Douglas W. Dockery
Textbook of Children's Environmental Health
22 Outdoor Air Pollution
Douglas W. Dockery
the great air pollution
episodes of the mid-20th century in London, England and Donora, Pennsylvania highlighted the dangers of air pollution
. Understanding of the health risks
of air pollution
has led to substantial improvements in air quality over the past few decades in the United States, Europe, Japan, and other high-income countries. Yet, despite these improvements, there is emerging evidence that the health effects of air pollution
extend down to the lowest concentrations of air pollution
that can be
Textbook of Children's Environmental Health
worst overall health risk
factor in developing countries. This results from combustion of coal and biomass fuels (wood, charcoal, dung, and crop residues) in homes for heating, lighting, and cooking. These solid fuels provide more than half of domestic energy in developing countries, and up to 90% in rural areas ( 3 ). Due to their domestic roles, women spend most of their time indoors and, due to close proximity to their mothers, children are most vulnerable on a daily basis to the ill effects of HAP.
Scope of the Problem
Household air pollution
(HAP) is a
Frank J Kelly
Landmark Papers in Allergy: Seminal Papers in Allergy with Expert Commentaries
and other health risks
Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we estimated the effects of air pollution
on mortality, while controlling for individual risk factors. Survival analysis, including Cox proportional-hazards regression modeling, was conducted with data from a 14-to-16-year mortality follow-up of 8111 adults in six U.S. cities.
Results: Mortality rates were most strongly associated with cigarette smoking. After adjusting for smoking and other risk factors, we observed statistically significant and robust associations between air pollution
Roscoe Taylor and Charles Guest
Oxford Handbook of Public Health Practice
continually emerging, with impacts ranging from small-scale or local, to widespread exposures affecting whole populations.
Public health has its developmental roots in the identification and control of environmental health risks
. ‘Old’ health protection issues, such as failures in sanitation, contamination of food or water supplies, and air pollution
episodes continue to re-emerge, and new threats are evolving from our changing environments and patterns of human usage.
Environmental health practitioners must identify environmental hazards and understand how to predict
Thomas Münzel, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Mette Sørenson, Dave Newby, and Robert D. Brook
6.8 METs for cycling was used. The health risks
of PM 2.5 were estimated by converting background PM 2.5 concentrations to travel mode specific exposure concentrations, and by taking into account ventilation rate while being active. The ventilation rates differences at sleep, rest, cycling, and walking were taken into account when converting exposure to inhaled dose–risk function.
Source data from Tainio M, de Nazelle AJ, Gotschi T, Kahlmeier S, Rojas-Rueda D, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, de Sa TH, Kelly P, Woodcock J. Can air pollution
negate the health benefits of cycling
Assessing the problems and developing a scoping study
Essentials of Environmental Epidemiology for Health Protection: A handbook for field professionals
national air quality limit values for the protection of human health. This has caused concern among local residents and council representatives, who are pressed to investigate related health risks
and, in particular, any associations with the prevalence of childhood asthma in the area.
To address these concerns, a study can use a hospital based case–control design, relating air pollution
levels at residential addresses to cases (e.g. children admitted with asthma or other respiratory illness) and controls (e.g. all other children with an emergency admission during the
How Social Injustice Affects Aspects of Public Health
Colin D. Butler and Anthony J. McMichael
Social Injustice and Public Health
Accessed on June 28, 2012.
Outdoor Air Pollution
Outdoor air pollution
, from motor vehicles, industry ( Figure 18–2 ), and home heating, is a major human health issue in urban areas. Globally, outdoor air pollution
is thought to cause approximately 1 million deaths annually, two-thirds of which occur in low- and middle-income countries. However, because most deaths occur in adults, the burden of disease, measured in DALYs, is not as high as that from indoor air pollution
Figure 18–2 Ambient air pollution
in the Czech Republic. This chemical plant
John Gulliver, David Briggs, and Kees de Hoogh
Exposure Assessment in Environmental Epidemiology
dispersion of air pollution
; slope angle may constrain the spread of pollution in the soil; in networks, such as rivers or drinking water supply systems, pollutants will be channelled along specific and complex pathways; in other systems, such as the food supply chain, distance is likely to be an extremely poor proxy for dispersion. Because they are inherently nonspecific (they do not relate to a particular pollutant nor exposure pathway), they can also be difficult to interpret. They might suggest that people living in certain areas suffer increased health risks
, but they
Addressing Specific Environmental Challenges in an Economically Sustainable Way
David Banister and James Woodcock
Ensuring a Sustainable Future: Making Progress on Environment and Equity
Transport-Related Air Pollution
(Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2005 ).
20 . The DALY (disability adjusted life year) is a measure of disease burden that combines years of life lost through premature mortality with years of healthy life lost through living with a disease, injury, or disability.
21 . A. Prüss-Üstün et al., “Lead Exposure,” in Comparative Quantification of Health Risks
, eds. M. Ezzati et al. (Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2004 ), 1295–1352.
22 . A. Cohen et al., “Urban Air Pollution
,” in Comparative
Eva Prescott, Torben Jørgensen, Maja-Lisa Løchen, Jonathan Pearson-Stuttard, and Simon Capewell
a Class of recommendation.
b Level of evidence.
is a good example of a risk factor that can only be addressed at the population level. The global burden of disease study included ambient particulate matter and household air pollution
from solid fuels, which have both been linked to CVD, in its estimates of the global health consequences of air pollution
(see also Chapter Chapter 61.6 Epidemiology of air pollution
and cardiometabolic diseases 61.6 ). Combined, they were responsible for an estimated