
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist, Allied Health Professional, Qualified AHP
Specialty: 
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199663415
national air quality limit values for the protection of human health. This has caused concern among local residents and council representatives, who are pressed to investigate related health risks and, in particular, any associations with the prevalence of childhood asthma in the area. To address these concerns, a study can use a hospital based case–control design, relating air pollution levels at residential addresses to cases (e.g. children admitted with asthma or other respiratory illness) and controls (e.g. all other children with an emergency admission during the
Environmental Health

Environmental Health  

Colin D. Butler and Anthony J. McMichael

in Social Injustice and Public Health

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2013
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
May 2014
eISBN: 
9780199394708
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199939220.003.0018
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training
Specialty: 
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199939220
Accessed on June 28, 2012. Outdoor Air Pollution Outdoor air pollution , from motor vehicles, industry ( Figure 18–2 ), and home heating, is a major human health issue in urban areas. Globally, outdoor air pollution is thought to cause approximately 1 million deaths annually, two-thirds of which occur in low- and middle-income countries. However, because most deaths occur in adults, the burden of disease, measured in DALYs, is not as high as that from indoor air pollution . 16 Figure 18–2 Ambient air pollution in the Czech Republic. This chemical plant
Environmental Measurement and ModelingIntroduction and Methods Using Geographical Information Systems

Environmental Measurement and Modeling: Introduction and Methods Using Geographical Information Systems  

John Gulliver, David Briggs, and Kees de Hoogh

in Exposure Assessment in Environmental Epidemiology (2 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2015
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Aug 2015
eISBN: 
9780199378814
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199378784.003.0003
Career: 
Allied Health Professional
Specialty: 
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199378784
dispersion of air pollution ; slope angle may constrain the spread of pollution in the soil; in networks, such as rivers or drinking water supply systems, pollutants will be channelled along specific and complex pathways; in other systems, such as the food supply chain, distance is likely to be an extremely poor proxy for dispersion. Because they are inherently nonspecific (they do not relate to a particular pollutant nor exposure pathway), they can also be difficult to interpret. They might suggest that people living in certain areas suffer increased health risks , but they
Moving Toward Sustainable Urban TransportHow Can We Integrate Environmental, Health, and Equity Objectives Globally?

Moving Toward Sustainable Urban Transport: How Can We Integrate Environmental, Health, and Equity Objectives Globally?  

David Banister and James Woodcock

in Ensuring a Sustainable Future: Making Progress on Environment and Equity

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2013
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Feb 2014
eISBN: 
9780199392988
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199974702.003.0007
Career: 
Researcher
Specialty: 
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199974702
Transport-Related Air Pollution (Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2005 ). 20 . The DALY (disability adjusted life year) is a measure of disease burden that combines years of life lost through premature mortality with years of healthy life lost through living with a disease, injury, or disability. 21 . A. Prüss-Üstün et al., “Lead Exposure,” in Comparative Quantification of Health Risks , eds. M. Ezzati et al. (Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2004 ), 1295–1352. 22 . A. Cohen et al., “Urban Air Pollution ,” in Comparative
Exposure assessment for epidemiology

Exposure assessment for epidemiology  

Ariana Zeka

in Essentials of Environmental Epidemiology for Health Protection: A handbook for field professionals

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2012
Series: 
Other
Published Online: 
Jan 2013
eISBN: 
9780191759116
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199663415.003.0008
Career: 
Doctor, Qualified, early specialism training, Qualified, late specialism training, Qualified, specialist, Allied Health Professional, Qualified AHP
Specialty: 
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199663415
measurable or un-measurable potential confounding factors (see section 8.4.7). Accurate and precise individual exposure estimates strengthen the exposure– health risk assessment. In our case study, personal exposure to air pollutants in schools would be considered the best measure of exposure. However, the study is constrained by practical considerations to use a combination of location-based and continuous air pollution monitoring and time-activity patterns of groups of children. Sources of potential error and loss of power need to be considered carefully when evaluating
Public health

Public health  

Terry Robinson and Jane E. Scullion (eds)

in Oxford Handbook of Respiratory Nursing

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2008
Series: 
Oxford Handbooks in Nursing
Published Online: 
Aug 2010
eISBN: 
9780199597970
DOI: 
10.1093/med/9780199226238.003.0025
Career: 
Nurse, Qualified Nurse
Specialty: 
Clinical Medicine, Respiratory Medicine and Pulmonology
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199226238
contributes significantly to global air pollution and climate change in particular. Air pollution may have a long-term effect on a child’s lung function. It is believed that air pollution may reduce lung development in children from 10 to 18 years old. Lung development is usually complete at 18, and therefore unlikely to recover. Asthma is thought to be aggravated by airborne pollutants such as diesel particulates. It is not known whether there is a causal association between the prevalence and incidence of asthma and air pollution in general, but it is believed that

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